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    Vitamin D Deficiency Is Not Associated With Growth or the Incidence of Common Morbidities Among Tanzanian Infants. Sudfeld Christopher R,Manji Karim P,Smith Emily R,Aboud Said,Kisenge Rodrick,Fawzi Wafaie W,Duggan Christopher P Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS:A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age. Physicians examined infants every 3 months or when an illness was noted to document morbidities. RESULTS:The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) declined from 76.4% at 6 weeks of age to 21.2% at 6 months. Infants who were exclusively breastfed at 6 weeks of age had 2.05 (95% confidence interval 1.11-3.79; P = 0.02) times the risk of vitamin D deficiency as compared formula-fed infants. After multivariate adjustment, there was no association of vitamin D status at 6 weeks or 6 months with the incidence of stunting, wasting, or underweight. There was also no association of low vitamin D with the incidence of diarrhea, upper respiratory infection, acute lower respiratory tract infection, or malaria. CONCLUSIONS:Vitamin D deficiency is common during early infancy, particularly among exclusively breastfed infants; however, these observational data suggest it may not be an important contributor to morbidity and growth among the general population of Tanzanian infants. Future studies of vitamin D among high-risk infants, including those with low birthweight and exposed to HIV, may be warranted. 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001658
    Vitamin A, vitamin E and selenium status in an aged Finnish male population. Kivelä S L,Mäenpää P,Nissinen A,Alfthan G,Punsar S,Enlund H,Puska P International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and selenium concentrations in serum were studied during the autumn season (October and November) in two Finnish male populations aged 65-84 years and living either in eastern or southwestern Finland. The mean vitamin A concentration was higher in south-western, but the mean selenium concentration was higher in eastern Finland. Mean vitamin A concentrations did not differ between age groups, but in the south-west highest vitamin E and selenium concentrations were found among the youngest population. A severe vitamin A deficiency (below 300 micrograms/l) was found only in 3 (1%) men in the east and 4 (1%) men in the south-west, and a mild deficiency (300-399 micrograms/l) in 11 (4%) men in the east and 16 (4%) men in the south-west. Vitamin E deficiency after the correction by serum total cholesterol (below 2 mg/l/g/l) was found only in 3 (1%) men in the east and 1 (0%) man in the south-west, and low values (2.0-2.9 mg/l/g/l) were found in 13 (4%) men in the east and 34 (9%) men in the south-west. A severe deficiency of selenium (below 46 micrograms/l) was found in 10 (3%) men in the east and 15 (4%) men in the south-west, while a mild deficiency (46-69 micrograms/l) was found in 140 (45%) men in the east and 197 (52%) men in the south-west. The overall vitamin A and vitamin E status of elderly Finnish men was relatively adequate, while severe or mild deficiencies of selenium were common.
    Longitudinal study of plasma vitamin E levels in entirely breast-fed and partially breast-fed Brazilian infants during the first three months of life. Martinez F E,Goncalves A L,Jorge S M,Desai I D Journal of tropical pediatrics 10.1093/tropej/30.2.92
    Relationship between serum vitamin E levels and serum cholesterol in normal adults in rural regions of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Shitara H,Uruno K,Takahashi Y,Maishi S,Kimura S Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology Serum vitamin E and cholesterol levels were determined for the residents in rural regions of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The average serum vitamin E were 0.99 +/- 0.25 mg/100ml in 166 men, and 1.06 +/- 0.26 mg/100ml in 178 women. Only 0.6% of the subjects were below 0.5 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between the serum vitamin E levels of men and women. However there were no statistically significant differences among serum vitamin E of various age groups. The best correlation for serum vitamin E was found with serum cholesterol.
    Some other nutritional deficiencies. Beaton G H Monograph series. World Health Organization
    Vitamin A, E and C nutriture of elderly people in North Italy. Porrini M,Simonetti P,Ciappellano S,Testolin G International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition The vitamin A, E and C nutritional status of 313 non institutionalized elderly people living in a small town and in an agricultural village of North Italy has been evaluated. From results obtained it is possible to say that all the population tested is at low risk for vitamin A deficiency, while 10-20% of people over 70 living in the small town have low levels of vitamin E. On the contrary, the nutritional status of ascorbic acid, where the levels are inadequate in more than 50% of the population, is worrying.
    Nutritional encephalomalacia in turkeys: diagnosis and growth performance. Klein D R,Novilla M N,Watkins K L Avian diseases An outbreak of neurological disease in 2 1/2-to-3 1/2-week-old male turkey poults was diagnosed morphologically as nutritional encephalomalacia. About 20 to 30% of the flock of 6360 showed clinical signs, which included going down with legs extended or hock-sitting and inability to get up, incoordination, weakness, staggering, trembling, torticollis, and opisthotonus. The most important gross postmortem changes were found in the brain, which consisted of an enlarged and swollen cerebellum with focal and/or diffuse hemorrhages. Major histopathological alterations included congestion, hemorrhages, necrosis, and malacia associated with hyaline capillary thrombi affecting the cerebellar cortex and adjacent white matter. Except for a slightly higher mortality, flock performance compared favorably with performance of other flocks grown in the same farm as well as with the national average for market tom turkeys.
    Vitamin E status of Chinese population in Taiwan. Chen L H,Hsu S J,Huang C,Chen J S The American journal of clinical nutrition Vitamin E status of Chinese population with different age groups was studied by determining plasma vitamin E levels (PE) and hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte hemolysis (HPEH). The mean PE of 99 adults, ages 23 to 78, was 1.05 +/- 0.47 mg/100 ml. There was no significant difference between sexes. PE was negatively correlated with HPEH (P less than 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation (P less than 0.01) between PE and plasma cholesterol level. The mean PE of four young men of Yami tribesmen, ages 16 to 19, was 0.60 +/- 0.10 mg/100 ml. HPEH was low. After daily supplementation of 200 mg dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate for 16 days, PE increased 54%, but the plasma cholesterol was not affected. The mean PE of 39 elementary school children ages 12 to 13, was 0.70 +/- 0.31 mg/100 ml. The mean PE of 20 newborn infants was 0.23 +/- 0.08 mg/100 ml. HPEH was as high as 56.5 +/- 31.9% indicating a state of vitamin E deficiency. PE of total population was positively correlated with age (P less than 0.01). It was concluded that the vitamin E status of Chinese population in Taiwan was comparable to that of population groups in many other parts of the world. 10.1093/ajcn/30.5.728
    Nutrition of pregnant women in a developing country--Thailand. Thanangkul O,Amatayakul K American journal of diseases of children (1960)
    Vitamin E status of northern Canadian newborns: relation of vitamin E to blood lipids. Godel J C The American journal of clinical nutrition Vitamin E status was determined in two groups of Canadian newborns: a northern group, mainly aboriginal (Indian and Inuit), and a southern group, mainly nonnative. Serum vitamin E, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured in cord blood and ratios of vitamin E to both cholesterol (E:chol) and cholesterol plus triglyceride (E:chol + TG) were calculated. For the combined groups the mean serum concentration of vitamin E (8.71 +/- 2.45 mumol/L), cholesterol (1.77 +/- 0.46 mmol/L), and triglyceride (0.65 +/- 0.30 mmol/L) as well as the ratios E:chol (5.00 X 10(-3) +/- 1.26 X 10(-3) and E:chol + TG (3.60 X 10(-3) +/- 0.77 X 10(-3) were within normal limits. Significant north-south differences were found only in the mean triglyceride concentration, which was lower (p = 0.03), and E:chol + TG, which was higher (p = 0.002), in the northern than in the southern group. No differences attributable to differences in race were found. Only one infant, an Inuit in the northern group, was found to be deficient in vitamin E. 10.1093/ajcn/50.2.375
    Plasma vitamins A, C and E in the general population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995. Hughes K,New A L,Lee B L,Ong C N Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore The National University of Singapore Heart Study measured cardiovascular risk factors, including selected plasma vitamins, on a random sample of the general population aged 30 to 69 years. Plasma vitamins A and E were normal and similar by ethnic group. Mean plasma vitamin A levels were: Chinese (males 0.68 and females 0.52 mg/L), Malays (males 0.67 and females 0.54 mg/L), and Indians (males 0.66 and females 0.51 mg/L). Mean plasma vitamin E levels were: Chinese (males 12.6 and females 12.6 mg/L), Malays (males 13.6 and females 13.3 mg/L), and Indians (males 12.9 and females 12.8 mg/L). No person had plasma vitamin A deficiency (< 0.01 mg/L) and only 0.1% had vitamin E deficiency (< 5.0 mg/L). In contrast, plasma vitamin C was on the low side and higher in Chinese than Malays and Indians. Mean plasma vitamin C levels were: Chinese (males 6.3 and females 8.4 mg/L), Malays (males 5.1 and females 6.4 mg/L), and Indians (males 5.7 and females 6.9 mg/L). Likewise, the proportions with plasma vitamin C deficiency (< 2.0 mg/L) were lower in Chinese (males 14.4 and females 0.7%), than Malays (males 19.7 and females 7.2%), and Indians (males 17.8 and females 11.0%). Relatively low levels of plasma vitamin C may contribute to the high rates of coronary heart disease and cancer in Singapore. In particular, lower plasma vitamin C in Malays and Indians than Chinese may contribute to their higher rates of coronary heart disease. However, plasma vitamin C does not seem to be involved in the higher rates of cancer in Chinese than Malays and Indians. The findings suggest a relatively low intake of fresh fruits and a higher intake is recommended. Also, food sources of vitamin C may be destroyed by the high cooking temperatures of local cuisines, especially the Malay and Indian ones.
    Why did England & Wales suffer accelerated population decline in the late nineteenth century? Verrinder D Nutrition and health 10.1177/026010609200800403
    A community based study of vitamin A and vitamin E status of adolescent girls living in the Shire Valley, Southern Malawi. Fazio-Tirrozzo G,Brabin L,Brabin B,Agbaje O,Harper G,Broadhead R European journal of clinical nutrition OBJECTIVE:To assess vitamin A and E status and anaemia in non-pregnant Malawian adolescent girls. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study in rural village communities in the Shire Valley, Southern Malawi. SUBJECTS:Adolescent girls, n = 118, aged between 10 and 19 y, 112 of whom were unmarried. METHODS:Socio-demographic information was collected by questionnaire, heights and weights were measured. Vitamin A was assessed by the Modified Relative Dose Response (MRDR) test, in addition to serum retinol values. Blood samples were collected 4-5 h after administration of 3,4-didehydroretinyl acetate. Retinol and alpha-tocopherol levels were measured by HPLC. Serum retinol results for non-pregnant girls were compared with values for 43 adolescent pregnant girls which were available from a previous study. RESULTS:26.6% of non-pregnant girls had serum retinol values < 0.70 micromol/L; 40.2% had an MRDR ratio > 0.060. In 59.3%, serum tocopherol levels were < 11.5 micromol/L and the tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was < 2.2 in 23.9%. 11.3% had a haemoglobin > or = 12 g/dl. Vitamin A levels were significantly related to age, and younger girls were more likely to be deficient. Significant correlations were found between serum retinol, MRDR values and serum tocopherol. Girls with a low body mass index for age had tocopherol cholesterol ratios < 2.2. Low serum retinol values occurred significantly more often in stunted girls (P=0.01). Serum retinol values of adolescent pregnant girls were significantly lower than those of non-pregnant adolescents (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Vitamin A and E deficiency and anaemia were common in adolescent non-pregnant girls, and thought to partly result from increased growth requirements. Girls who become pregnant at an early age are at risk of depletion of their nutritional reserves. Measures to reduce nutritional deficiencies before the first pregnancy are needed. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600622
    Association between plasma vitamin E concentration and the risk of equine motor neuron disease. De la Rúa-Domènech R,Mohammed H O,Cummings J F,Divers T J,De Lahunta A,Summers B A Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) Equine motor neuron disease (EMND) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the somatic lower motor neurons that results in a syndrome of diffuse neuromuscular disease in the adult horse. The aetiology of this disorder is unknown, although prior studies have suggested that a deficiency in the lipid antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) contributes to the development of EMND. This paper describes a case-control study designed to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and the risk of EMND for horses. Signalment, plasma vitamin E levels at the time of referral, and information relative to dietary and management practices were collected from 53 horses diagnosed with EMND and 69 controls. The mean plasma vitamin E concentration in EMND cases was significantly lower than that of control horses. After controlling for other risk factors of EMND, there was a statistically significant association between plasma vitamin E levels and EMND, with the likelihood of the disease increasing as the vitamin E concentration decreased. These findings support the reported role of vitamin E deficiency as one of the risk factors for EMND. 10.1016/s1090-0233(97)80021-4
    [Vitamin and mineral deficiency in Mexico. A critical review of the state of the art. II. Vitamin deficiency]. Rosado J L,Bourges H,Saint-Martin B Salud publica de Mexico We carried out a review of the studies related to vitamin deficiencies in the Mexican population published since 1950. Forty four studies were published from which we can conclude that: a) dietary intake data suggest that ascorbic acid, riboflavin and retinol intake are deficient: reported intakes were 40-70%, 35-64% and 20-72% of the recommended daily amounts respectively; niacin intake was also deficient in some studies; b) about 10% of Mexican children in rural areas had deficient values of plasma retinol (< 100 ng/ml) and about 25 to 30% had low values (100-200 ng/ml); this prevalence is reduced in children with a higher socioeconomic level; c) some studies were found that show the existence of marginal deficiencies of vitamin E, riboflavin and vitamin B12 in apparently healthy populations. Further studies are required to identify the magnitude of these and perhaps other vitamin deficiencies and their potential effects on the health and function of the Mexican population.
    Vitamin A and E status of some rural populations in the north of Cameroon. Gouado I,Mbiapo T F,Moundipa F P,Teugwa M C International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition The vitamin A and E status was evaluated in 279 volunteer subjects, 3 to 75 years old (131 males and 148 females) from 8 villages in the north of Cameroon by fluorimetric methods. The results obtained showed that: the mean serum vitamin A level was 16.6 +/- 0.7 microgram % (ranging from 2.1 to 69.3 micrograms %) and vitamin E, 499.9 +/- 19.3 micrograms % (ranging from 222.7 to 1893.1 micrograms %); the percentage deficiency of vitamin A among the subjects was 71.7% and that of vitamin E was 66% (vitamin A levels < 20 micrograms/100 ml) vitamin E levels < 500 micrograms/100 ml; children of ages ranging from 3 to 15 years, constituted about 50% of the subjects and were significantly deficient in vitamin A (P < 0.001). Significant correlation was observed between the serum levels of vitamin A and E (P < 0.001). The results from this study revealed that vitamin A and E deficiencies vary from one village to another and constitute one of the major public health problems in the area.
    Nutritional status: blood vitamins A, E, B6, B12, folic acid and carotene. Euronut SENECA investigators. Haller J,Löwik M R,Ferry M,Ferro-Luzzi A European journal of clinical nutrition This chapter describes the vitamin plasma concentration data collection, preliminary analysis and results of the Euronut SENECA study. Blood plasma was collected from approximately 2500 elderly subjects born in 1913-1918 living in 17 small towns in 11 European countries, and the plasma levels of carotene, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin B12, folic acid and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were determined. There were very large within- and between-centre differences in vitamin levels with no definite geographical pattern emerging. The vitamin status for retinol and folic acid was adequate in all centres. The prevalence of biochemical vitamin B6 deficiency was widespread and reached over 50% in some centres. Vitamin B12 biochemical deficiency was limited to ten centres and its prevalence was 1.6%-10%. Vitamin E biochemical deficiency was found in seven centres and varied from 0.5% to 25%.
    Evidence-based medicine and vitamin E supplementation. Hemilä Harri,Miller Edgar R The American journal of clinical nutrition 10.1093/ajcn/86.1.261
    The prevalence and possible causes of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies in the world. McLaren D S Progress in clinical and biological research
    Vitamin nutrition in older adults. Johnson Karin A,Bernard Marie A,Funderburg Karen Clinics in geriatric medicine Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. 10.1016/s0749-0690(02)00048-4
    Vitamin C, E and A levels in maternal and fetal blood for Czech and Gypsy ethnic groups in the Czech Republic. Dejmek Jan,Ginter Emil,Solanský Ivo,Podrazilová Katerina,Stávková Zdena,Benes Ivan,Srám Radim J International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Vitamin C, E and A levels in maternal and cord blood sera were examined at delivery in two districts of the Czech Republic. Information on personal and social characteristics, health, ethnicity, and lifestyle was also collected. A highly significant correlation between ascorbate levels in maternal and cord blood was found. Vitamin C levels in cord blood were about 1.7 times those in maternal blood. This ratio was much higher for mothers deficient in vitamin C: it was about 3 for deficient nonsmokers and as high as 5 for deficient mothers who smoked cigarettes (p < 0.01). This finding may suggest a compensatory mechanism in fetuses that are endangered by oxidative stress. The mean maternal blood levels of vitamin A and E were higher than in fetal blood (both p < 0.001). The mean fetal/maternal ratios were 0.7 for vitamin A and 0.2 for vitamin E levels; these ratios were considerably higher for mothers deficient in a particular vitamin as compared with those for well-nourished mothers. Ascorbate levels were associated with maternal education and smoking. Significantly decreased vitamin C levels were observed in Gypsy mothers and their babies; this may be attributed to unfavorable diet and smoking habits: about 78% of Gypsy mothers admitted smoking as compared with 31% of Czech mothers. 10.1024/0300-9831.72.3.183
    Nutritional stunting in Egypt: which nutrient is responsible? Ibrahim S A,Abd el-Maksoud A,Nassar M F Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit We looked at the relationship between linear growth retardation and deficiencies of certain nutrients in Egyptian children. A group of 107 stunted children aged between 10 and 18 years were subjected to history-taking, physical examination and laboratory investigations. Selected cases were referred to radiology for assessment of bone age. Thirty-nine children were enrolled as controls. Serum haemoglobin, alpha-tocopherol, retinol and magnesium levels were significantly decreased in stunted children compared with the controls. Serum zinc levels were also lower in the stunted group but not significantly so. We conclude that several nutrient deficiencies occur simultaneously in stunted children and all of them may be responsible for stunting.
    Maternal-neonatal retinol and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations in Greeks and Albanians. Schulpis K H,Michalakakou K,Gavrili S,Karikas G A,Lazaropoulou C,Vlachos G,Bakoula C,Papassotiriou I Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) BACKGROUND:Vitamin A and E are required in physiological processes such as pregnancy and growth. AIM:To evaluate retinol and alpha-tocopherol serum levels in Greek and Albanian mothers and in their newborns. METHODS:Data concerned 1125 Greek and 898 Albanian mothers along with their newborns. Immediately after delivery, blood from the umbilical cord and from the mothers was collected into light-protected tubes. Retinol and alpha-tocopherol serum levels were measured with a reversed-phase HPLC method. A 60-d dietetic diary was kept by each woman during the last 2 mo of pregnancy. RESULTS:Retinol (1.3 +/- 0.1 micromol/l) and alpha-tocopherol (32.9 +/- 9.5 micromol/l) levels were estimated to be normal in Greek mothers and in most of their offspring (0.9 +/- 0.1 and 18.5 +/- 3.4 micromol/l, respectively). In contrast, in Albanian mothers, retinol concentration was found to be low (0.6 +/- 0.1 micromol/l), and in 1/3 significantly low (<0.45 micromol/l). Consequently, the vitamin was evaluated to be very low in their newborns (0.4 +/- 0.1 micromol/l), and in 1/2 extremely low. However, in 12% of the Albanian cord blood samples, retinol level was determined to be higher as compared with that of their mothers. alpha-Tocopherol was evaluated to be normal in most of the immigrant mothers (20.0 +/- 8.8 micromol/l) and low (<7.5 micromol/l) in 15% of their newborns. Vitamin A intake was found to be extremely low and vitamin E low (p < 0.05) in the Albanians. CONCLUSIONS:(a) The decreased vitamin A and vitamin E intake, and their low blood status in the Albanian mothers and in their newborns, could be due to their low socio-economic and nutritional status. (b) Immigrant Albanians, during their pregnancy, and their newborns should be "followed up", being at risk of developing symptoms from the very low levels of these lipid-soluble vitamins.
    Folate and vitamin B12 status in a group of preschool children. Requejo A M,Ortega R M,Navia B,Gaspar M J,Quintas E,López-Sobaler A International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition UNLABELLED:An adequate intake of folates and vitamin B12 is essential for the rapid growth rates characteristic of infancy. However, little information exists on the prevalence of deficiencies of these nutrients in preschool children. The status of these vitamins was therefore evaluated in a group of 79 children between 2 and 6 years of age. A 5 day dietary record (including a Sunday) was kept for all subjects. All food taken at day care centres was monitored using "Precise individual weighing" and recorded by trained personnel. Measurements were made of serum and erythrocyte folate levels, vitamin B12 levels, number of red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, and mean corpuscular volume. Though the mean intake of folic acid surpassed recommended levels for this age group 31.4% of the subjects showed intakes below those recommended. 7.7% of the subjects showed serum folate levels between 3 and 6 ng/mL, values which indicate a moderate deficiency of this vitamin. A correlation was found between folate intake and serum folate levels r = 0.3654 (P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 intake was 438% that recommended. Only 2.9% of the subjects showed vitamin B12 intake below recommended and none showed serum values below 150 pg/ml, the lower normal limit below which deficiency is considered to exist. CONCLUSION:Amongst preschool children, folate deficiency is probably much more common than vitamin B12 deficiency. However, its incidence is low, and much lower than that observed in other age groups.
    Vitamin E deficiency in Uganda. Tulloch J A,Sood N K The American journal of clinical nutrition 10.1093/ajcn/20.8.884
    Vitamins A and E status in an urban Lebanese population: a case study at Dar Al-Fatwa area, Beirut. Obeid Omar A,Al-Ghali Rola M,Khogali Mustafa,Hwalla Nahla International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Vitamin A and E status are widely studied in various populations because of their association with several diseases. Fasting plasma vitamin A and E status of 857 Lebanese adults residing in Dar Al-Fatwa, Beirut were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean retinol and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were 59.8 +/- 29 microg/dL and 1.0 +/- 0.5 mg/dL, respectively in which only 0.2% were retinol-deficient, while 0.7% were alpha-tocopherol-deficient. Vitamin A and E correlated positively with plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Vitamin E, but not vitamin A, correlated positively with blood pressure and glucose. A good status of vitamins A and E was found among the studied Lebanese sample and the elevation in vitamin A and E levels was associated with unfavorable lipid profile. 10.1024/0300-9831.76.1.3
    Selenium-vitamin E deficiency in swine fed peas (Pisum sativum). Piper R C,Froseth J A,McDowell L R,Kroening G H,Dyer I A American journal of veterinary research An experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding a 96.8% cull pea basal ration, low in selenium (0.061 ppm) and vitamin E (7.0 IU alpha-tocopherol/kg of ration), to growing pigs with and without supplementation of selenium, vitamin E, or both. The basal ration was high in crude protein (25.2%) and contained no supplemented fat. Nine of 10 pigs fed the unsupplemented basal ration had lesions attributed to selenium-vitamin E deficiency, and 8 of these pigs died during the 160-day experiment. The deficiency was usually characterized by sudden death (with no prior signs of illness), massive hepatic necrosis, hemoglobinuric and to a lesser extent cholemic nephrosis, degenerative myopathy of cardiac and skeletal muscles, edema, icterus, and acute terminal congestion and hemorrhage. Clinical signs, deaths, or lesions attributed to selenium-vitamin E deficiency were not observed in any of the pigs fed the basal ration supplemented with as little as 0.01 ppm selenium as sodium selenite or 100 ppm alpha-tocopherol. Pigs fed the unsupplemented basal ration gained more slowly (P less than 0.01) and less efficiently and had higher serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels (P less than 0.01) than pigs fed the basal ration supplemented with selenium, vitamin E, or both. There was no difference (P greater than 0.05) in albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratios among dietary treatment groups. Using the criteria of this study, the minimum selenium requirement of growing pigs fed a low tocopherol cull pea diet was determined to be between 0.06 and 0.07 ppm.
    Risk of inadequate intakes of vitamins A, B1, B6, C, E, folate, iron and calcium in the Spanish population aged 4 to 18. Serra-Majem L,Ribas L,Ngo J,Aranceta J,Garaulet M,Carazo E,Mataix J,Pérez-Rodrigo C,Quemada M,Tojo R,Vázquez C International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition A meta-analysis of the most representative Spanish nutrition studies was carried out to identify inadequate intakes of vitamins, A, B1, B6, C, E, folate, iron, and calcium in children aged 4 to 18. Information on vegetable, fruit and fruit juice/beverage intake was also solicited. Data drawn from the selected studies yielded a total of 6540 children and adolescents in eight geographical areas. The sample was stratified by age (children: 4 to 14 years old and adolescents: 13-18 years old) and sex. Inadequate intakes (below two-thirds of the recommended values) were notable in children for vitamin E, vitamin C, and vitamin A and in girls, iron. In adolescents, low intakes were especially marked for vitamin E and vitamin A, and in girls, calcium, folate, and iron. Adolescents consumed more vegetables, fruit juice, and fruit drinks whereas children had higher fruit intakes. Regional differences in consumption were also detected. Strategies for improving nutrient intake in these vulnerable populations are discussed. 10.1024/0300-9831.71.6.325
    Nutritional neuropathies. Kumar Neeraj Neurologic clinics Optimal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system is dependent on appropriate nutrients. Neurologic consequences of nutritional deficiencies are not restricted to underdeveloped countries. Multiple nutritional deficiencies can coexist. Obesity is of particular concern in the developed world. The rising rate of bariatric surgery are accompanied by neurologic complications related to nutrient deficiencies. Prognosis depends on prompt recognition and institution of appropriate therapy. This review discusses peripheral nervous system manifestations related to the deficiency of key nutrients, neurologic complications associated with bariatric surgery, and conditions that have a geographic significance associated with bariatric surgery and certain conditions that have a geographic predilection. 10.1016/j.ncl.2006.11.001
    Less than adequate vitamin E status observed in a group of preschool boys and girls living in the United States. Drewel Brian T,Giraud David W,Davy Sarah R,Driskell Judy A The Journal of nutritional biochemistry In that data were not available on the vitamin E status of young children, the aim of the study was to evaluate the vitamin E status of preschool children by three commonly used criteria: vitamin E intakes, plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and plasma alpha-tocopherol/total lipid ratios. Twenty-two ethnically diverse preschool children (13 males and 9 females), aged 2 to 5 years, living in Lincoln, NE, served as subjects. The subjects were in two groups: 2-3 and 4-5 years old. Energy, fat, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol intakes of the subjects were estimated utilizing two 24-h food recalls. Plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and total lipid concentrations were ascertained. No significant differences by age grouping or gender were observed for vitamin E intakes, plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations, plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations and plasma alpha-tocopherol/total lipid ratios of subjects. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations indicative of less than adequate status (<12 micromol/L) were observed in 91% of the children, and values <7 micromol/L (proposed cutoff for pediatric populations) in 68%. Sixty-eight percent of the subjects had plasma alpha-tocopherol/total lipid values <0.8 mg/g. The majority of the 2- to 5-year-old children included in the study had less than adequate vitamin E status. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.06.003
    Nonsupplemented children of Latino immigrants have low vitamin E intakes and plasma concentrations and normal vitamin C, selenium, and carotenoid intakes and plasma concentrations. Kim Young-Nam,Lora Karina R,Giraud David W,Driskell Judy A Journal of the American Dietetic Association OBJECTIVE:This study sought to determine and evaluate the intakes and plasma concentrations of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), gamma-tocopherol, vitamin C, selenium, and carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene) of nonsupplemented boys and girls, 4 to 8 years old, of Latino immigrants living in rural Nebraska. DESIGN:Dietary intakes of the Latino children were estimated. Their plasma samples (fasting) were analyzed for vitamin E, vitamin C, selenium, and carotenoid concentrations. Data were evaluated by sex. SUBJECTS:The subjects were a convenience sample of 4- to 8-year-old (n=29), apparently healthy, nonsupplemented children of Latino immigrants living in rural Nebraska. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Sex differences in parameter values were determined using general linear models; Pearson r was used for determining correlations. RESULTS:No significant differences in parameter values were observed by sex, with the exception of plasma lutein/zeaxanthin concentration. The majority (69%) had plasma vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) concentrations<0.516 mg/dL (12 micromol/L), which is indicative of vitamin E inadequacy, and over half (59%) reported consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin E. All subjects had plasma vitamin C and selenium concentrations indicative of adequacy (>0.41 mg/dL or >23 micromol/L, and >6.32 microg/dL or >0.8 micromol/L, respectively), and consumed at least the Recommended Dietary Allowances for these nutrients. The plasma carotenoid concentrations of the children may be useful as norms. CONCLUSIONS:These children of Latino immigrants who did not take supplements had low plasma vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) concentrations but normal plasma vitamin C and selenium concentrations. IMPLICATIONS:Dietetics professionals and others involved in health care need to work with Latino immigrant parents so that their children consume adequate amounts of vitamin E. 10.1016/j.jada.2005.12.010
    Serum concentration of vitamins A and E and lipid in a rural population of north Cameroon. Gouado Inocent,Ejoh Richard Aba,Kenne Martin,Ndifor Fombotioh,Mbiapo Félicité Tchouanguep Annals of nutrition & metabolism BACKGROUND:Vitamin A deficiency is still a major health problem mostly affecting people in developing countries. It contributes to increased mortality and morbidity through current infection. In Cameroon, it is a public health problem mostly in the northern part where palm oil, which is a principal source of provitamin A in the south of the country, is not consumed. AIM:We carried out this research to discover the relationship between vitamins (A and E) and blood lipids in a normal rural population living in vitamin A-deficiency area. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study with 81 healthy volunteers (40 men and 41 women) aged 3-61 (mean 18.32 +/- 1.63) years and living in two neighboring villages (Doyan and Larao) in the northern part of Cameroon, where previous studies revealed a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency of 33.3%. METHODS:Serum concentrations of vitamins A and E were measured by fluorometric methods. Serum cholesterol and lipids were assayed by enzymatic methods. RESULTS:The mean +/- standard error for vitamin A and E were 15.09 +/- 0.82; 526.99 +/- 29.57 mug/100 ml, respectively. The concentrations of the serum parameters analyzed were similar for both sexes, whereas the atherogenic ration of cholesterol (ARC) was significantly (p < 0.036) higher in women. Serum lipids (total lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and phospholipids) correlated with vitamins A and E (p < 0.05). Vitamins A and E were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). Age was positively associated with vitamin A (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) and vitamin E (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Deficiency of vitamins A and E constitutes a public health problem with more than 56% of the subjects having low levels of these vitamins, while subjects tested had a low risk for cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSION:In this population we noticed normal lipid levels and vitamin A deficiency probably resulting from diets poor in provitamin A. 10.1159/000084174
    Intake and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol in relation to fractures in elderly women and men: 2 cohort studies. Michaëlsson Karl,Wolk Alicja,Byberg Liisa,Ärnlöv Johan,Melhus Håkan The American journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND:A reduction in the formation of free radicals and oxidative stress might reduce the rate of bone loss and muscle wasting. OBJECTIVE:The objective was to determine whether α-tocopherol intake or serum concentrations are associated with fracture risk in older women and men. DESIGN:Two cohort studies, the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC; n = 61,433 women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n = 1138 men), were used. RESULTS:During 19 y of follow-up, 14,738 women in the SMC experienced a first fracture at any site (3871 hip fractures). A higher hip fracture rate was observed with lower intakes of α-tocopherol. Compared with the highest quintile of intake, the lowest quintile had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.67, 2.06). The HR of any fracture was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.28). α-Tocopherol-containing supplement use was associated with a reduced rate of hip fracture (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.93) and any fracture (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94). Compared with the highest quintile of α-tocopherol intake in ULSAM (follow-up: 12 y), lower intakes (quintiles 1-4) were associated with a higher rate of hip fracture (HR: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.43, 7.76) and any fracture (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.88). The HR for hip fracture in men for each 1-SD decrease in serum α-tocopherol was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22) and for any fracture was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48). CONCLUSION:Low intakes and low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol are associated with an increased rate of fracture in elderly women and men. 10.3945/ajcn.113.064691
    Vitamin E inadequacy observed in a group of 2- to 6-year-old children living in Kwangju, Republic of Korea. Giraud David W,Kim Young-Nam,Cho Youn-Ok,Driskell Judy A International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Studies on the vitamin E status of Korean children are lacking. Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of tocopherols of healthy 2- to 6-year-olds living in Kwangju, Republic of Korea, were determined and their vitamin E status evaluated. Subjects included 66 girls and 65 boys, with 21-32 subjects per age group. Subjects' intakes were recorded by a trained interviewer for foods eaten at preschool/kindergarten; otherwise, three consecutive 24-hour food recalls were obtained from parents. Plasma tocopherol concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Intakes of energy and total monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats were significantly different (p < 0.05) among age groups, not gender, with 2- and 3-year-olds having lower intakes. Alpha- and gamma-tocopherol intakes were similar by age and gender. Sixty-seven percent consumed less than the Korean Adequate Intakes for vitamin E, and 77% had Alpha-tocopherol intakes less than USA/Canadian Estimated Average Requirements. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations, but not gamma-tocopherol, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for 2-year-olds. Two-thirds of subjects had plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations less than 12 micromol/L, which is indicative of vitamin E inadequacy in adults; guidelines for children do not exist. Many of the Korean children had inadequate intakes and likely inadequate plasma concentrations of vitamin E. 10.1024/0300-9831.78.3.148
    The incidence of vitamin E deficiency in poultry around Tehran. Saadat-Noori M,Nahani J,Saedi H,Nikpour K Poultry science 10.3382/ps.0490675
    Micronutrient status of primary school girls in rural and urban areas of South Vietnam. Ta thi Tuyet Mai,Nguyen thi Kim Hung,Kawakami Masanobu,Kawase Mari,Nguyen van Chuyen Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition Dietary habits, especially micronutrient intake, and nutritional status of Vietnamese primary school girls were investigated in a cross-sectional survey. We interviewed 284 girls aged 7 to 9 years old, randomly selected from three rural (N=148) and two urban (N=136) primary schools. Dietary data were calculated from the results of 24-h recall interviews over three consecutive days. The dietary micronutrient pattern of the rural group showed deficiency of iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, beta-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin C. On the contrary, adequate consumption of these elements, except low beta-carotene, was observed in the urban group. Despite a low prevalence of anaemia, the prevalence of rural children with iron deficiency was close to the level regarded as being a public health problem. In contrast, 7.7% of urban children were found to have excessive iron status. Children with exhausted retinol stores (7.1%) requiring immediate retinol supplementation were only found in the rural group. Furthermore, the prevalence of children with marginal retinol stores in both the rural (35.7%) and urban (21.4%) groups was above the level of being a public health problem (20%). In both groups, more than 50% and 20% of children showed beta-carotene and tocopherol levels in the range of severe deficiency, respectively. Thus, nutritional education to improve the dietary habits of the two groups is necessary for Vietnamese primary school children.
    Development of screening indicators for ranking areas at risk of vitamin A deficiency in Thailand. Maleevong Kandavasee,Durongdej Somchai,Wasantawisut Emorn,Pradipasen Mandhana,Pattaraarchachai Junya,Sinawat Sangsom Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet The objective of this study was to develop community based screening indicators for identifying areas at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Three hundred children aged 24-71 months in 12 villages of 3 provinces who were previously identified to have various degrees of vitamin A deficiency were randomly selected to participate in the study. These villages were located in Songkhla, Yala and Narathiwat provinces. Data collection included anthropometric measurements, serum retinol analysis, data on dietary intake, illness, and socioeconomic status. Subsamples of 120 children were taken for Modified Relative Dose Response. Statistics used for data analysis were factor analysis, discriminant analysis and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening indicators were calculated and compared with the rate of vitamin A deficiency at > or = 15 per cent of children with serum retinol < 0.70 micromol/l. Findings revealed that the screening indicators could identify areas at risk of vitamin A deficiency with 83.3 per cent efficiency. Data to be used for identifying areas at risk of vitamin A deficiency included home and land ownership for agriculture, dietary intake of vitamin A, access to social services (maternal education and antenatal care), vaccination, infectious diseases (diarrhoea and upper respiratory tract infection with fever) and nutritional status.
    Inadequacy of micronutrients, fat, and fiber consumption in the diets of Haitian-, African- and Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. Huffman Fatma G,Vaccaro Joan A,Zarini Gustavo G,Biller Daiane,Dixon Zisca International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition Micronutrient insufficiency, low dietary fiber, and high saturated fat intake have been associated with chronic diseases. Micronutrient insufficiencies may exacerbate poor health outcomes for persons with type 2 diabetes and minority status. We examined dietary intakes using the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of micronutrients, and Adequate Intakes (AIs) of fiber, and Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) for saturated fat in Haitian-, African-, and Cuban- Americans (n = 868), approximately half of each group with type 2 diabetes. Insufficient intakes of vitamins D and E and calcium were found in over 40 % of the participants. Over 50 % of African- and Cuban- Americans consumed over 10 % of calories from saturated fat. Haitian-Americans were more likely to have insufficiencies in iron, B-vitamins, and vitamins D and E, and less likely to have inadequate intake of saturated fat as compared to Cuban-Americans. Vitamin D insufficiency was more likely for Haitian-Americans as compared to African- Americans. Diabetes status alone did not predict micronutrient insufficiencies; however, Haitian-Americans with no diabetes were more likely to be insufficient in calcium. Adjusting for age, gender, energy, smoking, physical activity, access to health care, and education negated the majority of micronutrient insufficiency differences by ethnicity. These findings suggest that policies are needed to ensure that low-cost, quality produce can be accessed regardless of neighborhood and socioeconomic status. 10.1024/0300-9831/a000120
    Vitamin E status and its dietary determinants in Taiwanese--results of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996. Kang Mei-Jyh,Lin Yi-Chin,Yeh Wen-Hui,Pan Wen-Harn European journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:A large proportion of Taiwanese are considered to have inadequate vitamin E intake according to Taiwanese RDA. AIM OF THE STUDY:To evaluate the vitamin E status in Taiwan using biochemical indicators, and to examine the influences of dietary factors. METHODS:The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996 was conducted using a multi-stage sampling scheme. Data of 3614 subjects (1728 males, and 1886 females) aged 4 years and above were included in the current analysis. RESULTS:Females had higher levels of serum alpha-tocopherol than males. Serum level of alpha-tocopherol significantly increased with age and blood lipids (p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of deficiency, assessed by the ratio of serum alpha-tocopherol to cholesterol+triglyceride(TG) < 1.59 micromol/mmol, was 1.4 % for Taiwanese aged 4 and above. The prevalence was 1.02 % for adults. This biochemical profile was superior in women compared to men. The age-serum vitamin E status was U-shaped, being poorest in teenagers. Geographical variation in vitamin E/cholesterol+TG ratio was not apparent across regions. An association was observed between serum vitamin E status and frequency of vitamin E supplements, fresh fruits, and 100 % fruit juices. An association was also seen with dietary intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E assessed by 24-hour recall. CONCLUSION:The prevalence rate of vitamin E deficiency in Taiwan was low. An association was observed between serum vitamin E status and dietary vitamins E and C intakes either from foods or supplements. 10.1007/s00394-004-0444-8
    Epidemiological survey of vitamin deficiencies in older Thai adults: implications for national policy planning. Assantachai Prasert,Lekhakula Somsong Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:To examine the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin deficiencies among older Thai adults. METHODS:The cross-sectional study was conducted in four rural communities, one from each of the four main regions of Thailand. In total, 2336 subjects aged 60 years and over were recruited. Anthropometric variables, demographic data, blood glucose and lipid profile, albumin, globulin and blood levels of vitamin A, beta-carotene, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B1 were all measured. RESULTS:The prevalence of vitamin deficiencies was 0.6% for vitamin B12, 6.1% for vitamin A, 9.9% for vitamin C, 30.1% for vitamin B1, 38.8% for erythrocyte folate, 55.5% for vitamin E and 83.0% for beta-carotene. Male gender was a common risk factor for at least three vitamin deficiencies, i.e. beta-carotene, folate and vitamin E. Being a manual worker was a common risk factor of beta-carotene and vitamin B1 deficiency. Poor income was found as a risk factor only in erythrocyte folate deficiency while increasing age was a significant factor only in vitamin C deficiency. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of vitamin deficiencies among older Thai people was quite different from that found in Western countries, reflecting different socio-economic backgrounds. Vitamin deficiency was not only from poor food intake but also from the dietary habit of monotonous food consumption in older people. Some common associated factors of atherosclerosis were also significantly related to folate and vitamin E deficiencies. 10.1017/S136898000720494X
    Serum concentration and dietary intake of vitamins A and E in low-income South African elderly. Oldewage-Theron Wilna H,Samuel Folake O,Djoulde Roger D Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) BACKGROUND & AIMS:Adequate dietary intake of antioxidants is vital for the promotion of health, well being and longevity of the elderly. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) deficiency in a population of low-income South African elderly. METHODS:Serum vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations were determined in 235 persons aged 60-93 years in Sharpeville, South Africa. Dietary assessment was done using 24-h recall. Weight and height were measured to determine body mass index. RESULTS:The mean and standard deviation of serum levels in the elderly were 1.41+/-1.4 micromol/L for vitamin A and 2.1+/-1.1 mg/l for vitamin E. The proportion with deficient serum vitamin A was 28.2% and 26.5% for men and women respectively and 20.5% and 20.9% respectively for deficient vitamin E concentrations. Almost one-third of the subjects consumed less than 100% of the Estimated Average Requirement for both vitamins. Mean vitamin A intake was 426+/-666 microg in men and 368+/-811 microg in women, mean vitamin E intake for men and women was 5.4+/-5.2 microg and 4.0+/-0.5 mg respectively. The predominant macronutrient consumed was carbohydrate. No relationship existed between biochemical and dietary intake parameters of vitamins A and E. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate poor dietary intake and high prevalence of vitamins A and E deficiency among this elderly population. Sustainable community-based interventions are needed to address this nutritional vulnerability in this community. 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.08.001
    Relationship between deficiencies in vitamin A and E and occurrence of infectious diseases among children. Qi Y-J,Niu Q-L,Zhu X-L,Zhao X-Z,Yang W-W,Wang X-J European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between vitamin A deficiency (VAD), vitamin E deficiency (VED) and infectious diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We chose 684 cases of healthy children age 5 months-12 years from our hospital, measured their VA, VE from vein under the light proof condition with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Thereafter, the children who get the acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) or diarrhea two weeks later were registered. RESULTS:After the two weeks trial (N=684 cases), the VA level of children with ARI was lower than that of children without ARI (0.23±0.02 mg/ml/0.33±0.01 mg/ml), p<0.05. Moreover, the VE level of children with ARI was significantly lower than that of children without ARI (p<0.05). Most interestingly, the proportion of children with diarrhea accompanied with decreased VA level in serum was higher than that of children without diarrhea, indicating that VA level <0.2 mg/L more easily affected acute respiratory tract infection. CONCLUSIONS:We were able to demonstrate that Children who presented vitamin A deficiency were easier to get the acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) and diarrhea. Children who presented vitamin E deficiency were easier to get the acute respiratory tract infection (ARI). Vitamin A and vitamin E deficiencies are one of the important factors related to occurrences of acute infectious diseases in children.
    Status of vitamins A and E in schoolchildren in the centre west of Tunisia: a population-based study. Fares Samira,Chahed Mohamed K,Feki Moncef,Beji Chiraz,Traissac Pierre,El Ati Jalila,Kaabachi Naziha Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:The present study was undertaken to assess the status of vitamins A and E (VA and VE, respectively) and their main determinants in Tunisian children. DESIGN:Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING:Kasserine Governorate in the centre west of Tunisia. SUBJECTS:A total of 7407 children attending the first grade of elementary school were included. VA and VE were assessed by HPLC. RESULTS:The prevalence of moderate VA deficiency (VAD; <0·70 μmol/l) was 2·3 % and VE deficiency (VED; <6·97 μmol/l) was 5·4 %. Low status in VA (0·70-1·05 μmol/l) and VE (6·97-11·61 μmol/l) was observed in 17 % and 20·2 % of children, respectively. No child exhibited severe VA or VE deficiency (<0·35 and <2·32 μmol/l, respectively). The main predictors of VAD were advanced age (OR = 1·65; 95 % CI 1·13, 2·41; P = 0·05) and sickness within the past 2 weeks (OR = 1·51; 95 % CI 1·09, 2·09; P = 0·01). Predictors of VED were living in the peri-urban region (OR = 1·60; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·01; P < 0·001) and sickness within the past 2 weeks (OR = 0·75; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·94; P = 0·01). CONCLUSIONS:Moderate VAD and VED were uncommon in Tunisian children. However, low status in VA and/or VE remains frequent. A reinforcement of the national strategies for children's nutrition and health is needed, particularly in disadvantaged regions. Supplementation of VA and VE is not necessary in Tunisia, but food fortification may be beneficial. 10.1017/S1368980010001631
    Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study. Jafari Seyed Mojtaba,Heidari Gholamreza,Nabipour Iraj,Amirinejad Roya,Assadi Majid,Bargahi Afshar,Akbarzadeh Samad,Tahmasebi Rahim,Sanjdideh Zahra Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb <12 g/dL), iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15 μg/L), and iron deficiency anemia was 8.7%, 25.4%, and 4.6%, respectively. Vitamin A (<0.7 μmol/L) and vitamin E (<11.6 μmol/L) deficiencies were found in 1.2% and 5.9% of the studied population, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis. 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.02.004
    Ataxia with vitamin e deficiency in norway. Elkamil Areej,Johansen Krisztina K,Aasly Jan Journal of movement disorders OBJECTIVE:Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. METHODS:We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. RESULTS:A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects) found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4-5 years) and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA). All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. CONCLUSIONS:We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits. 10.14802/jmd.14030
    Low serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin E are associated with high adiposity in Mexican-American children. Gunanti Inong R,Marks Geoffrey C,Al-Mamun Abdullah,Long Kurt Z The Journal of nutrition Mexican-American children have a high prevalence of overweight/obesity. Micronutrient deficiencies may be contributing to the development of greater adiposity in these children. This study investigated the relations between adiposity and serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and vitamin E among Mexican-American children 8-15 y of age included in the 2001-2004 U.S. NHANES. Associations of the outcomes of children's body mass index (BMI), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and total body fat mass (TBFM) with serum concentrations of α-carotene, cis-β-carotene, trans-β-carotene, retinol, and α-tocopherol were determined by using linear, quantile, and multinomial regression models. BMI was inversely associated with serum concentrations of α-carotene (β = -0.88, P < 0.05), trans-β-carotene (β = -2.21, P < 0.01), cis-β-carotene (β = -2.10, P < 0.01), and α-tocopherol adjusted for total cholesterol ratio (β = -3.66, P < 0.01), respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with TrFM and TBFM. Higher cis-β-carotene and α-tocopherol serum concentrations were associated with reduced probability of overweight (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.89; P < 0.05; and OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.86; P < 0.05; respectively) and obesity (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.58; P < 0.01; and OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.60; P < 0.01; respectively). Higher retinol serum concentrations were associated with increased probability of overweight and obesity (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.22; P < 0.01; and OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.65, 5.09; P < 0.01; respectively). Significant inverse associations were found between serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin E and adiposity among Mexican-American children, but serum retinol concentrations were positively associated with adiposity. Future research is needed to understand the causes and consequences of micronutrient status on adiposity and comorbidities. 10.3945/jn.113.183137
    High prevalence rates of anemia, vitamin A deficiency and stunting imperil the health status of Bedouin schoolchildren in North Badia, Jordan. Khatib Ibrahim M D,Elmadfa Ibrahim Annals of nutrition & metabolism AIMS:This survey aimed to identify nutritional deficits affecting Bedouin children as they enter school age and illustrate their families' dietary consumption patterns. METHODS:560 healthy schoolchildren aged 5.5-10 years from 8 Badia hamlets were nutritionally investigated by applying anthropometric, laboratory and dietary assessment methods. RESULTS:Mean and median serum retinol concentrations (SRCs) were 228 and 218 microg/l, respectively. Mean prevalence of nutritional deficits among children were stunting (23.4%), anemia (57.5%), vitamin A deficiency (29.5%), iron deficiency (28.4%), and vitamin E deficiency (17.1%). Including those with borderline values, the proportion of children vulnerable to VAD threats reached 90%. Compared to normal subjects, anemic children had lower SRC (207 vs. 233 microg/l; p < 0.001) and ferritin (9.6 vs. 11.3 microg/l; p < 0.001) levels; stunted children had lower serum vitamin E (6.5 vs. 7.3 mg/l; p < 0.001) and ferritin (10.3 vs. 11.1 microg/l; p < 0.001) levels; vitamin A-deficient children had lower hemoglobin (11.3 vs. 11.8 g/dl; p < 0.001), serum vitamin E (6.69 vs. 7.23 mg/l; p < 0.01), and serum ferritin (10.4 vs. 11.2 microg/l; p < 0.001) levels, and vitamin E-deficient subjects had lower SRC levels (206 vs. 232 microg/l; p < 0.001). Except for hemoglobin status, no significant differences between genders were detected. SRC correlated strongly with hemoglobin, vitamin E, BMI and serum ferritin. The frequency of consumption of meat and fats seemed to be among the determinants of SRC and hemoglobin values. CONCLUSION:Urbanization has brought Bedouins towards poverty and undernutrition, with older children suffering more severe consequences in comparison with preschool-age children. This multifaceted nutritional problem requires implementation of multicomponent interventions. 10.1159/000258632
    Vitamin A and E status in very low birth weight infants. Kositamongkol S,Suthutvoravut U,Chongviriyaphan N,Feungpean B,Nuntnarumit P Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association OBJECTIVE:To determine vitamin A and vitamin E status in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at the time of birth (TB), at the time of full feeding (TFF) and at term postmenstrual age (TT). STUDY DESIGN:An observational study was conducted in VLBW infants. Plasma retinol and α-tocopherol levels were measured at TB, TFF and TT. Multivitamin supplementation was given to all infants to meet the daily requirement. RESULT:A total of 35 infants were enrolled. The median (interquartile range) of gestational age and birth weight was 30 (28 to 32) weeks and 1157 g (982 to 1406 g). The median of vitamin A and vitamin E intakes from TFF to TT was 832 and 5.5 IU kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Vitamin A deficiency occurred in 67.7% at birth, 51.6% at TFF and 82.1% at TT. Vitamin E deficiency occurred in 77.4% at birth, 16.1% at TFF and 35.7% at TT. Small-for-gestational age was the only risk factor for vitamin A deficiency. Lower amount of breast milk consumption was associated with higher incidence of vitamin E deficiency. No differences in vitamin A- or vitamin E-related morbidities between infants with and without vitamin deficiencies were found. CONCLUSION:High prevalence of vitamin A and vitamin E deficiency was found in VLBW infants starting from birth to term postmenstrual age. Therefore, a higher dose of vitamin supplementation is required. 10.1038/jp.2010.155
    Associations between low consumption of fruits and vegetables and nutritional deficiencies in Brazilian schoolchildren. Augusto Rosangela Aparecida,Cobayashi Fernanda,Cardoso Marly Augusto, Public health nutrition OBJECTIVE:We examined associations between the frequency of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and nutritional deficiencies among Brazilian schoolchildren. DESIGN:A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed. A short FFQ was used to assess consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) over the past month. The prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals for stunting, obesity, anaemia, vitamin A and folate deficiencies, vitamin E and vitamin D insufficiencies were estimated for low F&V consumption frequency (vegetables ≤ 3 times/month and fruits ≤ 3 times/week) and compared with children with usual F&V consumption frequency (vegetables ≥ 1 time/week and fruits ≥ 4 times/week). SETTING:Acrelândia, Western Brazilian Amazon. SUBJECTS:A total of 702 children aged 4-10 years. RESULTS:Only 5 % of children consumed F&V ≥ 5 times/d. Prevalence of deficiency was 31 %, 15 %, 9 % and 2 % for vitamins D, A, E and folate, respectively. Overall, 6.3% of children were anaemic, 3.3% were stunted, 2.7% were obese and 33 % had multiple nutritional deficiencies. Low frequency of F&V consumption was associated with lower plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin E. Nutritional deficiencies were higher among non-consumers of F&V when compared with usual consumers: anaemia (PR=1.9; 95 % CI 1.0, 3.7), vitamin E insufficiency (PR=2.5; 95% CI 1.5, 4.2), vitamin D insufficiency (PR=1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and stunting (PR=2.6; 95% CI 1.1, 6.1). CONCLUSIONS:In our study, the occurrence of nutritional deficiencies in children with low F&V consumption was twice as high as in children with usual F&V consumption, reinforcing the importance of effective actions to promote the consumption of F&V. 10.1017/S1368980014001244
    Vitamin E Status Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Tuberculosis Disease among Household Contacts. Aibana Omowunmi,Franke Molly F,Huang Chuan-Chin,Galea Jerome T,Calderon Roger,Zhang Zibiao,Becerra Mercedes C,Smith Emily R,Contreras Carmen,Yataco Rosa,Lecca Leonid,Murray Megan B The Journal of nutrition Background:Few studies have previously assessed how pre-existing vitamin E status is associated with risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease progression. Objective:We evaluated the association between baseline plasma concentrations of 3 vitamin E isomers (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) and TB disease risk. Methods:We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We defined cases as HHCs who developed active TB disease ≥15 d after the diagnosis of the index patient, and we matched each case to 4 control cases who did not develop active TB based on age by year and gender. We used univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression to calculate ORs for incident TB disease by plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol. Results:Among 6751 HIV-negative HHCs who provided baseline blood samples, 180 developed secondary TB during follow-up. After controlling for possible confounders, we found that baseline α-tocopherol deficiency conferred increased risk of incident TB disease (adjusted OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.50; P = 0.04). Household contacts in the lowest tertile of δ-tocopherol were also at increased risk of progression to TB disease compared to those in the highest tertile (tertile 1 compared with tertile 3, adjusted OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.29, 4.09; P-trend = 0.005). We found no association between baseline concentration of γ-tocopherol and incident TB disease. Conclusions:Vitamin E deficiency was associated with an increased risk of progression to TB disease among HHCs of index TB cases. Assessment of vitamin E status among individuals at high risk for TB disease may play a role in TB control efforts. 10.1093/jn/nxx006
    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia. Hentati Fayçal,El-Euch Ghada,Bouhlal Yosr,Amouri Rim Handbook of clinical neurology 10.1016/B978-0-444-51892-7.00018-8
    Prevalence and factors associated with fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in adolescents. Paes-Silva Rebecca Peixoto,Tomiya Marilia Tokiko Oliveira,Maio Regiane,De Castro Célia Maria Machado Barbosa,Arruda Ilma Kruze Grande de,Diniz Alcides Da Silva Nutricion hospitalaria BACKGROUND:fat-soluble vitamin deficiency may be a health problem not recognized in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE:to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the deficiency of vitamins A, D and E among adolescent students from Northeastern Brazil. METHODS:transversal study with adolescents aged 12 to 19 of both genders. A questionnaire to collect socioeconomic and lifestyle data and food intake was applied to adolescents. Then, an anthropometric evaluation and a blood sampling were performed to analyze serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D). RESULTS:the intake of vitamins A (50.3%), E (94.0%) and D (99.8%), as well as α-tocopherol (88.1%), β-carotene (74.1%), 25(OH)D (50.9%) and retinol (46.6%) serum levels were mostly deficient/insufficient. An increased risk of α-tocopherol deficiency was observed in girls (PR = 1.11) and an increased risk of 25(OH)D deficiency was observed in boys (PR = 1.41). An increased likelihood of β-carotene (PR = 1.14) and 25(OH) D (PR = 1.38) insufficiency was observed in overweight individuals. CONCLUSIONS:the adolescents had a deficit in the intake and in serum levels of fat-soluble vitamins. The greatest risk of inadequacy was associated with gender and weight excess. However, the behavior of fat-soluble vitamins in adolescents needs further research. 10.20960/nh.1785
    Vitamin E deficiency in developing countries. Dror Daphna K,Allen Lindsay H Food and nutrition bulletin In addition to its role as a potent antioxidant, vitamin E is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, ranging from immune function and control of inflammation to regulation of gene expression and cognitive performance. Results from multiple studies suggest that poor nutritional status and higher prevalence of other oxidative stressors such as malaria and HIV infection predispose populations in developing countries for vitamin E deficiency. Although direct comparison between study outcomes is complicated by varied definitions of vitamin E deficiency, data trends indicate that children and the elderly are more vulnerable age groups and that men may be at higher risk for deficiency than women. Public health initiatives aimed at improving the vitamin E status of high-risk populations in developing countries would be prudent to counteract oxidative stress, improve immune function, and protect against neurologic and cognitive deficits. Additional research is needed to establish dose-response relationships of various interventions and to develop cost-effective, culturally-appropriate, and targeted programs. 10.1177/156482651103200206
    Molecular, clinical and peripheral neuropathy study of Tunisian patients with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency. El Euch-Fayache Ghada,Bouhlal Yosr,Amouri Rim,Feki Moncef,Hentati Fayçal Brain : a journal of neurology Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia caused by mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein coding gene localized on chromosome 8q, leading to lower levels of serum vitamin E. More than 91 patients diagnosed with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency have been reported worldwide. The majority of cases originated in the Mediterranean region, and the 744delA was the most common mutation among the 22 mutants previously described. We examined the clinical and molecular features of a large cohort of 132 Tunisian patients affected with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency. Of these patients, nerve conduction studies were performed on 45, and nerve biopsy was performed on 13. Serum vitamin E was dramatically reduced for 105 of the patients analysed. Molecular analysis revealed that 91.7% of the patients (n = 121) were homozygous for the 744delA mutation. Three other mutations were detected among the remaining patients (8.3%, n = 11) in the homozygous state. Two were previously reported (400C>T and 205-1G>T), and one was novel (553+1T>A). Age of onset was 13.2 ± 5.9 years, with extremes of 2 and 37 years. All described patients exhibited persistent progressive cerebellar ataxia with generally absent tendon reflexes. Deep sensory disturbances, pyramidal syndrome and skeletal deformities were frequent. Head tremor was present in 40% of the patients. Absence of neuropathy or mild peripheral neuropathy was noted in more than half of the cohort. This is the largest study of the genetic, clinical and peripheral neuropathic characteristics in patients with ataxia and vitamin E deficiency. The 744delA mutation represents the most common pathological mutation in Tunisia and worldwide, likely because of a Mediterranean founder effect. Our study led us to suggest that any patient displaying an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia phenotype with absent tendon reflexes and minor nerve abnormalities should first be screened for the 744delA mutation, even in the absence of a serum vitamin E measurement. 10.1093/brain/awt339
    Thalassemia, cholangiocarcinoma, and Vitamin E deficiency: A scenario in endemic area inSoutheast Asia. Yasri Sora,Wiwanitkit Viroj Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 10.4103/0973-1482.187386
    Multiple Micronutrient Powder Reduces Vitamin E Deficiency in Brazilian Children: A Pragmatic, Controlled Clinical Trial. M C Lobo Lina,M Schincaglia Raquel,G Peixoto Maria do Rosário,C M Hadler Maria Claret Nutrients Multiple micronutrient powder supplementation is a health promotion strategy, but data on its effectiveness regarding vitamin E are rare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of home fortification with powdered micronutrients on α-tocopherol concentrations, growth, and inflammation in Brazilian children aged 6-15 months. This is a pragmatic, controlled clinical trial, in which the intervention group received micronutrient powder sachets for up to 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency was considered when α-tocopherol was less than 11.6 µmol/L. The Poisson regression model was used to estimate adjusted values for prevalence ratios (PR) for the outcome variable. A total of 224 children participated in the study. The intervention group had a higher median α-tocopherol level (17.2 versus 3.6 µmol/L; < 0.001) and an 82.0% reduction in the prevalence of vitamin deficiency (PR = 0.18; 95% CI 0.11-0.30) when compared with the control group. Consumption of multiple micronutrients in powder increases serum α-tocopherol concentrations, promotes better linear growth, and reduces morbidity in children. 10.3390/nu11112730