Evaluation of the antiparkinsonism and neuroprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide in acute 6-hydroxydopamine-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease: behavioral, histological and biochemical studies. Sarukhani Mohammad,Haghdoost-Yazdi Hashem,Sarbazi Golezari Ali,Babayan-Tazehkand Arvin,Dargahi Tahere,Rastgoo Nafiseh Neurological research INTRODUCTION:Studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (HS), a gaseous neurotransmitter, has neuroprotective effect. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective activity of HS in acute 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS:6-OHDA was injected through stereotaxic surgery into medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of the right hemisphere to induce severe and fast degeneration in dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra (SN). NaHS, as donor of HS, was daily injected at doses of 3 and 5.6 mg/kg for seven days starting a few hours before the surgery. A series of behavioral tests were carried out and then, remaining tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) was determined using immunohistfluresance staining. Striatal dopamine level and oxidative stress markers were also measured in the brain homogenates using immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS:NaHS attenuated apomorphine-induced rotational activity, decreased bias swings in elevated body swing test and increased falling time in rotarod test. Our histological and biochemical data demonstrated that NaHS treatment increases the survival of TH-positive neurons in SNc and also reduces the decreasing effect of 6-OHDA on striatal dopamine level. NaHS also reduced 6-OHDA-induced malondialdehyde overproduction but had no effect on the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. CONCLUSION:Our results show that HS produces significant antiparkinsonism and neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. Since injection of 6-OHDA into MFB produces severe lesion in SN dopaminergic neurons similar to this lesion in the onset of PD in human being, our data recommend HS as potential therapeutic target for treatment of this disease. 10.1080/01616412.2017.1390903
    Neuroprotective properties of curcumin in toxin-base animal models of Parkinson's disease: a systematic experiment literatures review. Wang Xin-Shi,Zhang Zeng-Rui,Zhang Man-Man,Sun Miao-Xuan,Wang Wen-Wen,Xie Cheng-Long BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, is widely used in Southeast Asia, China and India in food preparation and for medicinal purposes. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective actions of curcumin have been documented for experimental therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS:In this study, we used a systematic review to comprehensively assess the efficacy of curcumin in experimental PD. Using electronic and manual search for the literatures, we identified studies describing the efficacy of curcumin in animal models of PD. RESULTS:We identified 13 studies with a total of 298 animals describing the efficacy of curcumin in animal models of PD. The methodological quality of all preclinical trials is ranged from 2 to 5. The majority of the experiment studies demonstrated that curcumin was more significantly neuroprotection effective than control groups for treating PD. Among them, five studies indicated that curcumin had an anti-inflammatory effect in the PD animal models (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, four studies showed the antioxidant capability of curcumin, by which it protected substantia nigra neurons and improved striatal dopamine levels. Furthermore, two studies in this review displayed that curcumin treatment was also effective in reducing neuronal apoptosis and improving functional outcome in animal models of PD. Most of the preclinical studies demonstrated the positive findings while one study reported that curcumin had no beneficial effects against Mn-induced disruption of hippocampal metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrated a marked efficacy of curcumin in experimental model of PD, suggesting curcumin probably a candidate neuroprotective drug for human PD patients. 10.1186/s12906-017-1922-x
    Neurocytoprotective effects of the bioactive constituents of Pueraria thomsonii in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. Lin Chien-Min,Lin Rong-Dih,Chen Shui-Tein,Lin Yi-Pei,Chiu Wen-Ta,Lin Jia-Wei,Hsu Feng-Lin,Lee Mei-Hsien Phytochemistry Chronic neurodegenerative disorders are having an increasing impact on public health as human longevity increases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is characterized by motor system disorders resulting in loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae) is an herbal medicine that has traditionally been used as an antipyretic agent. In the present study, the active constituents, daidzein and genistein, were isolated from P. thomsonii. Both compounds exhibited neurocytoprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. Neither daidzein nor genistein affected 6-OHDA-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation according to flow cytometric analysis. Rather, they inhibited caspase-8 and partially inhibited caspase-3 activation, providing a protective mechanism against 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. The present results imply that daidzein and genistein may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of PD. 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.08.015
    Quercetin and sesamin protect dopaminergic cells from MPP+-induced neuroinflammation in a microglial (N9)-neuronal (PC12) coculture system. Bournival Julie,Plouffe Marilyn,Renaud Justine,Provencher Cindy,Martinoli Maria-Grazia Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity A growing body of evidence indicates that the majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases are associated with microglia activation with resultant elevation of various inflammatory mediators and neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 natural molecules, quercetin and sesamin, on neuroinflammation induced by the Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in a glial-neuronal system. We first established that quercetin and sesamin defend microglial cells against MPP(+)-induced increases in the mRNA or protein levels of 3 pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), as revealed by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, respectively. Quercetin and sesamin also decrease MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress in microglial cells by reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as mitochondrial superoxide radicals. We then measured neuronal cell death and apoptosis after MPP(+) activation of microglia, in a microglial (N9)-neuronal (PC12) coculture system. Our results revealed that quercetin and sesamin rescued neuronal PC12 cells from apoptotic death induced by MPP(+) activation of microglial cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the phytoestrogen quercetin and the lignan sesamin diminish MPP(+)-evoked microglial activation and suggest that both these molecules may be regarded as potent, natural, anti-inflammatory compounds. 10.1155/2012/921941
    Pharmacokinetic profiles of the five isoflavonoids from Pueraria lobata roots in the CSF and plasma of rats. Xiao Bing-Xin,Feng Li,Cao Fang-Rui,Pan Rui-Le,Liao Yong-Hong,Liu Xin-Min,Chang Qi Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Traditional Chinese medicine Radix Puerariae, the roots of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi., has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China for centuries. Isoflavonoids are believed the active components of this herb. AIM OF THIS STUDY:The present study aims to investigate the brain penetration and pharmacokinetics of five active isoflavonoids in the ventricular CSF and plasma of rats after intravenous administration of a Pueraria isoflavonoids (PIF) extract, to better understand the active components of this herb for neuro-activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Under anesthesia condition, SD rats (n=6) were successively suffered two surgeries for implanting cannulas at lateral ventricle and right jugular vein for brain microdialysis and blood collection, respectively. After recovery, the rats received intravenous dose of PIF at 80mg/kg and the concentrations of puerarin (PU), 3'-methoxypuerarin (MPU), 3'-hydroxypuerarin (HPU), daidzein (DA) and daidzein-8-C-apiosyl-(1-6)-glycoside (DAC) in the ventricular dialysate and plasma samples were determined using a ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. RESULTS:Complete concentration versus time profiles of the five components in plasma and four components except for HPU in ventricular CSF were obtained. After dosing, the average C0 values of PU, MPU, DA, DAC and HPU in plasma were estimated 6.53, 13.72, 1.54, 15.84 and 86.07µg/mL, and PU, MPU, DA and DAC were rapidly penetrated to the brain and reached to their Cmax of 521.52, 415.00, 74.34 and 380.03ng/mL in CSF at about 0.5-0.8h, respectively. The elimination t1/2 of PU, DA and DAC in CSF and plasma were no significant difference, while the t1/2 of MPU in ventricular CSF was longer than that in plasma which may attributable to the different physiological environment of central and peripheral compartments. The brain penetration index (AUCCSF/AUCplasma) was found to be about 9.29, 7.25, 11.96, and 4.21% for PU, MPU, DA, and DAC respectively. CONCLUSION:PU, MPU, DA, DAC can quickly penetrate to the brain through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and might be responsible for the neuro-pharmacological activities of P. lobata. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.027
    Myricetin attenuates neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in Parkinsonism. Dhanraj Vijayraja,Karuppaiah Jeyaprakash,Balakrishnan Rengasamy,Elangovan Namasivayam Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to dopaminergic neuron degeneration. It mostly affects the aged population, leads to memory decline and loss of motor coordination. The present study investigates the neuroprotective role of myricetin a flavonol isolated from the brown seaweed in rotenone induced model of PD. Rotenone administration led to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, dopamine depletion, impaired muscular coordination, gait disturbances, memory decline oxidative stress and apoptosis.  Ingestion of myricetin by significantly prevented rotenone induced neuronal degeneration. These results confirm that myricetin exerts neuroprotective effect in experimental PD.
    GPR30 Activation Contributes to the Puerarin-Mediated Neuroprotection in MPP-Induced SH-SY5Y Cell Death. Cheng Yue-Fa,Zhu Guoqi,Wu Qing-Wen,Xie Yue-Sheng,Jiang Yan,Guo Lan,Guan Ya-Li,Liu Ying-Shuo,Zhang Jun Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN The neuroprotective action of puerarin in Parkinson's disease (PD) models has been well investigated. However, the mechanisms involved in protection have not been completely understood. G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor and considered a potential target in the neuroprotection against PD. In this study, we investigated whether puerarin prevented against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP)-induced cell death via GPR30. Our results showed that the GPR30 agonist, G1, exhibited puerarin-mediated neuroprotection against MPP-induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells. This protective action was reversed by the GPR30 antagonist. Moreover, a time- and concentration-dependent effect of puerarin on GPR30 expression was verified at the protein level but not at the mRNA level. Further, we showed that an mTor-dependent new GPR30 synthesis contributed to the protection conferred by puerarin. Finally, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels were enhanced by puerarin and G1 in both control and MPP-lesioned cells via GPR30. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that puerarin prevents MPP-induced cell death via facilitating GPR30 expression and GDNF release. 10.1007/s12031-016-0856-y
    Prophylactic neuroprotective propensity of Crocin, a carotenoid against rotenone induced neurotoxicity in mice: behavioural and biochemical evidence. Rao Sriranjini Venkata,Hemalatha P,Yetish S,Muralidhara M,Rajini Padmanabhan S Metabolic brain disease Previously we have demonstrated the potential neuroprotective propensity of saffron and Crocin (CR) employing a Drosophila model of Parkinsonism. Rotenone (ROT) has been extensively used as a model neurotoxin to induce Parkinson's disease (PD) like symptoms in mice. In the present study, as a proof of concept we evaluated the efficacy of CR prophylaxis (25 mg/ kg bw/d, 7d) to attenuate ROT(0.5 mg/Kg bw/d,7d) -induced neurotoxic effects in male mice focussing on neurobehavioural assessments and biochemical determinants in the striatum. CR prophylaxis significantly alleviated ROT-induced behavioural alterations such as increased anxiety, diminished exploratory behaviour, decreased motor co-ordination, and grip strength. Concomitantly, we evidenced diminution of oxidative stress markers, enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and mitochondrial enzyme function in the striatal region. Further, varying degree of restoration of cholinergic function, dopamine and α-synuclein levels were discernible suggesting the possible mechanism/s of action of CR in this model. Based on our earlier data in flies and in worm model, we propose its use as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. 10.1007/s11011-019-00451-y
    Ameliorative Effect of Quercetin on Neurochemical and Behavioral Deficits in Rotenone Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease: Modulating Autophagy (Quercetin on Experimental Parkinson's Disease). El-Horany Hemat E,El-Latif Rania N Abd,ElBatsh Maha M,Emam Marwa N Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology Autophagy is necessary for neuronal homeostasis and its dysfunction has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) as it can exacerbate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis. Quercetin is a flavonoid known for its neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the protective, autophagy-modulating effects of quercetin in the rotenone rat model of PD. Rotenone was intraperitoneally injected at dose of 2 ml/kg/day for 4 weeks. Simultaneous intraperitoneal injection of quercetin was given at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day also for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioral changes were studied. Oxidative/antioxidant status, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Beclin-1, and dopamine levels were assessed. DNA fragmentation and histopathological changes were evaluated. This research work revealed that quercetin significantly attenuated rotenone-induced behavioral impairment, augmented autophagy, ameliorated ER stress- induced apoptosis with attenuated oxidative stress. From the current study, quercetin can act as an autophagy enhancer in PD rat model and modulates the microenvironment that leads to neuronal death. 10.1002/jbt.21821
    Protective effects of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone, a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Ko Yong-Hyun,Kwon Seung-Hwan,Kim Seon-Kyung,Lee Bo-Ram,Hur Kwang-Hyun,Kim Young-Jung,Kim Seong-Eon,Lee Seok-Yong,Jang Choon-Gon Archives of pharmacal research Daidzein, one of the important isoflavones, is extensively metabolized in the human body following consumption. In particular, 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, has been the focus of recent investigations due to its various health benefits, such as anti-cancer and anti-obesity effects. However, the protective effects of 6,7,4'-THIF have not yet been studied in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the protective activity of 6,7,4'-THIF on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with 6,7,4'-THIF significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, lactate dehydrogenase release, and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, 6,7,4'-THIF significantly attenuated reductions in 6-OHDA-induced superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content. Moreover, 6,7,4'-THIF attenuated alterations in Bax and Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, 6,7,4'-THIF significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Additionally, 6,7,4'-THIF effectively prevented 6-OHDA-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. Taken together, these results suggest that 6,7,4'-THIF, a major metabolite of daidzein, may be an attractive option for treating and/or preventing neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. 10.1007/s12272-019-01191-4
    Baicalein inhibits α-synuclein oligomer formation and prevents progression of α-synuclein accumulation in a rotenone mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Hu Qi,Uversky Vladimir N,Huang Mengyang,Kang Huicong,Xu Feng,Liu Xiaoyan,Lian Lifei,Liang Qiming,Jiang Hong,Liu Anding,Zhang Cuntai,Pan-Montojo Francisco,Zhu Suiqiang Biochimica et biophysica acta Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. α-Synuclein (α-syn) oligomers play a critical role in the progression of PD. Baicalein, a typical flavonoid compound, can inhibit the formation of the α-syn oligomers, and disaggregate existing α-syn oligomers in vitro. However, whether baicalein could inhibit or disaggregate α-syn oligomers in vivo has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of baicalein on α-syn oligomers in vivo and to explore the possible mechanisms of such inhibition. A chronic PD mouse model was created by continuous intragastric administration of rotenone (5mg/kg, 12weeks). Baicalein (100mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected from 7week to 12week. Our result showed that the amount of α-syn, changes in the levels of the striatal neurotransmitters, and the behavioral changes found in the chronic PD mouse model were prevented after the baicalein injections. Although baicalein did not decrease α-syn mRNA expression, α-syn oligomers were significantly decreased in the ileum, thoracic spinal cord, and midbrain. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that baicalein could prevent α-syn monomers from the oligomer formation in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalein could prevent the progression of α-syn accumulation in PD mouse model partly by inhibiting formation of the α-syn oligomers. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.07.008
    Neuroprotective Effects of a Standardized Flavonoid Extract from Safflower against a Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. Ablat Nuramatjan,Lv Deyong,Ren Rutong,Xiaokaiti Yilixiati,Ma Xiang,Zhao Xin,Sun Yi,Lei Hui,Xu Jiamin,Ma Yingcong,Qi Xianrong,Ye Min,Xu Feng,Han Hongbin,Pu Xiaoping Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc). Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is routinely used to model PD to aid in understanding the mechanisms of neuronal death. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. L.) has long been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China. This plant contains flavonoids, which have been reported to be effective in models of neurodegenerative disease. We previously reported that kaempferol derivatives from safflower could bind DJ-1, a protein associated with PD, and that a flavonoid extract from safflower exhibited neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of PD. In this study, a standardized safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE) was isolated from safflower and found to primarily contain flavonoids. The aim of the current study was to confirm the neuroprotective effects of SAFE in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. The results showed that SAFE treatment increased body weight and improved rearing behavior and grip strength. SAFE (35 or 70 mg/kg/day) treatment reversed the decreased protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter and DJ-1 and increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolite. In contrast, acetylcholine levels were decreased. SAFE treatment also led to partial inhibition of PD-associated changes in extracellular space diffusion parameters. These changes were detected using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tracer-based method, which provides novel information regarding neuronal loss and astrocyte activation. Thus, our results indicate that SAFE represents a potential therapeutic herbal treatment for PD. 10.3390/molecules21091107
    Effect of Genistein on the Transgenic Model of Parkinson's Disease. Siddique Yasir Hasan,Naz Falaq,Jyoti Smita,Ali Fahad,Rahul Journal of dietary supplements Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress has also been linked with the progression of PD, hence the involvement of a natural plant product could offer neuroprotection. The present study deals with the effect of genistein on the transgenic flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein panneurally. The PD flies were exposed to 10, 20, 30, and 40 µM of genistein (mixed in diet) for 24 days. A significant dose-dependent increase in the life span and delay in the loss of climbing ability were observed in the PD flies exposed to genistein ( < .05). A significant dose-dependent decrease in oxidative stress markers and increase in dopamine content were observed in PD flies exposed to genistein. However, the exposure of genistein did not inhibit the expression of α-synuclein in the brains of PD flies. 10.1080/19390211.2018.1472706
    Protective role of apigenin on rotenone induced rat model of Parkinson's disease: Suppression of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress mediated apoptosis. Anusha Chandran,Sumathi Thangarajan,Joseph Leena Dennis Chemico-biological interactions Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra which is associated with oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Apigenin (AGN), a non-mutagenic flavone found in fruits and vegetables, exhibits a variety of biological effects including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and free radical scavenging activities. The current study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of AGN in a rat model of PD induced by rotenone (ROT). Unilateral stereotaxic intranigral infusion of ROT caused the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in striatum and substantia nigra. AGN treatment (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant improvement in behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial enzyme activities as compared to ROT exposed rats. The mRNA expression of inflammatory markers and neurotrophic factors was quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Administration of AGN significantly attenuated the upregulation of NF-κB gene expression in ROT induced group and prevented the neuroinflammation in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Further, AGN inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α, IL-6 and pro-inflammatory enzyme iNOS-1 induced by ROT. Additionally, AGN prevents the reduction of neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF mRNA expression in ROT lesioned rats. Immunoblot results illustrated that AGN treatment downregulated α-synuclein aggregation and upregulated the TH protein expression as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in ROT lesioned rats. Thus, the present findings collectively suggest that AGN exerts its neuroprotection in ROT model of PD and may act as an effective agent for treatment of PD. 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.03.016
    [Neuroprotective effect of baicalein in patients with Parkinson's disease]. Yu Xin,He Guorong,Du Guanhua Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Baicalein, a flavonoid compound extracted from dried roots of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis, has been widely applied as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. With continuous studies on its mechanisms, recent findings suggest that baicalein has some effect on neuroprotection and improvement of clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies showed that its neuroprotective efficacy is closely related to such functions as antiinflammatory, antioxidative stress, protecting chondriosome, inhibiting glutamate neurotoxicity, promoting nerve growth and inhibiting alpha-synuclein protein-aggregate activities. The aim of this article is to summarize the neuroprotective effects of baicalein in Parkinson's disease.
    Protective effects of baicalein against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and isolated rat brain mitochondria. Li Xiao-xiu,He Guo-rong,Mu Xin,Xu Bei,Tian Shuo,Yu Xin,Meng Fan-rui,Xuan Zhao-hong,Du Guan-hua European journal of pharmacology Baicalein is one of the major flavonoids obtained from the Scutellaria root. Previous pharmacological studies found that baicalein had neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this paper was to explore the molecular mechanism of the action of baicalein on PC12 cells and isolated rat brain mitochondria. Firstly, we investigated the effects of baicalein on rotenone-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed that baicalein suppressed rotenone-induced apoptosis, and inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxidant species, ATP deficiency, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, and caspase-3/7 activation in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that baicalein likely improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, we used isolated rat brain mitochondria to evaluate the effect of baicalein. Treatment with baicalein prevented rotenone-induced reactive oxidant species production, ATP deficiency and mitochondrial swelling in isolated brain mitochondria. Interestingly, exposure of isolated mitochondria to baicalein promoted mitochondrial active respiration. These results suggest that baicalein may be a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and exerts neuroprotective effects on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. This study supports our previous research that baicalein possesses neuroprotective activity in vivo and it is worthy of further study. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.09.181
    Baicalein exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects to protect against rotenone-induced brain injury in rats. Zhang Xue,Yang Yulin,Du Lida,Zhang Wen,Du Guanhua International immunopharmacology Baicalein, a major bioactive flavone constituent isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to be neuroprotective in several Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models. Since neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, potential explanation for the neuroprotective action of anti-PD compounds involves among others reduced inflammation. Our study investigated that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by baicalein in rotenone-induced parkinsonian rats was associated with anti-inflammatory action and explored its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that baicalein treatment improved motor impairments, attenuated brain damage, suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)), modulated the astrocytes and microglia activation, and blocked the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals in rotenone-induced rats of PD. Furthermore, treatment of baicalein prominently suppressed the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein by blocking LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation, and downregulated the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which functions in the upstream of NF-κB signal in the activated BV microglia. In conclusion, our studies suggest that baicalein may be effective in the treatment of PD through anti-neuroinflammation. 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.06.007
    Therapeutic effects of baicalein on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease through protecting mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Zhang Xue,Du Lida,Zhang Wen,Yang Yulin,Zhou Qimeng,Du Guanhua Scientific reports Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) for several decades, and disturbed mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) was recently found to be a common phenomenon in PD. Baicalein, a major bioactive flavone of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, exerted neuroprotective effects in several experimental PD models. However, the effects of baicalein in rotenone-induced PD rats and the possible mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of baicalein and explored its mechanism of action in rotenone-induced PD models. The results indicated that behavioural impairments and the depletion of dopaminergic neurons induced by rotenone were attenuated by baicalein. Furthermore, in rotenone-induced parkinsonian rats, baicalein treatment effectively restored mitochondrial function and improved mitobiogenesis, as determined by measuring the mitochondrial density and key regulators involved in mitobiogenesis. Additionally, we confirmed that baicalein enhanced mitobiogenesis through the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) pathways in rotenone-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that the cytoprotective effects of baicalein could be attenuated by the mitobiogenesis inhibitor chloramphenicol as well as CREB siRNA transfection. Overall, our results suggested that baicalein partially enhanced mitobiogenesis to restore mitochondrial function, thus exerting therapeutic effects in rotenone-induced PD models. 10.1038/s41598-017-07442-y
    Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids Against Parkinson's Disease. Jung Un Ju,Kim Sang Ryong Journal of medicinal food Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and decreases in striatal dopamine levels. These changes led to several clinical symptoms: rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Although the cause of PD remains unclear, it is widely accepted that oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insufficient support of neurotrophic factors are involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, novel regimens to prevent neurodegeneration and restore the degenerated nigrostriatal DA system are still required. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in naturally occurring phytochemicals, which are believed to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. This review provides an overview of the scientific literature concerning the preventive and protective roles of flavonoids, one of the largest families of phytochemicals, against PD. In addition to providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, flavonoids exhibit a neuroprotective effect by activating antiapoptotic pathways that target mitochondrial dysfunction and induce neurotrophic factors. This review suggests that flavonoids may be promising natural products for the prevention of PD and could potentially be utilized as therapeutic compounds against PD, even though there was no report showing that the treatment with flavonoids could restore the aberrant phenotypes of patients with PD. 10.1089/jmf.2017.4078
    Genistein protects dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting microglial activation. Wang Xijin,Chen Shengdi,Ma Guozhao,Ye Min,Lu Guoqiang Neuroreport Inflammation participates in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease, in which microglia play a key role. Inhibition of microglia activation has been shown to attenuate inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In this study, we found that genistein, the primary soybean isoflavone, concentration-dependently attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in dopamine uptake and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures. Genistein also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide and superoxide in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and microglia-enriched cultures. Our results indicate that genistein may protect dopaminergic neurons from lipopolysaccharide-induced injury and its effective inhibition of microglia activation may be one of the mechanisms. 10.1097/00001756-200502280-00013
    Neuroprotective effects of genistein on dopaminergic neurons in the mice model of Parkinson's disease. Liu Li-Xing,Chen Wen-Fang,Xie Jun-Xia,Wong Man-Sau Neuroscience research Emerging evidence suggests beneficial effects of estrogen and estrogen-like chemicals on neurodegenerative diseases, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). Genistein, an isoflavone naturally found in soy products, displays estrogenic properties. The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of genistein on dopaminergic neurons in ovariectomized (OVX), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model mice. MPTP significantly decreased the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum, which could be restored by genistein or estrogen pretreatment. MPTP-challenge with genistein or estrogen pretreatment demonstrated reduced neurotoxicity, with tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) affected to a significantly lesser extent as compared to the MPTP treated control. The reverse transcription-PCR results also confirmed that the MPTP-induced downregulation of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT) and Bcl-2 mRNA expression in the midbrain could be restored by genistein or estrogen pretreatment. These findings provide the first evidence that genistein has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP-induced PD mice and this effect may be attributed to enhancing Bcl-2 gene expression. 10.1016/j.neures.2007.10.005
    Biochanin A protects dopaminergic neurons against lipopolysaccharide-induced damage and oxidative stress in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Wang Jun,He Can,Wu Wang-Yang,Chen Feng,Wu Yang-Yang,Li Wei-Zu,Chen Han-Qing,Yin Yan-Yan Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Accumulated evidences have suggested that oxidative stress is closely associated with the dopaminergic neurodegeneration of PD that can be protected by antioxidants. Biochanin A that is an O-methylated isoflavone in chickpea is investigated to explore its protective mechanism on dopaminergic neurons of the unilateral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected rat. The results showed that biochanin A significantly improved the animal model's behavioral symptoms, prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited the deleterious microglia activation in the LPS-induced rats. Moreover, biochanin A inhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) activation and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the rat brain. These results suggested that biochanin A might be a natural candidate with protective properties on dopaminergic neurons against the PD. 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.09.013
    Catalytic and inhibitor binding properties of zebrafish monoamine oxidase (zMAO): comparisons with human MAO A and MAO B. Aldeco Milagros,Arslan Betül Kacar,Edmondson Dale E Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology A comparative investigation of substrate specificity and inhibitor binding properties of recombinant zebrafish (Danio rerio) monoamine oxidase (zMAO) with those of recombinant human monoamine oxidases A and B (hMAO A and hMAO B) is presented. zMAO oxidizes the neurotransmitter amines (serotonin, dopamine and tyramine) with k(cat) values that exceed those of hMAO A or of hMAO B. The enzyme is competitively inhibited by hMAO A selective reversible inhibitors with the exception of d-amphetamine where uncompetitive inhibition is exhibited. The enzyme is unreactive with most MAO B-specific reversible inhibitors with the exception of chlorostyrylcaffeine. zMAO catalyzes the oxidation of para-substituted benzylamine analogs exhibiting (D)k(cat) and (D)(k(cat)/K(m)) values ranging from 2 to 8. Structure-activity correlations show a dependence of log k(cat) with the electronic factor σ(p) with a ρ value of +1.55±0.34; a value close to that for hMAO A but not with MAO B. zMAO differs from hMAO A or hMAO B in benzylamine analog binding correlations where an electronic effect (ρ=+1.29±0.31) is observed. These data demonstrate zMAO exhibits functional properties similar to hMAO A as well as exhibits its own unique behavior. These results should be useful for studies of MAO function in zebrafish models of human disease states. 10.1016/j.cbpb.2011.02.002
    Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effects of Bavachinin and Bavachin on Human Monoamine Oxidases A and B. Zarmouh Najla O,Mazzio Elizabeth A,Elshami Faisel M,Messeha Samia S,Eyunni Suresh V K,Soliman Karam F A Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors (MAO-BIs) are used in the early management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Long-term suspected side effects of MAO-B classical inhibitors established the need for safer alternative therapeutic agents. In our study, the flavanone bavachinin (BNN) and its analog bavachin (BVN) found in the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. ethanolic extract (PCSEE) were investigated for their human MAO-A and MAO-B (hMAO-A and hMAO-B) inhibition. Both PCSEE and BNN effectively reduced hMAO-B activity more than hMAO-A while BVN had activating effects. BNN showed selective hMAO-B inhibition (IC50 ~ 8.82 μM) more than hMAO-A (IC502009;~ 189.28 μM). BNN in the crude extract was determined by HPLC, also validated by TLC showing a yield of 0.21% PCSEE dry weight. BNN competitively inhibited hMAO-A and hMAO-B, with a lower hMAO-B K i than hMAO-A K i by 10.33-fold, and reduced hMAO-B K m /V max efficiency ratio to be comparable to the standard selegiline. Molecular docking examination of BNN and BVN predicted an indirect role of BNN C7-methoxy group for its higher affinity, selectivity, and reversibility as an MAO-BI. These findings suggest that BNN, which is known to be a potent PPAR-γ agonist, is a selective and competitive hMAO-B inhibitor and could be used in the management of PD. 10.1155/2015/852194
    The Benzopyrone Biochanin-A as a reversible, competitive, and selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. Zarmouh Najla O,Eyunni Suresh K,Soliman Karam F A BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. They increase vital monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain. However, there is a need for safer natural reversible MAO inhibitors with MAO-B selectivity. Our previous studies showed that Psoralea corylifolia seeds (PCS) extract contains compounds that inhibit monoamine oxidase-B. METHODS:In this study, six of PCS constituents sharing a benzopyrone structure were investigated. The compounds Biochanin-A (BIO-A), isopsoralen, 6-prenylnaringenin, neobavaisoflavone, psoralen, and psoralidin, were tested for their ability to inhibit recombinant human MAO-A and B (hMAO-A and hMAO-B) isozymes. The ability of these compounds to inhibit MAO-A and MAO-B were compared to that of PCS ethanolic extract (PCSEE) using spectrophotometric assays and confirmed by luminescence assays. The highly potent and selective MAO-B inhibitor, BIO-A, was further investigated for both isozymes reversibility and enzyme kinetics. Molecular docking studies were used to predict the bioactive conformation and molecular interactions of BIO-A with both isozymes. RESULTS:The data obtained indicate that benzopyrones inhibited hMAO-A and hMAO-B with different degrees as confirmed with the luminescence assay. BIO-A inhibited hMAO-B with high potency and selectivity in the present study (IC = 0.003 μg/mL) and showing 38-fold more selectivity than PCSEE (hMAO-B IC = 3.03 μg/mL, 17-fold selectivity) without affecting hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, BIO-A reversibly and competitively inhibited both hMAOs with significantly lower inhibitory constant (K) in hMAO-B (3.8 nM) than hMAO-A (99.3 nM). Our docking studies indicated that the H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions at the human MAO-A and MAO-B active sites contributed to the reversibility and selectivity of BIO-A. CONCLUSIONS:The data obtained indicate that BIO-A is a potent, reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitor and may be recommended for further investigation in its possible use in the therapeutic management of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. 10.1186/s12906-016-1525-y
    Evaluation of the Isoflavone Genistein as Reversible Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and -B Inhibitor. Zarmouh Najla O,Messeha Samia S,Elshami Faisel M,Soliman Karam F A Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Monoamine oxidases inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective therapeutic drugs for managing Parkinson's disease (PD) and depression. However, their irreversibility may lead to rare but serious side effects. As finding safer and reversible MAOIs is our target, we characterized the recombinant human (h) MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition potentials of two common natural isoflavones, genistein (GST) and daidzein (DZ) using luminescence assay. The results obtained showed that DZ exhibits partial to no inhibition of the isozymes examined while GST inhibited hMAO-B (IC50 of 6.81 μM), and its hMAO-A inhibition was more potent than the standard deprenyl. Furthermore, the reversibility, mode of inhibition kinetics, and tyramine oxidation of GST were examined. GST was a time-independent reversible and competitive hMAO-A and hMAO-B inhibitor with a lower K i of hMAO-B (1.45 μM) than hMAO-A (4.31 μM). GST also inhibited hMAO-B tyramine oxidation and hydrogen peroxide production more than hMAO-A. Docking studies conducted indicated that the GST reversibility and hMAO-B selectivity of inhibition may relate to C5-OH effects on its orientation and its interactions with the threonine 201 residue of the active site. It was concluded from this study that the natural product GST has competitive and reversible MAOs inhibitions and may be recommended for further investigations as a useful therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease. 10.1155/2016/1423052
    Biochanin A Protects Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Damage of Dopaminergic Neurons Both In Vivo and In Vitro via Inhibition of Microglial Activation. Wang Jun,Wu Wang-Yang,Huang Huan,Li Wei-Zu,Chen Han-Qing,Yin Yan-Yan Neurotoxicity research Neuroinflammation has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might be a potential strategy for PD treatment. Biochanin A, is an O-methylated isoflavone, classified as a kind of phytoestrogens due to its chemical structure that is similar to mammalian estrogens. It has been found to possess antifibrotic, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of biochanin A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic neurons damage both in vivo and in vitro and the related molecular mechanisms. The results showed that biochanin A treatment for 21 days significantly attenuated the behavioral dysfunction of PD rats, prevented dopaminergic neurons damage, and inhibited activation of microglia in the LPS-induced PD rats. Furthermore, biochanin A decreased the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum, and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38 in the substantia nigra of PD rats. In vitro test, biochanin A also inhibited primary microglial activation and protected dopaminergic neurons, decreased the content of nitric oxide, IL-1β, and TNF-α in supernatants, and inhibited the reactive oxygen species production. Taken together, these results suggest that biochanin A exerts protective effects on LPS-induced PD rats, and the mechanisms may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response and the MAPK signaling pathway. 10.1007/s12640-016-9648-y
    Biochanin A: A novel bioactive multifunctional compound from nature. Sarfraz Ayesha,Javeed Maria,Shah Muhammad Ajmal,Hussain Ghulam,Shafiq Nusrat,Sarfraz Iqra,Riaz Ammara,Sadiqa Ayesha,Zara Rabia,Zafar Saba,Kanwal Lubna,Sarker Satyajit D,Rasul Azhar The Science of the total environment Natural products (NPs) will continue to serve humans as matchless source of novel drug leads and an inspiration for the synthesis of non-natural drugs. As our scientific understanding of 'nature' is rapidly expanding, it would be worthwhile to illuminate the pharmacological distinctions of NPs to the scientific community and the public. Flavonoids have long fascinated scientists with their remarkable structural diversity as well as biological functions. Consequently, this review aims to shed light on the sources and pharmacological significance of a dietary isoflavone, biochanin A, which has been recently emerged as a multitargeted and multifunctional guardian of human health. Biochanin A possesses anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial, and hepatoprotective properties. It combats cancer development by inducing apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis and arresting cell cycle via targeting several deregulated signaling pathways of cancer. It fights inflammation by blocking the expression and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of NF-κB and MAPKs. Biochanin A acts as a neuroprotective agent by inhibiting microglial activation and apoptosis of neurons. As biochanin A has potential to modulate several biological networks, thus, it can be anticipated that this therapeutically potent compound might serve as a novel lead for drug development in the near future. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137907
    Anti-inflammatory role of the isoflavone diadzein in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia: implications for Parkinson's disease. Chinta Shankar J,Ganesan Abirami,Reis-Rodrigues Pedro,Lithgow Gordon J,Andersen Julie K Neurotoxicity research Microglial activation and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are believed to play an important role in neuronal cell death associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Compounds that inhibit microglia activation and suppress pro-inflammatory factor release have been reported to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. In this study, we tested whether diadzein, a natural isoflavone found in soybean, attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory mediators in BV-2, a murine microglial cell line. Diadzein pretreatment was found to significantly suppress the production of the pro-inflammatory factors nitric oxide and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in conjunction with reductions in ROS production, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, transfer of conditioned media (CM) from BV-2 cells pretreated with diadzein resulted in a significantly reduction in dopaminergic neurotoxicity compared with CM from microglia stimulated with LPS alone. Together, our results suggest that diadzein's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation and the subsequent release of soluble pro-inflammatory factors. This appears to be via inhibition of oxidative induction of the p38 MAP kinase-NFκB pathway, resulting in reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes and release of their corresponding gene products. 10.1007/s12640-012-9328-5
    Biochanin A attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses and inhibits the activation of the MAPK pathway in BV2 microglial cells. Wu Wang-Yang,Wu Yang-Yang,Huang Huan,He Can,Li Wei-Zu,Wang Hui-Li,Chen Han-Qing,Yin Yan-Yan International journal of molecular medicine Inflammation in the brain, characterized by the activation of microglia, is believed to participate in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Biochanin A, an O-methylated isoflavone, is a natural organic compound and is classified as a phytoestrogen. In this study, using murine BV2 microglial cells, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of biochanin A and the possible mechanisms involved. BV2 microglial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce pro-inflammatory responses and the cells were then treated with biochanin A. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was examined using Griess reagent and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production) was measured by DCFH-DA assay. The mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38 and iNOS was measured by western blot analysis. In addition, the protein and mRNA and phosphorylation levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by western blot analysis and RT-PCR, respectively. The results revealed that biochanin A attenuated LPS-induced microglial activation and the production of TNF‑α, IL-1β, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Biochanin A significantly decreased the LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β, and inhibited iNOS mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, biochanin A significantly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effects of biochanin A on LPS-induced proinflammatory responses may be associated with the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in BV2 microglial cells. 10.3892/ijmm.2014.2020
    Puerarin protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis and upregulating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Zhu Guoqi,Wang Xuncui,Chen Yuefa,Yang Shu,Cheng Hui,Wang Ning,Li Qinglin Planta medica Neurodegeneration is one of the primary etiologies in the onset of Parkinson's disease. In the quest for a new antiparkinsonism treatment the potential benefits of puerarin from the roots of Pueraria lobata have been recognized. Thus, we examined whether puerarin is capable to protect dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra against 6-hydroxydopamine induced neuronal cell death. Our data showed that the intraperitoneal administration of 0.12 mg/kg/day puerarin over 10 days reduced the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell counts. Analysis of apoptosis via DNA fragmentation by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay proved that puerarin could prevent 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis. As an additional apoptotic cell death marker, the BAX and BCL-2 expression levels were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Whereas 6-hydroxydopamine increased the level of Bax (p < 0.05), the coadministrated puerarin significantly antagonized this effect in a dose-dependent manner. Bcl-2 expression was not affected. Analysis of the dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and L-dihydroxy-phenyl-alanine contents of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated animals by HPLC revealed that puerarin was capable to restore the contents of dopamine and its metabolites. Moreover, the expression level of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum was higher in puerarin than in rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine alone. These results suggest that puerarin develops its neuroprotective effect against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra through the inhibition of apoptotic signaling pathways and upregulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the striatum. 10.1055/s-0030-1249976
    Puerarin prevents inflammation and apoptosis in the neurocytes of a murine Parkinson's disease model. Jiang M,Yun Q,Niu G,Gao Y,Shi F,Yu S Genetics and molecular research : GMR The aim of this study was to investigate Parkinson's disease (PD) using a murine model of PD. Specifically, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which puerarin prevents inflammation and apoptosis in neurocytes. Eighty healthy male C57/BL6 mice were randomly selected and divided into four groups (N = 20 each): control group; PD group; PD+puerarin group; and puerarin group. At the end of the treatment period, the animals' brains were removed after perfusion and decollation. The protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the murine brains were assessed by immunohistochemistry and the protein expression levels of TH, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cleaved Caspase-3, and Bax in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of the animals were assessed by western blotting. The spontaneous activity of the PD mice was found to be significantly higher after puerarin treatment and the distance traveled by mice in an open field assessment was 1700 cm further in puerarin-treated PD mice than in PD mice. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses indicated that the expression of TH was significantly higher (2.63-fold) in puerarin-treated PD mice than in untreated PD mice and that the expression of GFAP in PD mice was significantly reduced (~45%) by puerarin treatment. These findings lead us to conclude that puerarin significantly alleviates 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced injury in dopaminergic neurons. Puerarin mediates anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities and plays a neuroprotective role. 10.4238/gmr.15047501
    Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Strategies against Parkinson's Disease: Recent Perspectives. Sarkar Sumit,Raymick James,Imam Syed International journal of molecular sciences Parkinsonism is a progressive motor disease that affects 1.5 million Americans and is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's. Typical neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) include degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra that project to the striatum (nigro-striatal pathway) and depositions of cytoplasmic fibrillary inclusions (Lewy bodies) which contain ubiquitin and α-synuclein. The cardinal motor signs of PD are tremors, rigidity, slow movement (bradykinesia), poor balance, and difficulty in walking (Parkinsonian gait). In addition to motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms that include autonomic and psychiatric as well as cognitive impairments are pressing issues that need to be addressed. Several different mechanisms play an important role in generation of Lewy bodies; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced unfolded proteins, neuroinflammation and eventual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of mid brain in PD. Moreover, these diverse processes that result in PD make modeling of the disease and evaluation of therapeutics against this devastating disease difficult. Here, we will discuss diverse mechanisms that are involved in PD, neuroprotective and therapeutic strategies currently in clinical trial or in preclinical stages, and impart views about strategies that are promising to mitigate PD pathology. 10.3390/ijms17060904
    Neuroprotective effects of total flavonoid fraction of the Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract on dopaminergic neurons: In vivo and in vitro. Wu Lin,Du Zhong-Rui,Xu Ai-Li,Yan Zhen,Xiao Hui-Hui,Wong Man-Sau,Yao Xin-Sheng,Chen Wen-Fang Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Flavonoids, the active components of Epimedii Genus, have been demonstrated to protect against osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total flavonoid (TF) fraction of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on dopaminergic neurons in the cellular and mice models of Parkinson's disease (PD). TF pretreatment could ameliorate the decrease of striatal dopamine (DA) content and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). TF treatment could reverse the changes of Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions in the striatum of PD mice. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP) significantly decreased the cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential in MES23.5 cells. These effects could be reversed by TF treatment. In addition, MPP-induced changes of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA and protein expressions were also reversed by TF pretreatment. These data demonstrated that TF of E. koreanum Nakai could protect against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death in mice and MPP-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic MES23.5 cells. Anti-apoptosis might be involved in this process. 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.04.083
    Potential Benefits of Nobiletin, A Citrus Flavonoid, against Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease. Nakajima Akira,Ohizumi Yasushi International journal of molecular sciences Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, accompanied by neurodegeneration, is the most common form of age-related neurodegenerative disease. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after AD, and is characterized by early prominent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. As currently available treatments are not able to significantly alter the progression of these diseases, successful therapeutic and preventive interventions are strongly needed. In the course of our survey of substances from natural resources having anti-dementia and neuroprotective activity, we found nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin improved cognitive deficits and the pathological features of AD, such as Aβ pathology, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and oxidative stress, in animal models of AD. In addition, nobiletin improved motor and cognitive deficits in PD animal models. These observations suggest that nobiletin has the potential to become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD and PD. 10.3390/ijms20143380
    Calycosin attenuates MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease by suppressing the activation of TLR/NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Yang Jing,Jia Mengmeng,Zhang Xiaojian,Wang Peile Phytotherapy research : PTR Parkinson is the second common neurodegenerative disease. The characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the dopamin neurons loss caused by neuroinflammation responses. C alycosin, an isoflavone phytoestrogen isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, has multiple pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective effects. However, it is unknown whether calycosin can mitigate PD symptoms. This study aims to explore whether calycosin can alleviate PD symptoms and the underlying mechanisms. PD was induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injection, and calycosin was given intracerebroventricularly to these mice. A cell model of nerve inflammation was established by BV2 microglia cells injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The motor states were evaluated by stepping, whisker, and cylinder experiments. The states of dopaminergic neurons and microglia were detected by immunostainning of tyrosine hydroxylase and cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b). The expression levels of inflammatory factors were detected by qPCR. Toll-like receptor (TLR)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were investigated by western blot. We found that calycosin treatment mitigated the behavioral dysfunctions and inflammatory responses in MPTP-induced PD mice. The TLR/NF-κB and MAPK pathways in MPTP-induced PD mice were inhibited by calycosin treatment, which was coincident with experiments in LPS-induced BV2 cells. Above all, calycosin mitigates PD symptoms through TLR/NF-κB and MAPK pathways in mice and cell lines. 10.1002/ptr.6221
    A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health. Kaufman P B,Duke J A,Brielmann H,Boik J,Hoyt J E Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones. 10.1089/acm.1997.3.7
    Isoflavones in soy flour diet have different effects on whole-genome expression patterns than purified isoflavone mix in human MCF-7 breast tumors in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Liu Yunxian,Hilakivi-Clarke Leena,Zhang Yukun,Wang Xiao,Pan Yuan-Xiang,Xuan Jianhua,Fleck Stefanie C,Doerge Daniel R,Helferich William G Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:Soy flour diet (MS) prevented isoflavones from stimulating MCF-7 tumor growth in athymic nude mice, indicating that other bioactive compounds in soy can negate the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. The underlying signal transduction pathways to explain the protective effects of soy flour consumption were studied here. METHODS AND RESULTS:Ovariectomized athymic nude mice inoculated with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were fed either Soy flour diet (MS) or purified isoflavone mix diet (MI), both with equivalent amounts of genistein. Positive controls received estradiol pellets and negative controls received sham pellets. GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array platform was used to evaluate gene expressions, and results were analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. Tumors in MS-fed mice exhibited higher expression of tumor growth suppressing genes ATP2A3 and BLNK and lower expression of oncogene MYC. Tumors in MI-fed mice expressed a higher level of oncogene MYB and a lower level of MHC-I and MHC-II, allowing tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. MS-induced gene expression alterations were predictive of prolonged survival among estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer patients, whilst MI-induced gene changes were predictive of shortened survival. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that dietary soy flour affects gene expression differently than purified isoflavones, which may explain why soy foods prevent isoflavones-induced stimulation of MCF-7 tumor growth in athymic nude mice. 10.1002/mnfr.201500028