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    Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes. Belousov Valery V Accounts of chemical research High temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separators based on ceramic materials are used for efficient energy conversion. These devices generally operate in the temperature range of 800-1000 °C. The high operating temperatures lead to accelerated degradation of the SOFC and oxygen separator materials. To solve this problem, the operating temperatures of these electrochemical devices must be lowered. However, lowering the temperature is accompanied by decreasing the ionic conductivity of fuel cell electrolyte and oxygen separator membrane. Therefore, there is a need to search for alternative electrolyte and membrane materials that have high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. A great many opportunities exist for molten oxides as electrochemical energy materials. Because of their unique electrochemical properties, the molten oxide innovations can offer significant benefits for improving energy efficiency. In particular, the newly developed electrochemical molten oxide materials show high ionic conductivities at intermediate temperatures (600-800 °C) and could be used in molten oxide fuel cells (MOFCs) and molten oxide membranes (MOMs). The molten oxide materials containing both solid grains and liquid channels at the grain boundaries have advantages compared to the ceramic materials. For example, the molten oxide materials are ductile, which solves a problem of thermal incompatibility (difference in coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE). Besides, the outstanding oxygen selectivity of MOM materials allows us to separate ultrahigh purity oxygen from air. For their part, the MOFC electrolytes show the highest ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. To evaluate the potential of molten oxide materials for technological applications, the relationship between the microstructure of these materials and their transport and mechanical properties must be revealed. This Account summarizes the latest results on oxygen ion transport in potential MOM materials and MOFC electrolytes. In addition, we consider the rapid oxygen transport in a molten oxide scale formed on a metal surface during catastrophic oxidation and show that the same transport could be used beneficially in MOMs and MOFCs. A polymer model explaining the oxygen transport in molten oxides is also considered. Understanding the oxygen transport mechanisms in oxide melts is important for the development of new generation energy materials, which will contribute to more efficient operation of electrochemical devices at intermediate temperatures. Here we highlight the progress made in developing this understanding. We also show the latest advances made in search of alternative molten oxide materials having high mixed ion electronic and ionic conductivities for use in MOMs and MOFCs, respectively. Prospects for further research are presented. 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00473
    Resin adhesion strengths to zirconia ceramics after primer treatment with silane coupling monomer or oligomer. Okada Masahiro,Inoue Kazusa,Irie Masao,Taketa Hiroaki,Torii Yasuhiro,Matsumoto Takuya Dental materials journal Resin bonding to zirconia ceramics is difficult to achieve using the standard methods for conventional silica-based dental ceramics, which employ silane coupling monomers as primers. The hypothesis in this study was that a silane coupling oligomer -a condensed product of silane coupling monomers- would be a more suitable primer for zirconia. To prove this hypothesis, the shear bond strengths between a composite resin and zirconia were compared after applying either a silane coupling monomer or oligomer. The shear bond strength increased after applying a non-activated ethanol solution of the silane coupling oligomer compared with that achieved when applying the monomer. Thermal treatment of the zirconia at 110°C after application of the silane coupling agents was essential to improve the shear bond strength between the composite resin cement and zirconia. 10.4012/dmj.2016-334
    Effects of the dielectric properties of the ceramic-solvent interface on the binding of proteins to oxide ceramics: a non-local electrostatic approach. Rubinstein Alexander I,Sabirianov Renat F,Namavar Fereydoon Nanotechnology The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has raised many fundamental questions that significantly impede progress in these fields. In particular, understanding the physicochemical processes at the interface in aqueous solvents requires the development and application of efficient and accurate methods. In the present work we evaluate the electrostatic contribution to the energy of model protein-ceramic complex formation in an aqueous solvent. We apply a non-local (NL) electrostatic approach that accounts for the effects of the short-range structure of the solvent on the electrostatic interactions of the interfacial systems. In this approach the aqueous solvent is considered as a non-ionic liquid, with the rigid and strongly correlated dipoles of the water molecules. We have found that an ordered interfacial aqueous solvent layer at the protein- and ceramic-solvent interfaces reduces the charging energy of both the ceramic and the protein in the solvent, and significantly increases the electrostatic contribution to their association into a complex. This contribution in the presented NL approach was found to be significantly shifted with respect to the classical model at any dielectric constant value of the ceramics. This implies a significant increase of the adsorption energy in the protein-ceramic complex formation for any ceramic material. We show that for several biocompatible ceramics (for example HfO2, ZrO2, and Ta2O5) the above effect predicts electrostatically induced protein-ceramic complex formation. However, in the framework of the classical continuum electrostatic model (the aqueous solvent as a uniform dielectric medium with a high dielectric constant ∼80) the above ceramics cannot be considered as suitable for electrostatically induced complex formation. Our results also show that the protein-ceramic electrostatic interactions can be strong enough to compensate for the unfavorable desolvation effect in the process of protein-ceramic complex formation. 10.1088/0957-4484/27/41/415703
    Genotoxicity test of self-renovated ceramics in primary human peripheral lymphocytes. Hua Nan,Zhu Huifang,Zhuang Jing,Chen Liping Cell biochemistry and biophysics Zirconia-based ceramics is widely used in dentistry. Different compositions of ceramics have different features. Our self-renovated ceramics become more machinable without scarifying its dental restoration properties after adjusting ratio of lanthanum phosphate (LaPO4)/yttrium oxide (Y2O3). In order to evaluate its safety, here, we tested its genotoxicity in primary human peripheral lymphocytes. The human lymphocytes cultured on three groups of different ratios of LaPO4/Y2O3 diphase ceramics for 6 days showed little effect of growth inhibition and similar effect of growth trend to the negative control. Furthermore, single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) indicated that there was no significant difference of the value of tail moment between the tested ceramics and negative control, the IPS Empress II (P > 0.05). Our findings implicate that our self-renovated ceramics do not induce DNA damages in human peripheral lymphocytes and support their future clinic application. 10.1007/s12013-014-0127-x
    Application of Monolithic Zirconia Ceramics in Dental Practice: A Case History Report. Kim Hee-Kyung,Kim Sung-Hun,Lee Jai-Bong,Han Jung-Suk,Yeo In-Sung The International journal of prosthodontics Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results. 10.11607/ijp.4772
    Effect of Ti(+4) on in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of silicate glass-ceramics. Riaz Madeeha,Zia Rehana,Saleemi Farhat,Hussain Tousif,Bashir Farooq,Ikhram Hafeez Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications A novel glass-ceramic series in (48-x) SiO2-36 CaO-4 P2O5-12 Na2O-xTiO2 (where x=0, 3.5, 7, 10.5 and 14mol %) system was synthesized by crystallization of glass powders, obtained by melt quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) was used to study the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the as prepared glasses. The crystallization behaviour of glasses was analyzed under non-isothermal conditions, and qualitative phase analysis of glass-ceramics was made by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of synthesized glass-ceramics was studied in stimulated body fluid at 37°C under static condition for 24days. The formation of hydroxyl-carbonated apatite layer; evident of bioactivity of the material, was elucidated by XRD, FTIR, AAS, SEM and EDX analysis. The result showed that partial substitution of TiO2 with SiO2 negatively influenced bioactivity; it decreased with increase in concentration of TiO2. As Ti(+4) having stronger field strength as compared to Si(+4) so its replacement became the cause for reduction in degradation that in turn improved the chemical stability. The compressive strength was also enhanced with progress addition of TiO2 in the system. The antibacterial properties were examined against Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO2 in the system. 10.1016/j.msec.2016.08.022
    The Effect of Resin Bonding on Long-Term Success of High-Strength Ceramics. Blatz M B,Vonderheide M,Conejo J Journal of dental research Digital manufacturing, all-ceramics, and adhesive dentistry are currently the trendiest topics in clinical restorative dentistry. Tooth- and implant-supported fixed restorations from computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-fabricated high-strength ceramics-namely, alumina and zirconia-are widely accepted as reliable alternatives to traditional metal-ceramic restorations. Most recent developments have focused on high-translucent monolithic full-contour zirconia restorations, which have become extremely popular in a short period of time, due to physical strength, CAD/CAM fabrication, and low cost. However, questions about proper resin bonding protocols have emerged, as they are critical for clinical success of brittle ceramics and treatment options that rely on adhesive bonds, specifically resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses or partial-coverage restorations such as inlays/onlays and veneers. Resin bonding has long been the gold standard for retention and reinforcement of low- to medium-strength silica-based ceramics but requires multiple pretreatment steps of the bonding surfaces, increasing complexity, and technique sensitivity compared to conventional cementation. Here, we critically review and discuss the evidence on resin bonding related to long-term clinical outcomes of tooth- and implant-supported high-strength ceramic restorations. Based on a targeted literature search, clinical long-term studies indicate that porcelain-veneered alumina or zirconia full-coverage crowns and fixed dental prostheses have high long-term survival rates when inserted with conventional cements. However, most of the selected studies recommend resin bonding and suggest even greater success with composite resins or self-adhesive resin cements, especially for implant-supported restorations. High-strength ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses have high long-term clinical success rates, especially when designed as a cantilever with only 1 retainer. Proper pretreatment of the bonding surfaces and application of primers or composite resins that contain special adhesive monomers are necessary. To date, there are no clinical long-term data on resin bonding of partial-coverage high-strength ceramic or monolithic zirconia restorations. 10.1177/0022034517729134
    Biomorphic Ceramics for Drug Delivery in Bone Tissue Regeneration. Diaz-Rodriguez Patricia,Landin Mariana Current pharmaceutical design Incorporating therapeutic molecules into biomorphic ceramics for in situ drug release can be used to generate novel systems for tissue regeneration. These systems couple the complex hierarchical porous structures of biomorphic ceramics with the therapeutic activity of drugs. There are a large number of natural precursors available to be used as templates to obtain biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics. Additionally, different drug loading techniques can be used for these systems. The high versatility in structures and drugs allows the selection of the right structure-drug fit in each case according to the tissue needs. This paper reviews the utility of biomorphic ceramics for tissue engineering as well as their use for local drug release. 10.2174/1381612823666170516145309
    Bioactive and inert dental glass-ceramics. Montazerian Maziar,Zanotto Edgar Dutra Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A The global market for dental materials is predicted to exceed 10 billion dollars by 2020. The main drivers for this growth are easing the workflow of dentists and increasing the comfort of patients. Therefore, remarkable research projects have been conducted and are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties or that can be processed using advanced technologies, such as CAD/CAM or 3D printing. Among these materials, zirconia, glass or polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and glass-ceramics (GCs) are of great importance. Dental glass-ceramics are highly attractive because they are easy to process and have outstanding esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth, and, in certain cases, these materials are bioactive. In this review article, we divide dental GCs into the following two groups: restorative and bioactive. Most restorative dental glass-ceramics (RDGCs) are inert and biocompatible and are used in the restoration and reconstruction of teeth. Bioactive dental glass-ceramics (BDGCs) display bone-bonding ability and stimulate positive biological reactions at the material/tissue interface. BDGCs are suggested for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, implant coating, bone regeneration and periodontal therapy. Throughout this paper, we elaborate on the history, processing, properties and applications of RDGCs and BDGCs. We also report on selected papers that address promising types of dental glass-ceramics. Finally, we include trends and guidance on relevant open issues and research possibilities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 619-639, 2017. 10.1002/jbm.a.35923
    Influence of hot isostatic pressing on ZrO2-CaO dental ceramics properties. Gionea Alin,Andronescu Ecaterina,Voicu Georgeta,Bleotu Coralia,Surdu Vasile-Adrian International journal of pharmaceutics Different hot isostatic pressing conditions were used to obtain zirconia ceramics, in order to assess the influence of HIP on phase transformation, compressive strength, Young's modulus and density. First, CaO stabilized zirconia powder was synthesized through sol-gel method, using zirconium propoxide, calcium isopropoxide and 2-metoxiethanol as precursors, then HIP treatment was applied to obtain final dense ceramics. Ceramics were morphologically and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Density measurements, compressive strength and Young's modulus tests were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of HIP treatment. The zirconia powders heat treated at 500°C for 2h showed a pure cubic phase with average particle dimension about 70nm. The samples that were hot isostatic pressed presented a mixture of monoclinic-tetragonal or monoclinic-cubic phases, while for pre-sintered samples, cubic zirconia was the single crystalline form. Final dense ceramics were obtained after HIP treatment, with relative density values higher than 94%. ZrO2-CaO ceramics presented high compressive strength, with values in the range of 500-708.9MPa and elastic behavior with Young's modulus between 1739MPa and 4372MPa. Finally zirconia ceramics were tested for biocompatibility allowing the normal development of MG63 cells in vitro. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.10.044
    Antimicrobial and bioactive phosphate-free glass-ceramics for bone tissue engineering applications. Jha Praveen,Danewalia Satwinder Singh,Sharma Gaurav,Singh K Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Glasses with composition 55SiO-10KO-(35-x)CaO-xMgO (x = 5, 10, 15 up to 35) were prepared via conventional melt-quench technique. The glasses were converted to glass-ceramics by controlled heat-treatment at 850 °C. Higher content of MgO instead of CaO prevents the devitrification of the glasses. The in-vitro bioactivity of the glasses/glass-ceramics was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Glasses exhibited better bioactivity than the glass-ceramics. The weight loss and ions leaching profiles (especially potassium ions) of the samples played crucial role in formation of hydroxyapatite layer and its morphology. Hydroxyapatite had Ca/P ratio close to that for natural bone. However, it could not crystallize within experimental time and exhibited amorphous nature in X-ray diffraction. Microhardness of the glasses/glass-ceramics before and after immersion in SBF is also given. Microbial tests reveal that these glasses/glass-ceramics are effective in inhibiting the growth of fungi and do not affect the normal functioning of the antimicrobial drugs. 10.1016/j.msec.2018.01.002
    Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations. Gali Sivaranjani,K Ravikumar,Murthy B V S,Basu Bikramjit Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials OBJECTIVE:The objective of the present study is to understand the role of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in achieving the desired spectrum of clinically relevant mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and brittleness index) and chemical solubility of mica glass ceramics. METHODS:The glass-zirconia mixtures with varying amounts of YSZ (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.%) were ball milled, compacted and sintered to obtain pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and microstructural characterization with SEM revealed the crystal morphology of the composites. Mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, indentation fracture toughness and chemical solubility were assessed. RESULTS:Phase analysis of sintered pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites revealed the characteristic peaks of fluorophlogopite (FPP) and tetragonal zirconia. Microstructural investigation showed plate and lath-like interlocking mica crystals with embedded zirconia. Vickers hardness of 9.2GPa, elastic modulus of 125GPa, indentation toughness of 3.6MPa·m, and chemical solubility of 30μg/cm (well below the permissible limit) were recorded with mica glass ceramics containing 20wt.% YSZ. SIGNIFICANCE:An increase in hardness and toughness of the glass ceramic-YSZ composites with no compromise on their brittleness index and chemical solubility has been observed. Such spectrum of properties can be utilised for developing a machinable ceramic for low stress bearing inlays, onlays and veneers. 10.1016/j.dental.2018.01.009
    Carbon nanotube, graphene and boron nitride nanotube reinforced bioactive ceramics for bone repair. Gao Chengde,Feng Pei,Peng Shuping,Shuai Cijun Acta biomaterialia The high brittleness and low strength of bioactive ceramics have severely restricted their application in bone repair despite the fact that they have been regarded as one of the most promising biomaterials. In the last few years, low-dimensional nanomaterials (LDNs), including carbon nanotubes, graphene and boron nitride nanotubes, have gained increasing attention owing to their favorable biocompatibility, large surface specific area and super mechanical properties. These qualities make LDNs potential nanofillers in reinforcing bioactive ceramics. In this review, the types, characteristics and applications of the commonly used LDNs in ceramic composites are summarized. In addition, the fabrication methods for LDNs/ceramic composites, such as hot pressing, spark plasma sintering and selective laser sintering, are systematically reviewed and compared. Emphases are placed on how to obtain the uniform dispersion of LDNs in a ceramic matrix and maintain the structural stability of LDNs during the high-temperature fabrication process of ceramics. The reinforcing mechanisms of LDNs in ceramic composites are then discussed in-depth. The in vitro and in vivo studies of LDNs/ceramic in bone repair are also summarized and discussed. Finally, new developments and potential applications of LDNs/ceramic composites are further discussed with reference to experimental and theoretical studies. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Despite bioactive ceramics having been regarded as promising biomaterials, their high brittleness and low strength severely restrict their application in bone scaffolds. In recent years, low-dimensional nanomaterials (LDNs), including carbon nanotubes, graphene and boron nitride nanotubes, have shown great potential in reinforcing bioactive ceramics owing to their unique structures and properties. However, so far it has been difficult to maintain the structural stability of LDNs during fabrication of LDNs/ceramic composites, due to the lengthy, high-temperature process involved. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the developments and applications of LDNs in bioactive ceramics. The newly-developed fabrication methods for LDNs/ceramic composites, the reinforcing mechanisms and the in vitro and in vivo performance of LDNs are also summarized and discussed in detail. 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.05.020
    Novel Translucent and Strong Submicron Alumina Ceramics for Dental Restorations. Zhao M,Sun Y,Zhang J,Zhang Y Journal of dental research An ideal ceramic restorative material should possess excellent aesthetic and mechanical properties. We hypothesize that the high translucency and strength of polycrystalline ceramics can be achieved through microstructural tailoring. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the superior optical and mechanical properties of a new class of submicron grain-sized alumina ceramics relative to the current state-of-the-art dental ceramic materials. The translucency, the in-line transmission ( T) in particular, of these submicron alumina ceramics has been examined with the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye light-scattering model. The theoretical predictions related very well with the measured T values. The translucency parameter ( TP) and contrast ratio ( CR) of the newly developed aluminas were measured with a reflectance spectrophotometer on a black-and-white background. For comparison, the T, TP, and CR values for a variety of dental ceramics, mostly measured in-house but also cited from the literature, were included. The flexural strength of the aluminas was determined with the 4-point bending test. Our findings have shown that for polycrystalline alumina ceramics, an average grain size <1 µm coupled with a porosity level <0.7% could yield translucency values ( T, TP, CR) similar to those of the commercial high-translucency porcelains. These values are far superior to the high-translucency lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and zirconias, including the most translucent cubic-containing zirconias. The strength of these submicron grain-sized aluminas was significantly higher than that of the cubic-containing zirconia (e.g., Zpex Smile) and lithia-based glass-ceramics (e.g., IPS e.max CAD HT). A coarse-grained alumina could also reach a translucency level comparable to that of dental porcelain. However, the relatively low strength of this material has limited its clinical indications to structurally less demanding applications, such as orthodontic brackets. With a combined high strength and translucency, the newly developed submicron grain-sized alumina may be considered a suitable material for dental restorations. 10.1177/0022034517733742
    A molecular perovskite solid solution with piezoelectricity stronger than lead zirconate titanate. Liao Wei-Qiang,Zhao Dewei,Tang Yuan-Yuan,Zhang Yi,Li Peng-Fei,Shi Ping-Ping,Chen Xiao-Gang,You Yu-Meng,Xiong Ren-Gen Science (New York, N.Y.) Piezoelectric materials produce electricity when strained, making them ideal for different types of sensing applications. The most effective piezoelectric materials are ceramic solid solutions in which the piezoelectric effect is optimized at what are termed morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs). Ceramics are not ideal for a variety of applications owing to some of their mechanical properties. We synthesized piezoelectric materials from a molecular perovskite (TMFM) (TMCM) CdCl solid solution (TMFM, trimethylfluoromethyl ammonium; TMCM, trimethylchloromethyl ammonium, 0 ≤ ≤ 1), in which the MPB exists between monoclinic and hexagonal phases. We found a composition for which the piezoelectric coefficient is ~1540 picocoulombs per newton, comparable to high-performance piezoelectric ceramics. The material has potential applications for wearable piezoelectric devices. 10.1126/science.aav3057
    Cermet material could aid the development of future power plants. Turchi Craig Nature 10.1038/d41586-018-07005-9
    High-Temperature Polaritons in Ceramic Nanotube Antennas. Starko-Bowes Ryan,Wang Xueji,Xu Zhujing,Pramanik Sandipan,Lu Na,Li Tongcang,Jacob Zubin Nano letters High-temperature thermal photonics presents unique challenges for engineers as the database of materials that can withstand extreme environments are limited. In particular, ceramics with high temperature stability that can support coupled light-matter excitations, that is, polaritons, open new avenues for engineering radiative heat transfer. Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is an emerging ceramic 2D material that possesses low-loss polaritons in two spectrally distinct mid-infrared frequency bands. The hyperbolic nature of these frequency bands leads to a large local density of states (LDOS). In 2D form, these polaritonic states are dark modes, bound to the material. In cylindrical form, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) create subwavelength particles capable of coupling these dark modes to radiative ones. In this study, we leverage the high-frequency optical phonons present in BNNTs to create strong mid-IR thermal antenna emitters at high temperatures (938 K). Through direct measurement of thermal emission of a disordered system of BNNTs, we confirm their radiative polaritonic modes and show that the antenna behavior can be observed even in a disordered system. These are among the highest-frequency optical phonon polaritons that exist and could be used as high-temperature mid-IR thermal nanoantenna sources. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b03059
    Ultrafast laser welding of ceramics. Penilla E H,Devia-Cruz L F,Wieg A T,Martinez-Torres P,Cuando-Espitia N,Sellappan P,Kodera Y,Aguilar G,Garay J E Science (New York, N.Y.) Welding of ceramics is a key missing component in modern manufacturing. Current methods cannot join ceramics in proximity to temperature-sensitive materials like polymers and electronic components. We introduce an ultrafast pulsed laser welding approach that relies on focusing light on interfaces to ensure an optical interaction volume in ceramics to stimulate nonlinear absorption processes, causing localized melting rather than ablation. The key is the interplay between linear and nonlinear optical properties and laser energy-material coupling. The welded ceramic assemblies hold high vacuum and have shear strengths comparable to metal-to-ceramic diffusion bonds. Laser welding can make ceramics integral components in devices for harsh environments as well as in optoelectronic and/or electronic packages needing visible-radio frequency transparency. 10.1126/science.aaw6699
    Boosting Photovoltaic Output of Ferroelectric Ceramics by Optoelectric Control of Domains. Bai Yang,Vats Gaurav,Seidel Jan,Jantunen Heli,Juuti Jari Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Photo-ferroelectric single crystals and highly oriented thin-films have been extensively researched recently, with increasing photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency (from 0.5% up to 8.1%) achieved. Rare attention has been paid to polycrystalline ceramics, potentially due to their negligible efficiency. However, ceramics offer simple and cost-effective fabrication routes and stable performance compared to single crystals and thin-films. Therefore, a significantly increased efficiency of photo-ferroelectric ceramics contributes toward widened application areas for photo-ferroelectrics, e.g., multisource energy harvesting. Here, all-optical domain control under illumination, visible-range light-tunable photodiode/transistor phenomena and optoelectrically tunable photovoltaic properties are demonstrated, using a recently discovered photo-ferroelectric ceramic (KNaBa)(NbNi)O. For this monolithic material, tuning of the electric conductivity independent of the ferroelectricity is achieved, which previously could only be achieved in organic phase-separate blends. Guided by these discoveries, a boost of five orders of magnitude in the photovoltaic output power and energy conversion efficiency is achieved via optical and electrical control of ferroelectric domains in an energy-harvesting circuit. These results provide a potentially supplementary approach and knowledge for other photo-ferroelectrics to further boost their efficiency for energy-efficient circuitry designs and enable the development of a wide range of optoelectronic devices. 10.1002/adma.201803821
    3D Nanofabrication of SiOC Ceramic Structures. Brigo Laura,Schmidt Johanna Eva Maria,Gandin Alessandro,Michieli Niccolò,Colombo Paolo,Brusatin Giovanna Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) Shaping ceramic materials at the nanoscale in 3D is a phenomenal engineering challenge, that can offer new opportunities in a number of industrial applications, including metamaterials, nano-electromechanical systems, photonic crystals, and damage-tolerant lightweight materials. 3D fabrication of sub-micrometer ceramic structures can be performed by two-photon laser writing of a preceramic polymer. However, polymer conversion to a fully ceramic material has proven so far unfeasible, due to lack of suitable precursors, printing complexity, and high shrinkage during ceramic conversion. Here, it is shown that this goal can be achieved through an appropriate engineering of both the material and the printing process, enabling the fabrication of preceramic 3D shapes and their transformation into dense and crack-free SiOC ceramic components with highly complex, 3D sub-micrometer architectures. This method allows for the manufacturing of components with any 3D specific geometry with fine details down to 450 nm, rapidly printing structures up to 100 µm in height that can be converted into ceramic objects possessing sub-micrometer features, offering unprecedented opportunities in different application fields. 10.1002/advs.201800937
    Copper-containing glass ceramic with high antimicrobial efficacy. Gross Timothy M,Lahiri Joydeep,Golas Avantika,Luo Jian,Verrier Florence,Kurzejewski Jackie L,Baker David E,Wang Jie,Novak Paul F,Snyder Michael J Nature communications Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains are major threats to human health. Copper is well known for its high antimicrobial efficacy, including the ability to kill superbugs and the notorious ESKAPE group of pathogens. We sought a material that maintains the antimicrobial efficacy of copper while minimizing the downsides - cost, appearance and metallic properties - that limit application. Here we describe a copper-glass ceramic powder as an additive for antimicrobial surfaces; its mechanism is based on the controlled release of copper (I) ions (Cu) from cuprite nanocrystals that form in situ in the water labile phase of the biphasic glass ceramic. Latex paints containing copper-glass ceramic powder exhibit ≥99.9% reduction in S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. Coli colony counts when evaluated by the US EPA test method for efficacy of copper-alloy surfaces as sanitizer, approaching that of benchmark metallic copper. 10.1038/s41467-019-09946-9
    Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations: Wear, thermal, optical and cytocompatibility properties. Gali Sivaranjani,K RaviKumar Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials BACKGROUND:In an effort to design novel zirconia reinforced mica glass ceramics for dental restorations, clinically relevant properties such as wear, coefficient of thermal expansion, optical transmittance, and cytocompatibility with human gingival fibroblast cell lines were investigated in the present study. MATERIALS & METHODS:Microstructure analysis of two body wear of heat treated mica glass ceramic ceramics (47.2 SiO-16.7 AlO-9.5 KO-14.5 MgO-8.5 BO-6.3F wt.%) reinforced with 20wt.% YSZ, were evaluated against a steatite antagonist in a chewing simulator following Willytec Munich method. In addition, Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), total transmittance, scattering coefficient and cytocompatibility on human gingival fibroblast cell lines were performed and compared to the commercially available dental ceramic systems. RESULTS:The experimental mica glass ceramic demonstrate micro-ploughing, pull out and debris formation along the cutting surface, indicating abrasive wear mechanism. Thermal expansion of mica glass ceramic composite was recorded as 5×10/°C, which is lower than the thermal expansion of commercially available core and veneering ceramics. Further, significant differences of transmittance and scattering coefficient of mica glass ceramics with 20wt.% YSZ with commercial dental ceramics was found and extensive fibroblast cell spreading with filopodial extension, cell-to-cell bridges and proliferation with human gingival fibroblast cell lines. CONCLUSION:With acceptable cytocompatibility with human gingival fibroblast cells and better wear properties with respect to commercial IPS emax Press, the mica glass ceramic composites (47.2 SiO-16.7AlO-9.5 KO-14.5 MgO-8.5 BO-6.3F wt.%) with 20wt.% YSZ have the potential for dental restorative applications as machinable veneering ceramics. 10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.112
    Toxicological analysis of ceramic building materials - Tiles and glasses - Obtained from post-treated bottom ashes. Andreola Fernanda,Barbieri Luisa,Queiroz Soares Bárbara,Karamanov Alexander,Schabbach Luciana M,Bernardin Adriano M,Pich Claus T Waste management (New York, N.Y.) In Italy, the production of bottom ash from waste incineration was estimated as 1.6 million tons/year, corresponding to 30% of the total input waste. The bottom ash is mainly formed by SiO, AlO, CaO, NaO and low amount of heavy metals, therefore it cannot be considered a 'non-hazardous' waste. In this context, the aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of the sintering and vitrification techniques to turn bottom ash into an inert ceramic or glass matrix using toxicological tests. The bottom ash from a municipal solid waste facility was ground and used in ceramic tile and glass compositions. After sintering of the ceramic tiles and melting of the glass compositions, the samples were characterized by leachability and toxicological analyzes. Living organisms were used in the toxicological tests, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (Agar Diffusion Test), Artemia sp. (Acute Toxicity Test) and Lactuca sativa (germination) and the results were compared with the plasmid DNA test. Regarding the leachability results, the ceramic tile samples showed a concentration of Cu slightly above the limit determined by the D.M. 5/4/2006 directive and, therefore, could not be considered an inert material. Regarding the toxicological tests, the bottom ash alone is mutagenic, but this effect is avoided once the ash is immobilized into the glasses and ceramic tiles, as demonstrated by the results reported in this study. 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.08.008
    Bone regeneration in 3D printing bioactive ceramic scaffolds with improved tissue/material interface pore architecture in thin-wall bone defect. Shao Huifeng,Ke Xiurong,Liu An,Sun Miao,He Yong,Yang Xianyan,Fu Jianzhong,Liu Yanming,Zhang Lei,Yang Guojing,Xu Sanzhong,Gou Zhongru Biofabrication Three-dimensional (3D) printing bioactive ceramics have demonstrated alternative approaches to bone tissue repair, but an optimized materials system for improving the recruitment of host osteogenic cells into the bone defect and enhancing targeted repair of the thin-wall craniomaxillofacial defects remains elusive. Herein we systematically evaluated the role of side-wall pore architecture in the direct-ink-writing bioceramic scaffolds on mechanical properties and osteogenic capacity in rabbit calvarial defects. The pure calcium silicate (CSi) and dilute Mg-doped CSi (CSi-Mg6) scaffolds with different layer thickness and macropore sizes were prepared by varying the layer deposition mode from single-layer printing (SLP) to double-layer printing (DLP) and then by undergoing one-, or two-step sintering. It was found that the dilute Mg doping and/or two-step sintering schedule was especially beneficial for improving the compressive strength (∼25-104 MPa) and flexural strength (∼6-18 MPa) of the Ca-silicate scaffolds. The histological analysis for the calvarial bone specimens in vivo revealed that the SLP scaffolds had a high osteoconduction at the early stage (4 weeks) but the DLP scaffolds displayed a higher osteogenic capacity for a long time stage (8-12 weeks). Although the DLP CSi scaffolds displayed somewhat higher osteogenic capacity at 8 and 12 weeks, the DLP CSi-Mg6 scaffolds with excellent fracture resistance also showed appreciable new bone tissue ingrowth. These findings demonstrate that the side-wall pore architecture in 3D printed bioceramic scaffolds is required to optimize for bone repair in calvarial bone defects, and especially the Mg doping wollastontie is promising for 3D printing thin-wall porous scaffolds for craniomaxillofacial bone defect treatment. 10.1088/1758-5090/aa663c
    Incorporation of wollastonite bioactive ceramic with titanium for medical applications: An overview. Zakaria Mohd Yusuf,Sulong Abu Bakar,Muhamad Norhamidi,Raza Muhammad Rafi,Ramli Mohd Ikram Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Titanium-ceramic composites are potential implant material candidates because of their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This review focused on the latest advancement in processing of titanium-ceramic materials. Previously, titanium-ceramic incorporated using different coating techniques, i.e., plasma spraying and electrophoretic depositions, to enhance the biocompatibility of the implants. A major drawback in these coating methods is the growth of tissue at only the surface of the composite and might peel off over time. Recently, metal-ceramic composite was introduced via powder metallurgy method such as powder injection moulding. A porous structure can be obtained via powder metallurgy. Producing a porous titanium-ceramic structure would improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and tissue growth within the structure. Hence, further research needed to be done by considering the potential of powder injection moulding method which offer lower costs and more complex shapes for future implant. 10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.056
    Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders: a comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics. Lazar Dolores R R,Bottino Marco C,Ozcan Mutlu,Valandro Luiz Felipe,Amaral Regina,Ussui Valter,Bressiani Ana H A Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials OBJECTIVES:(1) To synthesize 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. METHODS:A coprecipitation route was used to synthesize a 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic processed by uniaxial compaction and pressureless sintering. Commercially available alumina or alumina/zirconia ceramics, namely Procera AllCeram (PA), In-Ceram Zirconia Block (CAZ) and In-Ceram Zirconia (IZ) were chosen for comparison. All specimens (6mmx5mmx5mm) were polished and ultrasonically cleaned. Qualitative phase analysis was performed by XRD and apparent densities were measured on the basis of Archimedes principle. Ceramics were also characterized using SEM, TEM and EDS. The hardness measurements were made employing Vickers hardness test. Fracture toughness (K(IC)) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). RESULTS:ANOVA revealed that the Vickers hardness (p<0.0001) and fracture toughness (p<0.0001) were affected by the ceramic materials composition. It was confirmed that the PA ceramic was constituted of a rhombohedral alumina matrix, so-called alpha-alumina. Both CAZ and IZ ceramics presented tetragonal zirconia and alpha-alumina mixture of phases. The SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the presence of aluminum in PA ceramic. In the IZ and CAZ ceramics aluminum, zirconium and cerium in grains involved by a second phase containing aluminum, silicon and lanthanum were identified. PA showed significantly higher mean Vickers hardness values (H(V)) (18.4+/-0.5GPa) compared to vitreous CAZ (10.3+/-0.2GPa) and IZ (10.6+/-0.4GPa) ceramics. Experimental Y-TZP showed significantly lower results than that of the other monophased ceramic (PA) (p<0.05) but it showed significantly higher fracture toughness (6.0+/-0.2MPam(1/2)) values when compared to the other tested ceramics (p<0.05). SIGNIFICANCE:The coprecipitation method used to synthesize zirconia powders and the adopted ceramic processing conditions led to ceramics with mechanical properties comparable to commercially available reinforced ceramic materials. 10.1016/j.dental.2008.04.002
    Microbial fuel cell performance of graphitic carbon functionalized porous polysiloxane based ceramic membranes. Ahilan Vignesh,de Barros Camila Cabral,Bhowmick Gourav Dhar,Ghangrekar Makarand M,Murshed M Mangir,Wilhelm Michaela,Rezwan Kurosch Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Proton-conducting porous ceramic membranes were synthesized via a polymer-derived ceramic route and probed in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Their chemical compositions were altered by adding carbon allotropes including graphene oxide (GO) and multiwall carbon nanotubes into a polysiloxane matrix as filler materials. Physical characteristics of the synthesized membranes such as porosity, hydrophilicity, mechanical stability, ion exchange capacity, and oxygen mass transfer coefficient were determined to investigate the best membrane material for further testing in MFCs. The ion exchange capacity of the membrane increased drastically after adding 0.5 wt% of GO at an increment of 9 fold with respect to that of the non-modified ceramic membrane, while the oxygen mass transfer coefficient of the membrane decreased by 52.6%. The MFC operated with this membrane exhibited a maximum power density of 7.23 W m with a coulombic efficiency of 28.8%, which was significantly higher than the value obtained using polymeric Nafion membrane. Hence, out of all membranes tested in this study the GO-modified polysiloxane based ceramic membranes are found to have a potential to replace Nafion membranes in pilot scale MFCs. 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2019.06.002
    Biodegradable ceramic-polymer composites for biomedical applications: A review. Dziadek Michal,Stodolak-Zych Ewa,Cholewa-Kowalska Katarzyna Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications The present work focuses on the state-of-the-art of biodegradable ceramic-polymer composites with particular emphasis on influence of various types of ceramic fillers on properties of the composites. First, the general needs to create composite materials for medical applications are briefly introduced. Second, various types of polymeric materials used as matrices of ceramic-containing composites and their properties are reviewed. Third, silica nanocomposites and their material as well as biological characteristics are presented. Fourth, different types of glass fillers including silicate, borate and phosphate glasses and their effect on a number of properties of the composites are described. Fifth, wollastonite as a composite modifier and its effect on composite characteristics are discussed. Sixth, composites containing calcium phosphate ceramics, namely hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate are presented. Finally, general possibilities for control of properties of composite materials are highlighted. 10.1016/j.msec.2016.10.014
    Composite material consisting of microporous β-TCP ceramic and alginate for delayed release of antibiotics. Seidenstuecker Michael,Ruehe Juergen,Suedkamp Norbert P,Serr Annerose,Wittmer Annette,Bohner Marc,Bernstein Anke,Mayr Hermann O Acta biomaterialia OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to produce a novel composite of microporous β-TCP filled with alginate and Vancomycin (VAN) to prolong the release behavior of the antibiotic for up to 28days. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Using the flow chamber developed by the group, porous ceramics in a directional flow were filled with alginates of different composition containing 50mg/mL of antibiotics. After cross-linking the alginate with calcium ions, incubation took place in 10mL double-distilled water for 4weeks at 37°C. At defined times (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 20 and 28days), the liquid was completely exchanged and analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis and microtiter trials. For statistical purposes, the mean and standard deviation were calculated and analyzed by ANOVA. RESULTS:The release of VAN from alginate was carried out via an external calcium source over the entire period with concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The burst release measured 35.2±1.5%. The release of VAN from alginate with an internal calcium source could only be observed over 14days. The burst release here was 61.9±4.3%. The native alginate's burst release was 54.1±7.8%; that of the sterile alginate 40.5±6.4%. The microtiter experiments revealed efficacy over the entire study period for VAN. The MIC value was determined in the release experiments as well in a range of 0.5-2.0μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Drug release systems based on β-TCP and hydrogels are well documented in literature. However, in all described systems the ceramic, as granule or powder, is inserted into a hydrogel. In our work, we do the opposite, a hydrogel which acts as reservoir for antibiotics is placed into a porous biodegradable ceramic. Eventually, this system should be applied as treatment of bone infections. Contrary to the "granule in hydrogel" composites it has the advantage of mechanical stability. Thus, it can take over functions of the bone during the healing process. For a quicker translation from our scientific research into clinical use, only FDA approved materials were used in this work. 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.01.045
    Innovative thermal and acoustic insulation foam by using recycled ceramic shell and expandable styrofoam (EPS) wastes. G de Moraes E,Sangiacomo L,P Stochero N,Arcaro S,R Barbosa L,Lenzi A,Siligardi C,Novaes de Oliveira A P Waste management (New York, N.Y.) Ceramic foams were produced using ceramic shell (mullite source), an industrial solid waste from the precision casting process, and expandable styrofoams, EPS (d < 1 mm) as pore former, envisaging thermal and acoustic insulation applications. Physical, chemical, structural properties of the selected raw materials (wastes) were characterized. The influence of the amount and morphology of the EPS powder beads on the microstructure, thermal conductivity, acoustic absorption and compressive strength of ceramic shell foams were evaluated. Batches containing well mixed ceramic shell powder (d < 2 µm), EPS beads, in different proportions (from 10 to 70 vol%), were added as pore forming agent, and BonderPlus® (NaSiO solution) were uniaxially pressed at 20 MPa, dried and fired in controlled conditions. The experimental results showed that homogeneous microstructures of elongated and interconnected pores with sizes between 115 and 1200 µm can be obtained. These connections exhibit a significant impact on the thermal/sound absorption properties, as a consequence of the interaction between air molecules within the pores through the passage of the thermal/sound wave. Ceramic shell foams (containing 70 vol% of EPS powder beads) featured porosities up to 77%, thermal conductivity of 0.061 W/mK, sound absorption coefficient of ∼0.9 (3 kHz), and excellent compressive strength ∼5.4 MPa. In addition, the use of ceramic shells wastes for the manufacture of acoustic and thermal insulators with suitable microstructural characteristics is a great sustainable opportunity, since with the use of this refractory waste, is possible to avoid the release to the atmosphere of about 3.1 kg of CO per kg of manufactured material. 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.04.019
    CAD/CAM Ceramic Restorative Materials for Natural Teeth. Spitznagel F A,Boldt J,Gierthmuehlen P C Journal of dental research Advances in computer-aided design (CAD) / computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies and their ease of application enabled the development of novel treatment concepts for modern prosthodontics. This recent paradigm shift in fixed prosthodontics from traditional to minimally invasive treatment approaches is evidenced by the clinical long-term success of bonded CAD/CAM glass-ceramic restorations. Today, defect-oriented restorations, such as inlays, onlays, and posterior crowns, are predominately fabricated from glass-ceramics in monolithic application. The variety of CAD/CAM ceramic restorative systems is constantly evolving to meet the increased demands for highly aesthetic, biocompatible, and long-lasting restorations. Recently introduced polymer-infiltrated ceramic network CAD/CAM blocks add innovative treatment options in CAD/CAM chairside 1-visit restorations. The material-specific high-edge stability enables the CAD/CAM machinability of thin restoration margins. Full-contour zirconia restorations are constantly gaining market share at the expense of bilayered systems. Advancements in material science and bonding protocols foster the development of novel material combinations or fabrication techniques of proven high-strength zirconia ceramics. CAD/CAM applications offer a standardized manufacturing process resulting in a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow for individual and complex teeth-supported restorations. More evidence from long-term clinical studies is needed to verify the clinical performance of monolithic polymer-infiltrated ceramic network and zirconia teeth-supported minimally invasive and extensive restorations. 10.1177/0022034518779759
    The precursors effects on biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders. Yoruç Afife Binnaz Hazar,Aydınoğlu Aysu Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications In this study, effects of the starting material on chemical, physical, and biological properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders (BHA) were investigated. Characterization and chemical analysis of BHA powders were performed by using XRD, FT-IR, and ICP-AES. Microstructural features such as size and morphology of the resulting BHA powders were characterized by using BET, nano particle sizer, pycnometer, and SEM. Additionally, biological properties of the BHA ceramic powders were also investigated by using water-soluble tetrazolium salts test (WST-1). According to the chemical analysis of BHA ceramic powders, chemical structures of ceramics which are prepared under different conditions and by using different starting materials show differences. Ceramic powders which are produced at 80°C are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite, dental hydroxyapatite (contain Na and Mg elements in addition to Ca), and calcium phosphate sulfide. However, these structures are altered at high temperatures such as 900°C depending on the features of starting materials and form various calcium phosphate ceramics and/or their mixtures such as Na-Mg-hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, Mg-Whitlockit, and chloroapatite. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that amorphous ceramics produced at 80°C and ceramics containing chloroapatite structure as main or secondary phases were found to be extremely cytotoxic. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that highly crystalline pure hydroxyapatite structures were extremely cytotoxic due to their high crystallinity values. Consequently, the current study indicates that the selection of starting materials which can be used in the production of calcium phosphate ceramics is very important. It is possible to produce calcium phosphate ceramics which have sufficient biocompatibility at physiological pH values and by using appropriate starting materials. 10.1016/j.msec.2017.02.049
    Fatigue failure load of two resin-bonded zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics: Effect of ceramic thickness. Monteiro Jaiane Bandoli,Riquieri Hilton,Prochnow Catina,Guilardi Luís Felipe,Pereira Gabriel Kalil Rocha,Borges Alexandre Luiz Souto,de Melo Renata Marques,Valandro Luiz Felipe Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of ceramic thickness on the fatigue failure load of two zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramics, adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue material. METHODS:Disc-shaped specimens were allocated into 8 groups (n=25) considering two study factors: ZLS ceramic type (Vita Suprinity - VS; and Celtra Duo - CD), and ceramic thickness (1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5mm). A trilayer assembly (ϕ=10mm; thickness=3.5mm) was designed to mimic a bonded monolithic restoration. The ceramic discs were etched, silanized and luted (Variolink N) into a dentin analogue material. Fatigue failure load was determined using the Staircase method (100,000 cycles at 20Hz; initial fatigue load ∼60% of the mean monotonic load-to-failure; step size ∼5% of the initial fatigue load). A stainless-steel piston (ϕ=40mm) applied the load into the center of the specimens submerged in water. Fractographic analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were also performed. RESULTS:The ceramic thickness influenced the fatigue failure load for both ZLS materials: Suprinity (716N up to 1119N); Celtra (404N up to 1126N). FEA showed that decreasing ceramic thickness led to higher stress concentration on the cementing interface. SIGNIFICANCE:Different ZLS glass-ceramic thicknesses influenced the fatigue failure load of the bonded system (i.e. the thicker the glass ceramic is, the higher the fatigue failure load will be). Different microstructures of the ZLS glass-ceramics might affect the fatigue behavior. FEA showed that the thicker the glass ceramic is, the lower the stress concentration at the tensile surface will be. 10.1016/j.dental.2018.03.004