Mass Spectrometric Methods for the Analysis of Heparin and Heparan Sulfate.
Lech Miroslaw,Capila Ishan,Kaundinya Ganesh V
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Glycosaminoglycans like heparin and heparan sulfate exhibit a high degree of structural microheterogeneity. This structural heterogeneity results from the biosynthetic process that produces these linear polysaccharides in cells and tissues. Heparin and heparan sulfate play critical roles in normal physiology and pathophysiology, hence it is important to understand how their structural features may influence overall activity. Therefore, high-resolution techniques like mass spectrometry represent a key part of the suite of methodologies available to probe the fine structural details of heparin and heparan sulfate. This chapter outlines the application of techniques like LC-MS and LC-MS/MS to study the composition of these polysaccharides, and techniques like GPC-MS that allow for an analysis of oligosaccharide fragments in these mixtures.
Self-efficacy in caregivers of adults diagnosed with cancer: An integrative review.
Thomas Hebdon Megan C,Coombs Lorinda A,Reed Pamela,Crane Tracy E,Badger Terry A
European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
PURPOSE:Cancer caregivers experience health challenges related to their caregiving role, and self-efficacy can contribute to health outcomes through behavioral, environmental, and personal factors. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine self-efficacy in caregivers of adults diagnosed with cancer, including its association with health factors. METHOD:A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo yielded 560 articles. Following duplicate removal, 232 articles were screened for inclusion criteria with 71 articles remaining for final review. RESULTS:Studies were generally quantitative (n = 67), with predominantly female (n = 55), White (n = 36) caregivers, between the ages of 45-60 (n = 48). Self-efficacy was significantly associated with quality of life, caregiver function, social support, hope, depression, anxiety, and burden as a predictor, mediator, and outcome. Physical health and social determinants of health (social support and financial well-being) were addressed among fewer studies than mental and emotional health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Addressing self-efficacy in diverse populations and within physical, mental, and social health contexts will enhance understanding of how self-efficacy impacts caregivers of adults diagnosed with cancer. Nurses and other health care professionals can then effectively address supportive needs of caregivers in the personal, behavioral, and environmental domains.
Serum heparan sulfate concentration is correlated with the failure of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Nishio Makoto,Yamanaka Takeharu,Matsumoto Kazuko,Kimura Hideharu,Sakai Kazuko,Sakai Asao,Sone Takashi,Horiike Atsushi,Koizumi Fumiaki,Kasahara Kazuo,Ohira Tatsuo,Ikeda Norihiko,Saijo Nagahiro,Arao Tokuzo,Nishio Kazuto
Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
INTRODUCTION:The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status is a validated biomarker for the stratification of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its use is limited in patients with wild-type EGFR, and new biomarkers are needed. We hypothesized that the serum concentration of heparan sulfate (HS), which activates oncogenic growth factor receptor signaling through EGFR and non-EGFR signaling pathways, may be a novel glycobiological biomarker for EGFR-TKIs treatment in NSCLC. METHODS:The pretreatment serum HS concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 83 patients with stage IV non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma who received EGFR-TKIs treatment. The relationship between the serum HS concentrations and patient characteristics, tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS:Patient sex, performance status, smoking history, and EGFR mutation status were associated with tumor response. The serum HS concentrations were significantly higher among patients with progressive disease than among those without progressive disease (p = 0.003). Furthermore, the serum HS concentrations were strongly associated with a poor PFS and OS in a univariate Cox analysis (p = 0.0022 and p = 0.0003, respectively). A stratified multivariate Cox model according to the EGFR mutation status showed that higher HS concentrations were significantly associated with a shorter PFS and OS (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0003). CONCLUSION:We concluded that a high-serum HS concentration was strongly related to a poor treatment outcome of EGFR-TKIs and may be a promising noninvasive and repeatable glycobiological biomarker in cancer treatment.
Heparan sulfate differences in rheumatoid arthritis versus healthy sera.
Sabol Jenny K,Wei Wei,López-Hoyos Marcos,Seo Youjin,Andaya Armann,Leary Julie A
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex and highly variable polysaccharide, expressed ubiquitously on the cell surface as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and found in the extracellular matrix as free HS fragments. Its heterogeneity due to various acetylation and sulfation patterns endows a multitude of functions. In animal tissues, HS interacts with a wide range of proteins to mediate numerous biological activities; given its multiple roles in inflammation processes, characterization of HS in human serum has significant potential for elucidating disease mechanisms. Historically, investigation of HS was limited by its low concentration in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix. In this study, we used a modified mass spectrometry method to examine HS disaccharide profiles in the serum of 50 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared our results to 51 sera from healthy women. Using various purification methods and online LC-MS/MS, we discovered statistically significant differences in the sulfation and acetylation patterns between populations. Since early diagnosis of RA is considered important in decelerating the disease's progression, identification of specific biomolecule characterizations may provide crucial information towards developing new therapies for suppressing the disease in its early stages. This is the first report of potential glycosaminoglycan biomarkers for RA found in human sera, while acknowledging the obvious fact that a larger population set, and more stringent collection parameters, will need to be investigated in the future.
Urinary Glycosaminoglycans Predict Outcomes in Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Schmidt Eric P,Overdier Katherine H,Sun Xiaojun,Lin Lei,Liu Xinyue,Yang Yimu,Ammons Lee Anne,Hiller Terra D,Suflita Matt A,Yu Yanlei,Chen Yin,Zhang Fuming,Cothren Burlew Clay,Edelstein Charles L,Douglas Ivor S,Linhardt Robert J
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich layer lining the vascular lumen, is associated with the onset of kidney injury in animal models of critical illness. It is unclear if similar pathogenic degradation occurs in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES:To determine if urinary indices of GAG fragmentation are associated with outcomes in patients with critical illnesses such as septic shock or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS:We prospectively collected urine from 30 patients within 24 hours of admission to the Denver Health Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for septic shock. As a nonseptic ICU control, we collected urine from 25 surgical ICU patients admitted for trauma. As a medical ICU validation cohort, we obtained serially collected urine samples from 70 patients with ARDS. We performed mass spectrometry on urine samples to determine GAG (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) concentrations as well as patterns of heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate disaccharide sulfation. We compared these indices to measurements obtained using dimethylmethylene blue, an inexpensive, colorimetric urinary assay of sulfated GAGs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:In septic shock, indices of GAG fragmentation correlated with both the development of renal dysfunction over the 72 hours after urine collection and with hospital mortality. This association remained after controlling for severity of illness and was similarly observed using the inexpensive dimethylmethylene blue assay. These predictive findings were corroborated using urine samples previously collected at three consecutive time points from patients with ARDS. CONCLUSIONS:Early indices of urinary GAG fragmentation predict acute kidney injury and in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock or ARDS. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01900275).
Glycosaminoglycans in Human and Bovine Serum: Detection of Twenty-Four Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Motifs Including a Novel Sialic Acid-modified Chondroitin Sulfate Linkage Hexasaccharide.
Lu Hong,McDowell Lynda M,Studelska Daniel R,Zhang Lijuan
Heterogeneous heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides are important components of blood circulation. Changes in GAG quantity and structure in blood have been indicated in cancers and other human diseases. However, GAG quantities and structures have not been fully characterized due to lack of robust and sensitive analytical tools. To develop such tools, we isolated GAGs from serum and plasma. We employed liquid chromatography (LC) for GAG quantification and LC/mass spectrometry (MS) for GAG structural analysis. Twenty-four heparan and chondroitin sulfate motifs were identified, including linkage hexasaccharides, repeating disaccharide compositions, reducing, and non-reducing end mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide structures. Disaccharides were detectable at picomolar level without radiolabeling or derivitization, so only a few ml of human and fetal bovine serum was required for this study. The detection of different reducing end structures distinct from GAG linkage hexasaccharides revealed that free GAG chains generated by GAG degradation enzymes co-existed with proteoglycans in serum. In addition, a novel sialic acid-modified linkage hexasaccharide was found conjugated to bikunin, the most abundant serum proteoglycan.
Intrathecal heparan-N-sulfatase in patients with Sanfilippo syndrome type A: A phase IIb randomized trial.
Wijburg Frits A,Whitley Chester B,Muenzer Joseph,Gasperini Serena,Del Toro Mireia,Muschol Nicole,Cleary Maureen,Sevin Caroline,Shapiro Elsa,Bhargava Parul,Kerr Douglas,Alexanderian David
Molecular genetics and metabolism
BACKGROUND:Sanfilippo syndrome type A (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA) is a lysosomal disorder wherein deficient heparan-N-sulfatase (HNS) activity results in the accumulation of heparan sulfate in the central nervous system and is associated with progressive neurodegeneration in early childhood. We report on the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of intrathecal (IT) administration of recombinant human HNS (rhHNS) from a phase IIb randomized open-label trial. METHODS:Twenty-one patients, randomized 1:1:1 to rhHNS IT 45 mg administered every 2 weeks (Q2W), every 4 weeks (Q4W), or no treatment, were assessed for amelioration in neurocognitive decline as determined by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development®, Third Edition. The primary efficacy goal was defined as ≤10-point decline (responder) in at least three patients in a dosing cohort after 48 weeks. Other efficacy assessments included adaptive behavioral function, assessments of cortical gray matter volume, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels in urine. RESULTS:A clinical response to rhHNS IT was observed in three treated patients (two in the Q2W group, one in the Q4W group). Cerebrospinal fluid heparan sulfate and urine GAG levels were reduced in all treated patients. However, most secondary efficacy assessments were similar between treated patients (n = 14; age, 17.8-47.8 months) and untreated controls (n = 7; age, 12.6-45.0 months). Treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred with rhHNS IT were mostly mild, none led to study discontinuation, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSION:rhHNS IT treatment reduced heparan sulfate and GAG levels in treated patients. Though the primary neurocognitive endpoint was not met, important lessons in the design and endpoints for evaluation of cognitive and behavioral diseases resulted. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.govNCT02060526; EudraCT 2013-003450-24.
Heparan Sulfate-Editing Extracellular Sulfatases Enhance VEGF Bioavailability for Ischemic Heart Repair.
Korf-Klingebiel Mortimer,Reboll Marc R,Grote Karsten,Schleiner Hauke,Wang Yong,Wu Xuekun,Klede Stefanie,Mikhed Yuliya,Bauersachs Johann,Klintschar Michael,Rudat Carsten,Kispert Andreas,Niessen Hans W,Lübke Torben,Dierks Thomas,Wollert Kai C
RATIONALE:Mechanistic insight into the inflammatory response after acute myocardial infarction may inform new molecularly targeted treatment strategies to prevent chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE:We identified the sulfatase SULF2 in an in silico secretome analysis in bone marrow cells from patients with acute myocardial infarction and detected increased sulfatase activity in myocardial autopsy samples. SULF2 (Sulf2 in mice) and its isoform SULF1 (Sulf1) act as endosulfatases removing 6--sulfate groups from heparan sulfate (HS) in the extracellular space, thus eliminating docking sites for HS-binding proteins. We hypothesized that the Sulfs have a role in tissue repair after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS:Both Sulfs were dynamically upregulated after coronary artery ligation in mice, attaining peak expression and activity levels during the first week after injury. Sulf2 was expressed by monocytes and macrophages, Sulf1 by endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Infarct border zone capillarization was impaired, scar size increased, and cardiac dysfunction more pronounced in mice with a genetic deletion of either Sulf1 or Sulf2. Studies in bone marrow-chimeric Sulf-deficient mice and Sulf-deficient cardiac endothelial cells established that inflammatory cell-derived Sulf2 and endothelial cell-autonomous Sulf1 promote angiogenesis. Mechanistically, both Sulfs reduced HS sulfation in the infarcted myocardium, thereby diminishing Vegfa (vascular endothelial growth factor A) interaction with HS. Along this line, both Sulfs rendered infarcted mouse heart explants responsive to the angiogenic effects of HS-binding Vegfa but did not modulate the angiogenic effects of non-HS-binding Vegfa. Treating wild-type mice systemically with the small molecule HS-antagonist surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, 1 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after myocardial infarction released Vegfa from HS, enhanced infarct border-zone capillarization, and exerted sustained beneficial effects on cardiac function and survival. CONCLUSIONS:These findings establish HS-editing Sulfs as critical inducers of postinfarction angiogenesis and identify HS sulfation as a therapeutic target for ischemic tissue repair.
Heparan sulfate S-domains and extracellular sulfatases (Sulfs): their possible roles in protein aggregation diseases.
Highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate (HS), also known as HS S-domains, consist of repeated trisulfated disaccharide units [iduronic acid (2S)-glucosamine (NS, 6S)-]. The expression of HS S-domains at the cell surface is determined by two mechanisms: tightly regulated biosynthetic machinery and enzymatic remodeling by extracellular endoglucosamine 6-sulfatases, Sulf-1 and Sulf-2. Intracellular or extracellular deposits of misfolded and aggregated proteins are characteristic of protein aggregation diseases. Although proteins can aggregate alone, deposits of protein aggregates in vivo contain a number of proteinaceous and non-protein components. HS S-domains are one non-protein component of these aggregated deposits. HS S-domains are considered to be critical for signal transduction of several growth factors and several disease conditions, such as tumor progression, but their roles in protein aggregation diseases are not yet fully understood. This review summarizes the current understanding of the possible roles of HS S-domains and Sulfs in the formation and cytotoxicity of protein aggregates.
Sequencing Heparan Sulfate Using HILIC LC-NETD-MS/MS.
Wu Jiandong,Wei Juan,Chopra Pradeep,Boons Geert-Jan,Lin Cheng,Zaia Joseph
Heparan sulfate (HS) mediates a wide range of protein binding interactions key to normal and pathological physiology. Though liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based disaccharide composition analysis is able to profile changes in HS composition, the heterogeneity of modifications and the labile sulfate group present major challenges for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) sequencing of the HS oligosaccharides that represent protein binding determinants. Here, we report online LC-MS/MS sequencing of HS oligosaccharides using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD). A series of synthetic HS oligosaccharides varying in chain length (tetramers and hexamers), number of sulfate groups (3-7), sulfate patterns (sulfate positional isomers), and uronic acid epimerization (epimers) were separated and sequenced. The LC elution order of isomeric compounds was associated with their fine structure. The application of an online cation exchange device (ion suppressor) enhanced the precursor charge states, and the subsequent NETD produced abundant glycosidic fragments, allowing the characterization of both lowly sulfated and highly sulfated HS oligosaccharides. Furthermore, the diagnostic cross-ring ions differentiated the 6- sulfation and 3- sulfation, allowing unambiguous structural assignment. Collectively, this LC-NETD-MS/MS method is a powerful tool for sequencing of heterogeneous HS mixtures and is applicable for the differentiation of both isomers and epimers, for the characterization of saccharide mixtures with a varying extent of sulfation and even for the determination of both predominant and rare modification motifs. Thus, LC-NETD-MS/MS has great potential for further application to biological studies.
The role of heparan sulfate in host macrophage infection by species.
Maciej-Hulme Marissa L,Skidmore Mark A,Price Helen P
Biochemical Society transactions
The leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by parasites from the genus. More than 20 species are responsible for human disease, causing a broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from cutaneous lesions to a fatal visceral infection. There is no single safe and effective approach to treat these diseases and resistance to current anti-leishmanial drugs is emerging. New drug targets need to be identified and validated to generate novel treatments. Host heparan sulfates (HSs) are abundant, heterogeneous polysaccharides displayed on proteoglycans that bind various ligands, including cell surface proteins expressed on promastigote and amastigote parasites. The fine chemical structure of HS is formed by a plethora of specific enzymes during biosynthesis, with various positions (N-, 2-O-, 6-O- and 3-O-) on the carbon sugar backbone modified with sulfate groups. Post-biosynthesis mechanisms can further modify the sulfation pattern or size of the polysaccharide, altering ligand affinity to moderate biological functions. Chemically modified heparins used to mimic the heterogeneous nature of HS influence the affinity of different species, demonstrating the importance of specific HS chemical sequences in parasite interaction. However, the endogenous structures of host HSs that might interact with parasites during host invasion have not been elucidated, nor has the role of HSs in host-parasite biology. Decoding the structure of HSs on target host cells will increase understanding of HS/parasite interactions in leishmaniasis, potentiating identification of new opportunities for the development of novel treatments.
Circulating heparan sulfate fragments mediate septic cognitive dysfunction.
Hippensteel Joseph A,Anderson Brian J,Orfila James E,McMurtry Sarah A,Dietz Robert M,Su Guowei,Ford Joshay A,Oshima Kaori,Yang Yimu,Zhang Fuming,Han Xiaorui,Yu Yanlei,Liu Jian,Linhardt Robert J,Meyer Nuala J,Herson Paco S,Schmidt Eric P
The Journal of clinical investigation
Septic patients frequently develop cognitive impairment that persists beyond hospital discharge. The impact of sepsis on electrophysiological and molecular determinants of learning is underexplored. We observed that mice that survived sepsis or endotoxemia experienced loss of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated (BDNF-mediated) process responsible for spatial memory formation. Memory impairment occurred despite preserved hippocampal BDNF content and could be reversed by stimulation of BDNF signaling, suggesting the presence of a local BDNF inhibitor. Sepsis is associated with degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, releasing heparan sulfate fragments (of sufficient size and sulfation to bind BDNF) into the circulation. Heparan sulfate fragments penetrated the hippocampal blood-brain barrier during sepsis and inhibited BDNF-mediated LTP. Glycoarray approaches demonstrated that the avidity of heparan sulfate for BDNF increased with sulfation at the 2-O position of iduronic acid and the N position of glucosamine. Circulating heparan sulfate in endotoxemic mice and septic humans was enriched in 2-O- and N-sulfated disaccharides; furthermore, the presence of these sulfation patterns in the plasma of septic patients at intensive care unit (ICU) admission predicted persistent cognitive impairment 14 days after ICU discharge or at hospital discharge. Our findings indicate that circulating 2-O- and N-sulfated heparan sulfate fragments contribute to septic cognitive impairment.
New tools for carbohydrate sulfation analysis: heparan sulfate 2--sulfotransferase (HS2ST) is a target for small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors.
Byrne Dominic P,Li Yong,Ramakrishnan Krithika,Barsukov Igor L,Yates Edwin A,Eyers Claire E,Papy-Garcia Dulcé,Chantepie Sandrine,Pagadala Vijayakanth,Liu Jian,Wells Carrow,Drewry David H,Zuercher William J,Berry Neil G,Fernig David G,Eyers Patrick A
The Biochemical journal
Sulfation of carbohydrate residues occurs on a variety of glycans destined for secretion, and this modification is essential for efficient matrix-based signal transduction. Heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans control physiological functions ranging from blood coagulation to cell proliferation. HS biosynthesis involves membrane-bound Golgi sulfotransferases, including HS 2--sulfotransferase (HS2ST), which transfers sulfate from the cofactor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the 2- position of α-l-iduronate in the maturing polysaccharide chain. The current lack of simple non-radioactive enzyme assays that can be used to quantify the levels of carbohydrate sulfation hampers kinetic analysis of this process and the discovery of HS2ST inhibitors. In the present paper, we describe a new procedure for thermal shift analysis of purified HS2ST. Using this approach, we quantify HS2ST-catalysed oligosaccharide sulfation using a novel synthetic fluorescent substrate and screen the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set, to evaluate compounds that inhibit catalysis. We report the susceptibility of HS2ST to a variety of cell-permeable compounds , including polyanionic polar molecules, the protein kinase inhibitor rottlerin and oxindole-based RAF kinase inhibitors. In a related study, published back-to-back with the present study, we demonstrated that tyrosyl protein sulfotranferases are also inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors. We propose that appropriately validated small-molecule compounds could become new tools for rapid inhibition of glycan (and protein) sulfation in cells, and that protein kinase inhibitors might be repurposed or redesigned for the specific inhibition of HS2ST.
NDST2 (N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase-2) Enzyme Regulates Heparan Sulfate Chain Length.
Deligny Audrey,Dierker Tabea,Dagälv Anders,Lundequist Anders,Eriksson Inger,Nairn Alison V,Moremen Kelley W,Merry Catherine L R,Kjellén Lena
The Journal of biological chemistry
Analysis of heparan sulfate synthesized by HEK 293 cells overexpressing murine NDST1 and/or NDST2 demonstrated that the amount of heparan sulfate was increased in NDST2- but not in NDST1-overexpressing cells. Altered transcript expression of genes encoding other biosynthetic enzymes or proteoglycan core proteins could not account for the observed changes. However, the role of NDST2 in regulating the amount of heparan sulfate synthesized was confirmed by analyzing heparan sulfate content in tissues isolated from Ndst2(-/-) mice, which contained reduced levels of the polysaccharide. Detailed disaccharide composition analysis showed no major structural difference between heparan sulfate from control and Ndst2(-/-) tissues, with the exception of heparan sulfate from spleen where the relative amount of trisulfated disaccharides was lowered in the absence of NDST2. In vivo transcript expression levels of the heparan sulfate-polymerizing enzymes Ext1 and Ext2 were also largely unaffected by NDST2 levels, pointing to a mode of regulation other than increased gene transcription. Size estimation of heparan sulfate polysaccharide chains indicated that increased chain lengths in NDST2-overexpressing cells alone could explain the increased heparan sulfate content. A model is discussed where NDST2-specific substrate modification stimulates elongation resulting in increased heparan sulfate chain length.
Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the quantitation of heparan sulfate in human urine.
Wang Kai,Li Ming,Xiao Yijin,Ma Mark,Hu Wei,Liang Tao,Lin Zhongping John
Biomedical chromatography : BMC
Heparan sulfate is a linear polysaccharide and serves as an important biomarker to monitor patient response to therapies for MPS III disorder. It is challenging to analyze heparan sulfate intact owing to its complexity and heterogeneity. Therefore, a sensitive, robust and validated LC-MS/MS method is needed to support the clinical studies for the quantitation of heparan sulfate in biofluids under regulated settings. Presented in this work are the results of the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of heparan sulfate in human urine using selected high-abundant disaccharides as surrogates. During sample processing, a combination of analytical technologies have been employed, including rapid digestion, filtration, solid-phase extraction and chemical derivatization. The validated method is highly sensitive and is able to analyze heparan sulfate in urine samples from healthy donors. Disaccharide constitution analysis in urine samples from 25 healthy donors was performed using the assay and demonstrated the proof of concept of using selected disaccharides as a surrogate for validation and quantitation.
Hepatic heparan sulfate is a master regulator of hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis in human hepatocytes and mice.
Poli Maura,Anower-E-Khuda Ferdous,Asperti Michela,Ruzzenenti Paola,Gryzik Magdalena,Denardo Andrea,Gordts Philip L S M,Arosio Paolo,Esko Jeffrey D
The Journal of biological chemistry
Hepcidin is a liver-derived peptide hormone that controls systemic iron homeostasis. Its expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)/SMAD1/5/8 pathway and by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6). Proteoglycans that function as receptors of these signaling proteins in the liver are commonly decorated by heparan sulfate, but the potential role of hepatic heparan sulfate in hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis is unclear. Here, we show that modulation of hepatic heparan sulfate significantly alters hepcidin expression and iron metabolism both and Specifically, enzymatic removal of heparan sulfate from primary human hepatocytes, CRISPR/Cas9 manipulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis in human hepatoma cells, or pharmacological manipulation of heparan sulfate-protein interactions using sodium chlorate or surfen dramatically reduced baseline and BMP6/SMAD1/5/8-dependent hepcidin expression. Moreover inactivation of the heparan sulfate biosynthetic gene () in murine hepatocytes ( ) reduced hepatic hepcidin expression and caused a redistribution of systemic iron, leading to iron accumulation in the liver and serum of mice. Manipulation of heparan sulfate had a similar effect on IL6-dependent hepcidin expression and suppressed IL6-mediated iron redistribution induced by lipopolysaccharide These results provide compelling evidence that hepatocyte heparan sulfate plays a key role in regulating hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis in mice and in human hepatocytes.
Synthesis of selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis.
Mencio Caitlin,Garud Dinesh R,Kuberan Balagurunathan,Koketsu Mamoru
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans are involved in a wide variety of developmental and pathophysiological functions. Similar to a gene knockout, the ability to inhibit GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the function of endogenous GAG chains. However, ubiquitously and irreversibly knocking out all GAG biosynthesis would cause multiple effects making it difficult to attribute a specific biological role to a specific GAG structure in spatiotemporal manner. Reversible and selective inhibition of GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the importance of endogenous GAGs to specific cellular, tissue, or organ systems. In this chapter, we describe the chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-xylosides as selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis.
C5-epimerase and 2-O-sulfotransferase associate in vitro to generate contiguous epimerized and 2-O-sulfated heparan sulfate domains.
Préchoux Aurélie,Halimi Célia,Simorre Jean-Pierre,Lortat-Jacob Hugues,Laguri Cédric
ACS chemical biology
Heparan sulfate (HS), a complex polysaccharide of the cell surface, is endowed with the remarkable ability to bind numerous proteins and, as such, regulates a large variety of biological processes. Protein binding depends on HS structure; however, in the absence of a template driving its biosynthesis, the mechanism by which protein binding sequences are assembled remains poorly known. Here, we developed a chemically defined 13C-labeled substrate and NMR based experiments to simultaneously follow in real time the activity of HS biosynthetic enzymes and characterize the reaction products. Using this new approach, we report that the association of C5-epimerase and 2-O-sulfotransferase, which catalyze the production of iduronic acid and its 2-O-sulfation, respectively, is necessary to processively generate extended sequences of contiguous IdoA2S-containing disaccharides, whereas modifications are randomly introduced when the enzymes are uncoupled. These data shed light on the mechanisms by which HS motifs are generated during biosynthesis. They support the view that HS structure assembly is controlled not only by the availability of the biosynthetic enzymes but also by their physical association, which in the case of the C5-epimerase and 2-O-sulfotransferase was characterized by an affinity of 80 nM as demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance experiments.
Tissue-specificity of heparan sulfate biosynthetic machinery in cancer.
Suhovskih Anastasia V,Domanitskaya Natalya V,Tsidulko Alexandra Y,Prudnikova Tatiana Y,Kashuba Vladimir I,Grigorieva Elvira V
Cell adhesion & migration
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are key components of cell microenvironment and fine structure of their polysaccharide HS chains plays an important role in cell-cell interactions, adhesion, migration and signaling. It is formed on non-template basis, so, structure and functional activity of HS biosynthetic machinery is crucial for correct HS biosynthesis and post-synthetic modification. To reveal cancer-related changes in transcriptional pattern of HS biosynthetic system, the expression of HS metabolism-involved genes (EXT1/2, NDST1/2, GLCE, 3OST1/HS3ST1, SULF1/2, HPSE) in human normal (fibroblasts, PNT2) and cancer (MCF7, LNCaP, PC3, DU145, H157, H647, A549, U2020, U87, HT116, KRC/Y) cell lines and breast, prostate, colon tumors was studied. Real-time RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses revealed specific transcriptional patterns and expression levels of HS biosynthetic system both in different cell lines in vitro and cancers in vivo. Balance between transcriptional activities of elongation- and post-synthetic modification- involved genes was suggested as most informative parameter for HS biosynthetic machinery characterization. Normal human fibroblasts showed elongation-oriented HS biosynthesis, while PNT2 prostate epithelial cells had modification-oriented one. However, cancer epithelial cells demonstrated common tendency to acquire fibroblast-like elongation-oriented mode of HS biosynthetic system. Surprisingly, aggressive metastatic cancer cells (U2020, DU145, KRC/Y) retained modification-oriented HS biosynthesis similar to normal PNT2 cells, possibly enabling the cells to keep like-to-normal cell surface glycosylation pattern to escape antimetastatic control. The obtained results show the cell type-specific changes of HS-biosynthetic machinery in cancer cells in vitro and tissue-specific changes in different cancers in vivo, supporting a close involvement of HS biosynthetic system in carcinogenesis.
Heparan sulfate chains of syndecan-1 regulate ectodomain shedding.
Ramani Vishnu C,Pruett Pamela S,Thompson Camilla A,DeLucas Lawrence D,Sanderson Ralph D
The Journal of biological chemistry
Matrix metalloproteinases release intact syndecan-1 ectodomains from the cell surface giving rise to a soluble, shed form of the proteoglycan. Although it is known that shed syndecan-1 controls diverse pathophysiological responses in cancer, wound healing, inflammation, infection, and immunity, the mechanisms regulating shedding remain unclear. We have discovered that the heparan sulfate chains present on syndecan core proteins suppress shedding of the proteoglycan. Syndecan shedding is dramatically enhanced when the heparan sulfate chains are enzymatically degraded or absent from the core protein. Exogenous heparan sulfate or heparin does not inhibit shedding, indicating that heparan sulfate must be attached to the core protein to suppress shedding. Regulation of shedding by heparan sulfate occurs in multiple cell types, for both syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 and in murine and human syndecans. Mechanistically, the loss of heparan sulfate enhances the susceptibility of the core protein to proteolytic cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases. Enhanced shedding of syndecan-1 following loss of heparan sulfate is accompanied by a dramatic increase in core protein synthesis. This suggests that in response to an increase in the rate of shedding, cells attempt to maintain a significant level of syndecan-1 on the cell surface. Together these data indicate that the amount of heparan sulfate present on syndecan core proteins regulates both the rate of syndecan shedding and core protein synthesis. These findings assign new functions to heparan sulfate chains, thereby broadening our understanding of their physiological importance and implying that therapeutic inhibition of heparan sulfate degradation could impact the progression of some diseases.
Expression and purification of recombinant extracellular sulfatase HSulf-2 allows deciphering of enzyme sub-domain coordinated role for the binding and 6-O-desulfation of heparan sulfate.
Seffouh Amal,El Masri Rana,Makshakova Olga,Gout Evelyne,Hassoun Zahra El Oula,Andrieu Jean-Pierre,Lortat-Jacob Hugues,Vivès Romain R
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Through their ability to edit 6-O-sulfation pattern of Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides, Sulf extracellular endosulfatases have emerged as critical regulators of many biological processes, including tumor progression. However, study of Sulfs remains extremely intricate and progress in characterizing their functional and structural features has been hampered by limited access to recombinant enzyme. In this study, we unlock this critical bottleneck, by reporting an efficient expression and purification system of recombinant HSulf-2 in mammalian HEK293 cells. This novel source of enzyme enabled us to investigate the way the enzyme domain organization dictates its functional properties. By generating mutants, we confirmed previous studies that HSulf-2 catalytic (CAT) domain was sufficient to elicit arylsulfatase activity and that its hydrophilic (HD) domain was necessary for the enzyme 6-O-endosulfatase activity. However, we demonstrated for the first time that high-affinity binding of HS substrates occurred through the coordinated action of both domains, and we identified and characterized 2 novel HS binding sites within the CAT domain. Altogether, our findings contribute to better understand the molecular mechanism governing HSulf-2 substrate recognition and processing. Furthermore, access to purified recombinant protein opens new perspectives for the resolution of HSulf structure and molecular features, as well as for the development of Sulf-specific inhibitors.
The "in and out" of glucosamine 6-O-sulfation: the 6th sense of heparan sulfate.
El Masri Rana,Seffouh Amal,Lortat-Jacob Hugues,Vivès Romain R
The biological properties of Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides essentially rely on their ability to bind and modulate a multitude of protein ligands. These interactions involve internal oligosaccharide sequences defined by their sulfation patterns. Amongst these, the 6-O-sulfation of HS contributes significantly to the polysaccharide structural diversity and is critically involved in the binding of many proteins. HS 6-O-sulfation is catalyzed by 6-O-sulfotransferases (6OSTs) during biosynthesis, and it is further modified by the post-synthetic action of 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs), two enzyme families that remain poorly characterized. The aim of the present review is to summarize the contribution of 6-O-sulfates in HS structure/function relationships and to discuss the present knowledge on the complex mechanisms regulating HS 6-O-sulfation.
Single-entity heparan sulfate glycomimetic clusters for therapeutic applications.
Tyler Peter C,Guimond Scott E,Turnbull Jeremy E,Zubkova Olga V
Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan with a variety of critical functions in cell signaling and regulation. HS oligosaccharides can mimic or interfere with HS functions in biological systems; however, their exploitation has been hindered by the complexity of their synthesis. Polyvalent displays of small specific HS structures on dendritic cores offer more accessible constructs with potential advantages as therapeutics, but the synthesis of single-entity HS polyvalent compounds has not previously been described. Herein we report the synthesis of a novel targeted library of single-entity glycomimetic clusters capped with varied HS saccharides. They have the ability to mimic longer natural HS saccharides in their inhibition of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) protease BACE-1. We have identified several single-entity HS clusters with IC50 values in the low-nanomolar range. These HS clusters are drug leads for AD and offer a novel framework for the manipulation of heparan sulfate-protein interactions in general.
"Coding" and "Decoding": hypothesis for the regulatory mechanism involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis.
Zhang Xu,Wang Fengshan,Sheng Juzheng
Heparan sulfate (HS) is widely distributed in mammalian tissues in the form of HS proteoglycans, which play essential roles in various physiological and pathological processes. In contrast to the template-guided processes involved in the synthesis of DNA and proteins, HS biosynthesis is not believed to involve a template. However, it appears that the final structure of HS chains was strictly regulated. Herein, we report research based hypothesis that two major steps, namely "coding" and "decoding" steps, are involved in the biosynthesis of HS, which strictly regulate its chemical structure and biological activity. The "coding" process in this context is based on the distribution of sulfate moieties on the amino groups of the glucosamine residues in the HS chains. The sulfation of these amine groups is catalyzed by N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase, which has four isozymes. The composition and distribution of sulfate groups and iduronic acid residues on the glycan chains of HS are determined by several other modification enzymes, which can recognize these coding sequences (i.e., the "decoding" process). The degree and pattern of the sulfation and epimerization in the HS chains determines the extent of their interactions with several different protein factors, which further influences their biological activity.
Pectin of Prunus domestica L. alters sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate in differentiated Caco-2 cells through stimulation of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase-2.
Nishida Mitsutaka,Murata Kazuma,Kanamaru Yoshihiro,Yabe Tomio
Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
Although previous reports have suggested that pectin induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. As heparan sulfate plays important roles in development of the small intestine, to verify the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) in the pectin-induced morphological changes of the small intestine, the effects of pectin from Prunus domestica L. on cell-surface HS were investigated using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Disaccharide compositional analysis revealed that sulfated structures of HS were markedly changed by pectin administration. Real-time RT-PCR showed that pectin upregulated human HS 6-O-endosulfatase-2 (HSulf-2) expression and markedly inhibited HSulf-1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition analysis suggested that pretreatment with fibronectin III1C fragment, RGD peptide, and ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed pectin-induced HSulf-2 expression. These observations indicate that pectin induced the expression of HSulf-2 through the interaction with fibronectin, α5β1 integrin, and ERK1/2, thereby regulating the sulfated structure of HS on differentiated Caco-2 cells.
An integrated approach using orthogonal analytical techniques to characterize heparan sulfate structure.
Beccati Daniela,Lech Miroslaw,Ozug Jennifer,Gunay Nur Sibel,Wang Jing,Sun Elaine Y,Pradines Joël R,Farutin Victor,Shriver Zachary,Kaundinya Ganesh V,Capila Ishan
Heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan present on the surface of cells, has been postulated to have important roles in driving both normal and pathological physiologies. The chemical structure and sulfation pattern (domain structure) of HS is believed to determine its biological function, to vary across tissue types, and to be modified in the context of disease. Characterization of HS requires isolation and purification of cell surface HS as a complex mixture. This process may introduce additional chemical modification of the native residues. In this study, we describe an approach towards thorough characterization of bovine kidney heparan sulfate (BKHS) that utilizes a variety of orthogonal analytical techniques (e.g. NMR, IP-RPHPLC, LC-MS). These techniques are applied to characterize this mixture at various levels including composition, fragment level, and overall chain properties. The combination of these techniques in many instances provides orthogonal views into the fine structure of HS, and in other instances provides overlapping / confirmatory information from different perspectives. Specifically, this approach enables quantitative determination of natural and modified saccharide residues in the HS chains, and identifies unusual structures. Analysis of partially digested HS chains allows for a better understanding of the domain structures within this mixture, and yields specific insights into the non-reducing end and reducing end structures of the chains. This approach outlines a useful framework that can be applied to elucidate HS structure and thereby provides means to advance understanding of its biological role and potential involvement in disease progression. In addition, the techniques described here can be applied to characterization of heparin from different sources.
A mutant-cell library for systematic analysis of heparan sulfate structure-function relationships.
Qiu Hong,Shi Songshan,Yue Jingwen,Xin Meng,Nairn Alison V,Lin Lei,Liu Xinyue,Li Guoyun,Archer-Hartmann Stephanie A,Dela Rosa Mitche,Galizzi Melina,Wang Shunchun,Zhang Fuming,Azadi Parastoo,van Kuppevelt Toin H,Cardoso Wellington V,Kimata Koji,Ai Xingbin,Moremen Kelley W,Esko Jeffrey D,Linhardt Robert J,Wang Lianchun
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex linear polysaccharide that modulates a wide range of biological functions. Elucidating the structure-function relationship of HS has been challenging. Here we report the generation of an HS-mutant mouse lung endothelial cell library by systematic deletion of HS genes expressed in the cell. We used this library to (1) determine that the strictly defined fine structure of HS, not its overall degree of sulfation, is more important for FGF2-FGFR1 signaling; (2) define the epitope features of commonly used anti-HS phage display antibodies; and (3) delineate the fine inter-regulation networks by which HS genes modify HS and chain length in mammalian cells at a cell-type-specific level. Our mutant-cell library will allow robust and systematic interrogation of the roles and related structures of HS in a cellular context.
Increased deposition of glycosaminoglycans and altered structure of heparan sulfate in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Westergren-Thorsson Gunilla,Hedström Ulf,Nybom Annika,Tykesson Emil,Åhrman Emma,Hornfelt Marie,Maccarana Marco,van Kuppevelt Toin H,Dellgren Göran,Wildt Marie,Zhou Xiao-Hong,Eriksson Leif,Bjermer Leif,Hallgren Oskar
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents, including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), that may play a role in remodelling processes by influencing critical mediators such as growth factors. We hypothesize that GAGs may be altered in IPF and that this contribute to create a pro-fibrotic environment. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the fine structure of heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) and hyaluronan (HA) in lung samples from IPF patients and from control subjects. GAGs in lung samples from severe IPF patients and donor lungs were analyzed with HPLC. HS was assessed by immunohistochemistry and collagen was quantified as hydroxyproline content. The total amount of HS, CS/DS and HA was increased in IPF lungs but there was no significant difference in the total collagen content. We found a relative increase in total sulfation of HS due to increment of 2-O, 6-O and N-sulfation and a higher proportion of sulfation in CS/DS. Highly sulfated HS was located in the border zone between denser areas and more normal looking alveolar parenchyma in basement membranes of blood vessels and airways, that were immuno-positive for perlecan, as well as on the cell surface of spindle-shaped cells in the alveolar interstitium. These findings show for the first time that both the amount and structure of glycosaminoglycans are altered in IPF. These changes may contribute to the tissue remodelling in IPF by altering growth factor retention and activity, creating a pro-fibrotic ECM landscape.
Heparan Sulfate in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Bartolini Barbara,Caravà Elena,Caon Ilaria,Parnigoni Arianna,Moretto Paola,Passi Alberto,Vigetti Davide,Viola Manuela,Karousou Evgenia
Advances in experimental medicine and biology
The biology of tumor cells strictly depends on their microenvironment architecture and composition, which controls the availability of growth factors and signaling molecules. Thus, the network of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and proteins known as extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds the cells plays a central role in the regulation of tumor fate. Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are highly versatile ECM components that bind and regulate the activity of growth factors, cell membrane receptors, and other ECM molecules. These HS binding partners modulate cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation that are processes altered during tumor progression. Modification in the expression and activity of HS, HSPGs, and the respective metabolic enzymes results unavoidably in alteration of tumor cell microenvironment. In this light, the targeting of HS structure and metabolism is potentially a new tool in the treatment of different cancer types.
Implications of Heparan Sulfate and Heparanase in Amyloid Diseases.
Li Jin-Ping,Zhang Xiao
Advances in experimental medicine and biology
Amyloidosis refers to a group of diseases characterized by abnormal deposition of denatured endogenous proteins, termed amyloid, in the affected organs. Analysis of biopsy and autopsy tissues from patients revealed the presence of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) along with amyloid proteins in the deposits. For a long time, HSPGs were believed to occur in the deposits as an innocent bystander. Yet, the consistent presence of HSPGs in various deposits, regardless of the amyloid species, led to the hypothesis that these macromolecular glycoconjugates might play functional roles in the pathological process of amyloidosis. In vitro studies have revealed that HSPGs, or more precisely, the heparan sulfate (HS) side chains interact with amyloid peptides, thus promoting amyloid fibrillization. Although information on the mechanisms of HS participation in amyloid deposition is limited, recent studies involving a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease point to an active role of HS in amyloid formation. Heparanase cleavage alters the molecular structure of HS, and thus modulates the functional roles of HS in homeostasis, as well as in diseases, including amyloidosis. The heparanase transgenic mice have provided models for unveiling the effects of heparanase, through cleavage of HS, in various amyloidosis conditions.
Heparan Sulfate Structure Affects Autophagy, Lifespan, Responses to Oxidative Stress, and Cell Degeneration in Mutants.
Reynolds-Peterson Claire,Xu Jie,Zhao Na,Cruse Casey,Yonel Brandon,Trasorras Claire,Toyoda Hidenao,Kinoshita-Toyoda Akiko,Dobson Jennifer,Schultheis Nicholas,Jiang Mei,Selleck Scott
G3 (Bethesda, Md.)
Autophagy is a catabolic process that provides cells with energy and molecular building blocks during nutritional stress. Autophagy also removes misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, a critical mechanism for cellular repair. Earlier work demonstrated that heparan sulfate proteoglycans, an abundant class of carbohydrate-modified proteins found on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix, suppress basal levels of autophagy in several cell types during development in In studies reported here, we examined the capacity of heparan sulfate synthesis to influence events affected by autophagy, including lifespan, resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress, and accumulation of ubiquitin-modified proteins in the brain. Compromising heparan sulfate synthesis increased autophagy-dependent processes, evident by extended lifespan, increased resistance to ROS, and reduced accumulation of ubiquitin-modified proteins in the brains of ROS exposed adults. The capacity of altering heparan sulfate biosynthesis to protect cells from injury was also evaluated in two different models of neurodegeneration, overexpression of Presenilin and mutants. Presenilin overexpression in the retina produces cell loss, and compromising heparan sulfate biosynthesis rescued retinal patterning and size abnormalities in these animals. is the fly homolog of human , one of the genes responsible for juvenile onset Parkinson's Disease. Parkin is involved in mitochondrial surveillance and compromising function results in degeneration of both flight muscle and dopaminergic neurons in Altering heparan sulfate biosynthesis suppressed flight muscle degeneration and mitochondrial dysmorphology, indicating that activation of autophagy-mediated removal of mitochondria (mitophagy) is potentiated in these animals. These findings provide evidence that altering the levels of heparan sulfate synthesis activates autophagy and can provide protection from a variety of cellular stressors.
Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer.
Couchman John R,Multhaupt Hinke,Sanderson Ralph D
A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and regulate important cell processes, such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Since many protein ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines, are also implicated in tumour progression, it is increasingly apparent that cell surface proteoglycans impact tumour cell behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton.
Overexpression of different isoforms of glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase results in distinct heparan sulfate N-sulfation patterns.
Pikas D S,Eriksson I,Kjellén L
Functional interactions of heparan sulfate (HS) with selected proteins depend on distinct saccharide sequences which are generated during biosynthesis of the polysaccharide. Glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases (NDSTs) catalyze both the N-deacetylation and N-sulfation reactions that initiate the modification of the (GlcNAc-GlcA)(n) polysaccharide backbone. The N-acetyl/N-sulfate exchange is restricted to certain regions of the polysaccharide chains, and only these can be further modified by glucuronyl C5-epimerization and O-sulfation at various positions. To investigate whether NDST isoforms influenced differently the structure of HS, murine NDST-1 was overexpressed in human kidney 293 cells, and the structure of the HS produced was compared to HS from NDST-2 overexpressing cells [Cheung, W. F., Eriksson, I., Kusche-Gullberg M., Lindahl, U., and Kjellén, L. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 5250-5256]. The level of N-sulfation increased from 40% in control cells to 60% and 80%, respectively, in NDST-1 and NDST-2 transfected cells. Interestingly, the increase in N-sulfation was accompanied by an increased chain length, while no effect on IdoA content or O-sulfation was seen. The most extended N-sulfated domains were found in HS synthesized by NDST-2 transfected cells. Since both the N-deacetylase and the N-sulfotransferase activities were lower in these cells than in the NDST-1 overexpressing cells, we conclude that, in addition to the level of enzyme expression, the NDST isoform also is important in determining the N-sulfation pattern in HS.
Heparan sulfate biosynthesis enzymes EXT1 and EXT2 affect NDST1 expression and heparan sulfate sulfation.
Presto Jenny,Thuveson Maria,Carlsson Pernilla,Busse Marta,Wilén Maria,Eriksson Inger,Kusche-Gullberg Marion,Kjellén Lena
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans influence embryonic development and adult physiology through interactions with protein ligands. The interactions depend on HS structure, which is determined largely during biosynthesis by Golgi enzymes. How biosynthesis is regulated is more or less unknown. During polymerization of the HS chain, carried out by a complex of the exostosin proteins EXT1 and EXT2, the first modification enzyme, glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST), introduces N-sulfate groups into the growing polymer. Unexpectedly, we found that the level of expression of EXT1 and EXT2 affected the amount of NDST1 present in the cell, which, in turn, greatly influenced HS structure. Whereas overexpression of EXT2 in HEK 293 cells enhanced NDST1 expression, increased NDST1 N-glycosylation, and resulted in elevated HS sulfation, overexpression of EXT1 had opposite effects. Accordingly, heart tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing EXT2 showed increased NDST activity. Immunoprecipitaion experiments suggested an interaction between EXT2 and NDST1. We speculate that NDST1 competes with EXT1 for binding to EXT2. Increased NDST activity in fibroblasts with a gene trap mutation in EXT1 supports this notion. These results support a model in which the enzymes of HS biosynthesis form a complex, or a GAGosome.
Heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases: discrete in vivo activities and functional co-operativity.
Lamanna William C,Baldwin Rebecca J,Padva Michael,Kalus Ina,Ten Dam Gerdy,van Kuppevelt Toin H,Gallagher John T,von Figura Kurt,Dierks Thomas,Merry Catherine L R
The Biochemical journal
HS (heparan sulfate) is essential for normal embryonic development. This requirement is due to the obligatory role for HS in the signalling pathways of many growth factors and morphogens that bind to sulfated domains in the HS polymer chain. The sulfation patterning of HS is determined by a complex interplay of Golgi-located N- and O-sulfotransferases which sulfate the heparan precursor and cell surface endosulfatases that selectively remove 6-O-sulfates from mature HS chains. In the present study we generated single or double knock-out mice for the two murine endosulfatases mSulf1 and mSulf2. Detailed structural analysis of HS from mSulf1-/- fibroblasts showed a striking increase in 6-O-sulfation, which was not seen in mSulf2-/- HS. Intriguingly, the level of 6-O-sulfation in the double mSulf1-/-/2-/- HS was significantly higher than that observed in the mSulf1-/- counterpart. These data imply that mSulf1 and mSulf2 are functionally co-operative. Unlike their avian orthologues, mammalian Sulf activities are not restricted to the highly sulfated S-domains of HS. Mitogenesis assays with FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor 2) revealed that Sulf activity decreases the activating potential of newly-synthesized HS, suggesting an important role for these enzymes in cell growth regulation in embryonic and adult tissues.
Organ-specific heparan sulfate structural phenotypes.
Shi Xiaofeng,Zaia Joseph
The Journal of biological chemistry
The functions of heparan sulfate (HS) depend on the expression of structural domains that interact with protein partners. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exhibit a high degree of polydispersity in their composition, chain length, sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization patterns. It is essential for the understanding of GAG biochemistry to produce detailed structural information as a function of spatial and temporal factors in biological systems. Toward this end, we developed a set of procedures to extract GAGs from various rat organ tissues and examined and compared HS expression levels using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate detailed variations in HS GAG chains as a function of organ location. These studies shed new light on the structural variation of GAG chains with respect to average length, disaccharide composition, and expression of low abundance structural epitopes, including unsubstituted amino groups and lyase-resistant oligosaccharides. The data show the presence of a disaccharide with an unsubstituted amino group that is endogenous and widely expressed in mammalian organ tissues.
Quantitative and qualitative alterations of heparan sulfate in fibrogenic liver diseases and hepatocellular cancer.
Tátrai Péter,Egedi Krisztina,Somorácz Aron,van Kuppevelt Toin H,Ten Dam Gerdy,Lyon Malcolm,Deakin Jon A,Kiss András,Schaff Zsuzsa,Kovalszky Ilona
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
Heparan sulfate (HS), due to its ability to interact with a multitude of HS-binding factors, is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Remarkably diverse fine structure of HS, shaped by non-exhaustive enzymatic modifications, influences the interaction of HS with its partners. Here we characterized the HS profile of normal human and rat liver, as well as alterations of HS related to liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis, by using sulfation-specific antibodies. The HS immunopattern was compared with the immunolocalization of selected HS proteoglycans. HS samples from normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were subjected to disaccharide analysis. Expression changes of nine HS-modifying enzymes in human fibrogenic diseases and HCC were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Increased abundance and altered immunolocalization of HS was paralleled by elevated mRNA levels of HS-modifying enzymes in the diseased liver. The strong immunoreactivity of the normal liver for 3-O-sulfated epitope further increased with disease, along with upregulation of 3-OST-1. Modest 6-O-undersulfation of HCC HS is probably explained by Sulf overexpression. Our results may prompt further investigation of the role of highly 3-O-sulfated and partially 6-O-desulfated HS in pathological processes such as hepatitis virus entry and aberrant growth factor signaling in fibrogenic liver diseases and HCC.
Hyaluronan-coated extracellular vesicles--a novel link between hyaluronan and cancer.
Rilla Kirsi,Siiskonen Hanna,Tammi Markku,Tammi Raija
Advances in cancer research
The synthesis of hyaluronan (HA) on the plasma membrane is a unique and still partly mysterious way of macromolecular biosynthesis. HA forms pericellular coats around many cell types and accumulates in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of growing and renewing tissues. It is secreted to high concentrations in body fluids with antifriction properties like pleural, peritoneal, and synovial fluids, but is also detectable in plasma, saliva, and urine. In pathological states, like cancer and inflammation, the amount of HA is increased around cells, in the ECM, and in the body fluids. HA is an indicator of poor prognosis for cancer patients and creates a favorable environment for cellular growth and motility. The recent finding that HA-coated extracellular vesicles act both as a product of HA synthase activity and as special vehicles for HA, and perhaps carry signals important for malignant growth, provides a novel link between HA and cancer. HA could be carried on the surface of these vesicles in tissues and body fluids, creating beneficial environments by itself, or by associated molecules, for the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The HA-coated plasma membrane protrusions and vesicles shed from them are potential biomarkers in cancer and other HA-associated disease states.
Lectin-mediated in situ rolling circle amplification on exosomes for probing cancer-related glycan pattern.
Feng Yimei,Guo Yuna,Li Yiran,Tao Jing,Ding Lin,Wu Jie,Ju Huangxian
Analytica chimica acta
Exosomal surface glycans play important roles in microvesicle protein sorting and exosome-cell interactions, and also provide promising biomarkers for various diseases. However, in situ detection techniques for exosomal glycans are largely lacking. In this work, an exosomal array is fabricated for probing cancer-related exosomal glycan signatures by lectin recognition-mediated in situ rolling circle assembly of fluorophore-labeled DNA. Different from commonly used lectin array, the proposed strategy enables the direct and amplified conversion of glycan recognition signals to fluorescence detection signals. Focusing on tumor-associated glycans including sialic acids, fucose and truncated O-glycans, the method has been used not only to compare glycan patterns between exosomes with different origins, but also to reveal the specific exosomal glycan characteristics compared to their parent cells. The limits of detection were identified to be 5.4 × 10 and 1.3 × 10 particles mL for HeLa and PANC-1 exosomes, respectively. The dynamic ranges were 4.7 × 10 to 4.7 × 10, 4.7 × 10 to 4.7 × 10 for HeLa exosomes, and 4.7 × 10 to 1.2 × 10, 1.2 × 10 to 4.7 × 10 particles mL for PANC-1 exosomes. The remodeling of exosomal glycans can also be monitored as demonstrated on the cleavage of sialic acids under sialidase treatment. It could be anticipated that this strategy would become a powerful tool for development of exosome-based glyco-biomarkers and elucidation of biological significance of exosomal glycans.
Circulating heparin oligosaccharides rapidly target the hippocampus in sepsis, potentially impacting cognitive functions.
Zhang Xing,Han Xiaorui,Xia Ke,Xu Yongmei,Yang Yimu,Oshima Kaori,Haeger Sarah M,Perez Mario J,McMurtry Sarah A,Hippensteel Joseph A,Ford Joshay A,Herson Paco S,Liu Jian,Schmidt Eric P,Linhardt Robert J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sepsis induces heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, a heparan sulfate-enriched endovascular layer critical to vascular homeostasis, releasing highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate into the circulation. These domains are oligosaccharides rich in heparin-like trisulfated disaccharide repeating units. Using a chemoenzymatic approach, an undecasaccharide containing a uniformly C-labeled internal 2-sulfoiduronic acid residue was synthesized on a -nitrophenylglucuronide acceptor. Selective periodate cleavage afforded a heparin nonasaccharide having a natural structure. This C-labeled nonasaccharide was intravenously administered to septic (induced by cecal ligation and puncture, a model of polymicrobial peritonitis-induced sepsis) and nonseptic (sham) mice. Selected tissues and biological fluids from the mice were harvested at various time points over 4 hours, and the C-labeled nonasaccharide was recovered and digested with heparin lyases. The resulting C-labeled trisulfated disaccharide was quantified, without interference from endogenous mouse heparan sulfate/heparin, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with sensitive and selective multiple reaction monitoring. The C-labeled heparin nonasaccharide appeared immediately in the blood and was rapidly cleared through the urine. Plasma nonasaccharide clearance was only slightly prolonged in septic mice ( ∼ 90 minutes). In septic mice, the nonasaccharide penetrated into the hippocampus but not the cortex of the brain; no hippocampal or cortical brain penetration occurred in sham mice. The results of this study suggest that circulating heparan sulfates are rapidly cleared from the plasma during sepsis and selectively penetrate the hippocampus, where they may have functional consequences.
Circulating glycosaminoglycan species in septic shock.
Nelson A,Berkestedt I,Bodelsson M
Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
BACKGROUND:Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are negatively charged polysaccharides present, e.g., on the luminal face of the blood vessels as heparan sulphate (HS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), in the interstitium as HA, and in neutrofils and plasma as chondroitin sulphate (CS) and HA. Total plasma levels of GAG are increased in human septic shock, but the origin and pathophysiological implications are unclear. In order to determine the source of circulating GAG in sepsis, we compared plasma levels of HS, HA, CS and keratan sulphate (KS) in patients with septic shock and controls. METHODS:HS and KS were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HA and CS disaccharides with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in plasma obtained from patients admitted to intensive care fulfilling criteria for septic shock as well as from matched control patients scheduled for neurosurgery. RESULTS:Median levels of HS and HA were fourfold increased in septic shock and were higher in patients that did not survive 90 days (threefold and fivefold for HS and HA, respectively). Median CS levels were unaltered, while KS levels were slightly decreased in sepsis patients. HS and HA levels correlated with levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10. Except for HA, GAG levels did not correlate to liver or kidney sequential organ function score. CONCLUSION:Median plasma level of HS and HA is increased in septic shock patients, are higher in patients that do not survive, and correlates with inflammatory activation and failing circulation. The increased levels could be due to vascular damage.
Resolution of Elevated Urine Glycosaminoglycans and Clinical Features of Mucopolysaccharidosis After Successful Treatment of Neuroblastoma.
Hilgers Megan V,Whitley Chester B,Moertel Christopher L
Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
We report a patient with stage 3 ganglioneuroblastoma who initially presented with clinical and laboratory features consistent with mucopolysaccharidosis including coarse facial features, developmental delay, and an elevated quantitative urine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) level. All mucopolysaccharidosis features resolved following successful treatment of neuroblastoma. High GAG levels have been documented in the pediatric oncology literature, yet not as a potential marker of malignancy or other target for clinical utility. This patient prompts further investigation into the relationship between neuroblastoma and elevated GAG levels.
Glycosaminoglycan Profiling in Patients' Plasma and Urine Predicts the Occurrence of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Gatto Francesco,Volpi Nicola,Nilsson Helén,Nookaew Intawat,Maruzzo Marco,Roma Anna,Johansson Martin E,Stierner Ulrika,Lundstam Sven,Basso Umberto,Nielsen Jens
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression. Here, we used genome-scale metabolic modeling to elucidate metabolic reprogramming in 481 ccRCC samples and discovered strongly coordinated regulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis at the transcript and protein levels. Extracellular GAGs are implicated in metastasis, so we speculated that such regulation might translate into a non-invasive biomarker for metastatic ccRCC (mccRCC). We measured 18 GAG properties in 34 mccRCC samples versus 16 healthy plasma and/or urine samples. The GAG profiles were distinctively altered in mccRCC. We derived three GAG scores that distinguished mccRCC patients with 93.1%-100% accuracy. We validated the score accuracies in an independent cohort (up to 18 mccRCC versus nine healthy) and verified that the scores normalized in eight patients with no evidence of disease. In conclusion, coordinated regulation of GAG biosynthesis occurs in ccRCC, and non-invasive GAG profiling is suitable for mccRCC diagnosis.
Genetic variation at the glycosaminoglycan metabolism pathway contributes to the risk of psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis.
Aterido Adrià,Cañete Juan D,Tornero Jesús,Ferrándiz Carlos,Pinto José Antonio,Gratacós Jordi,Queiró Rubén,Montilla Carlos,Torre-Alonso Juan Carlos,Pérez-Venegas José J,Fernández Nebro Antonio,Muñoz-Fernández Santiago,González Carlos M,Roig Daniel,Zarco Pedro,Erra Alba,Rodríguez Jesús,Castañeda Santos,Rubio Esteban,Salvador Georgina,Díaz-Torné Cesar,Blanco Ricardo,Willisch Domínguez Alfredo,Mosquera José Antonio,Vela Paloma,Sánchez-Fernández Simon Angel,Corominas Héctor,Ramírez Julio,de la Cueva Pablo,Fonseca Eduardo,Fernández Emilia,Puig Lluis,Dauden Esteban,Sánchez-Carazo José Luís,López-Estebaranz José Luís,Moreno David,Vanaclocha Francisco,Herrera Enrique,Blanco Francisco,Fernández-Gutiérrez Benjamín,González Antonio,Pérez-García Carolina,Alperi-López Mercedes,Olivé Marques Alejandro,Martínez-Taboada Víctor,González-Álvaro Isidoro,Sanmartí Raimon,Tomás Roura Carlos,García-Montero Andrés C,Bonàs-Guarch Sílvia,Mercader Josep Maria,Torrents David,Codó Laia,Gelpí Josep Lluís,López-Corbeto Mireia,Pluma Andrea,López-Lasanta Maria,Tortosa Raül,Palau Nuria,Absher Devin,Myers Richard,Marsal Sara,Julià Antonio
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVE:Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting up to 30% of patients with psoriasis (Ps). To date, most of the known risk loci for PsA are shared with Ps, and identifying disease-specific variation has proven very challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic variation specific for PsA. METHODS:We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 835 patients with PsA and 1558 controls from Spain. Genetic association was tested at the single marker level and at the pathway level. Meta-analysis was performed with a case-control cohort of 2847 individuals from North America. To confirm the specificity of the genetic associations with PsA, we tested the associated variation using a purely cutaneous psoriasis cohort (PsC, n=614) and a rheumatoid arthritis cohort (RA, n=1191). Using network and drug-repurposing analyses, we further investigated the potential of the PsA-specific associations to guide the development of new drugs in PsA. RESULTS:We identified a new PsA risk single-nucleotide polymorphism at locus (p=1.10e-08). At the pathway level, we found 14 genetic pathways significantly associated with PsA (p<0.05). From these, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism pathway was confirmed to be disease-specific after comparing the PsA cohort with the cohorts of patients with PsC and RA. Finally, we identified candidate drug targets in the GAG metabolism pathway as well as new PsA indications for approved drugs. CONCLUSION:These findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms that are specific for PsA and could contribute to develop more effective therapies.
Alterations of plasma glycosaminoglycan profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to disease activity.
Jura-Półtorak Agnieszka,Komosinska-Vassev Katarzyna,Kotulska Anna,Kucharz Eugeniusz J,Klimek Katarzyna,Kopec-Medrek Magdalena,Olczyk Krystyna
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
BACKGROUND:Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of plasma glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in relation to disease activity estimated by DAS28 score was evaluated. METHODS:GAGs were quantified by hexuronic acid assay and electrophoretic fractionation. Keratan sulfate (KS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were measured by immunoassay. RESULTS:Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) and heparan sulfate/heparin (HS/H) in plasma of healthy subjects and RA patients were stated. Total GAGs, CS, HS/H and HA levels were higher in patients with high and moderate disease activity than in controls. Total GAGs and CS levels in patients with high disease activity were elevated in comparison to patients with low disease activity. HS/H levels in patients with high and moderate activity were elevated in comparison to those with low disease activity. KS levels were increased in all patient groups in comparison to controls. Total GAGs, CS, HS/H and HA levels were positively correlated with DAS28 and CRP. CONCLUSIONS:Structural tissue damage/remodeling of the extracellular matrix occurs in RA, which is reflected in the qualitative and quantitative changes of plasma GAGs. The above changes depend on DAS28 and may contribute to systemic changes in the properties of the extracellular matrix.
Pingyangmycin inhibits glycosaminoglycan sulphation in both cancer cells and tumour tissues.
Lan Ying,Li Xiulian,Liu Yong,He Yanli,Hao Cui,Wang Hua,Jin Liying,Zhang Guoqing,Zhang Shufeng,Zhou Aimin,Zhang Lijuan
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
Pingyangmycin is a clinically used anticancer drug and induces lung fibrosis in certain cancer patients. We previously reported that the negatively charged cell surface glycosaminoglycans are involved in the cellular uptake of the positively charged pingyangmycin. However, it is unknown if pingyangmycin affects glycosaminoglycan structures. Seven cell lines and a Lewis lung carcinoma-injected C57BL/6 mouse model were used to understand the cytotoxicity of pingyangmycin and its effect on glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Stable isotope labelling coupled with LC/MS method was used to quantify glycosaminoglycan disaccharide compositions from pingyangmycin-treated and untreated cell and tumour samples. Pingyangmycin reduced both chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate sulphation in cancer cells and in tumours. The effect was persistent at different pingyangmycin concentrations and at different exposure times. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of pingyangmycin was decreased in the presence of soluble glycosaminoglycans, in the glycosaminoglycan-deficient cell line CHO745, and in the presence of chlorate. A flow cytometry-based cell surface FGF/FGFR/glycosaminoglycan binding assay also showed that pingyangmycin changed cell surface glycosaminoglycan structures. Changes in the structures of glycosaminoglycans may be related to fibrosis induced by pingyangmycin in certain cancer patients.
Glycosaminoglycans analysis in blood and urine of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis.
Khan Shaukat A,Mason Robert W,Giugliani Roberto,Orii Kenji,Fukao Toshiyuki,Suzuki Yasuyuki,Yamaguchi Seiji,Kobayashi Hironori,Orii Tadao,Tomatsu Shunji
Molecular genetics and metabolism
To explore the correlation between glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type, we have evaluated the GAG levels in blood of MPS II, III, IVA, and IVB and urine of MPS IVA, IVB, and VI by tandem mass spectrometry. Dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), keratan sulfate (KS; mono-sulfated KS, di-sulfated KS), and the ratio of di-sulfated KS in total KS were measured. Patients with untreated MPS II had higher levels of DS and HS in blood while untreated MPS III had higher levels of HS in blood than age-matched controls. Untreated MPS IVA had higher levels of KS in blood and urine than age-matched controls. The ratio of blood di-sulfated KS/total KS in untreated MPS IVA was constant and higher than that in controls for children up to 10 years of age. The ratio of urine di-sulfated KS/total KS in untreated MPS IVA was also higher than that in age-matched controls, but the ratio in untreated MPS IVB was lower than controls. ERT reduced blood DS and HS in MPS II, and urine KS in MPS IVA patients, although GAGs levels remained higher than the observed in age-matched controls. ERT did not change blood KS levels in MPS IVA. MPS VI under ERT still had an elevation of urine DS level compared to age-matched controls. There was a positive correlation between blood and urine KS in untreated MPS IVA patients but not in MPS IVA patients treated with ERT. Blood and urine KS levels were secondarily elevated in MPS II and VI, respectively. Overall, measurement of GAG levels in blood and urine is useful for diagnosis of MPS, while urine KS is not a useful biomarker for monitoring therapeutic efficacy in MPS IVA.
[Serum levels of glycosaminoglycans, hydroxyproline, and fibronectin in patients with spinal osteochondrosis].
Kim L B,Zhiliakov I V,Nikonova I K
Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika
The content of the major components of the extracellular matrix was studied in 60 patients with spinal osteochondrosis over time during complex rehabilitative therapy including radon-containing mineral baths (before, 7-9 and 14-15 days after treatment). The complex rehabilitative treatment using radon baths in patients with spinal osteochondrosis was shown to result in a reduction in the serum level of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and total oxyproline by the end of a course of therapy, which suggests the lower rate of destructive processes in the extracellular matrix. The determination of GAG concentrations and oxyproline forms in patients with asteochondrosis may be used to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment performed.
Human blood glycosaminoglycans: isolation and analysis.
Anower-E-Khuda Md Ferdous,Kimata Koji
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides having disaccharide building blocks consisting of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine, or N-acetylgalactosamine) and a uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. Glycosaminoglycans have sulfated residues at various positions except for hyaluronan, and those sulfated residues regulate the biological functions of a wide variety of proteins, primarily through high-affinity interactions mediated by specific patterns/densities of sulfation and sugar sequences. Alteration of GAG structure is associated with a number of disease conditions and therefore the analyses of GAG structures and their sulfation patterns are important for the development of disease biomarkers and for treatment options. Extensive structural and quantitative analyses of GAGs from human blood are largely unexplored which may be due to the exhaustive isolation process because of the presence of too much interfering proteins and lipids such as serum albumin. Therefore we established a new GAG isolation method using the least amount (~200 μl) of human blood, consisting of a combination of proteolytic digestion and selective ethanol precipitation of GAGs, digestion of GAGs recovered on the filter cup by direct addition of GAG lyase reaction solution, and subsequent high-pressure liquid chromatography of unsaturated disaccharide products that enable to analyze GAG structures and contents. This isolation method offers an 80 % recovery of GAGs and can be applied to analyze a minute GAG content (≥1 nmol) from the least amount of biological fluids. Hence the method could be useful for the development of disease biomarkers.
Method development and analysis of free HS and HS in proteoglycans from pre- and postmenopausal women: evidence for biosynthetic pathway changes in sulfotransferase and sulfatase enzymes.
Wei Wei,Miller Rebecca L,Leary Julie A
Heparan sulfate (HS) is one of the most complex and informative biopolymers found on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix as either free HS fragments or constituents of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). Analysis of free HS and HSPG sugar chains in human serum at the disaccharide level has great potential for early disease diagnosis and prognosis; however, the low concentration of HS in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix, limits the information on HS. In this study, we present and validate the development of a new sensitive method for in-depth compositional analysis of free HS and HSPG sugar chains. This protocol involved several steps including weak anion exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration, and solid-phase extraction for enhanced detection prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Using this protocol, a total of 51 serum samples from 26 premenopausal and 25 postmenopausal women were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in heparin/HS disaccharide profiles were observed. The proportion of N-acetylation and N-sulfation in both free HS and HSPG sugar chains were significantly different between pre- and postmenopausal women, indicating changes in N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases (NDSTs), the enzymes involved in the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway. Differences in the proportion of 6-O-sulfation suggest that 6-O-sulfotransferase and/or 6-O-sulfatase enzymes may also be implicated.
Hyaluronan concentration and molecular mass in psoriatic arthritis: biomarkers of disease severity, resistance to treatment, and outcome.
Hellman U,Engström-Laurent A,Larsson A,Lindqvist U
Scandinavian journal of rheumatology
: Low molecular mass hyaluronan causes inflammatory processes and can act as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in skin and other sites of activity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This study investigated whether the molecular mass distribution of hyaluronan (HA) in skin and the quantity of circulating HA are related to the clinical inflammatory picture in PsA with active disease and to the effect of treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) adalimumab. : Twenty patients with TNF-α-naïve active polyarticular PsA were included in this prospective clinical trial of treatment with 40 mg s.c. adalimumab according to standard procedure. Clinical activity, patients' assessments, and skin biopsies were captured at inclusion and at the 12 week follow-up. Ten healthy individuals were recruited for comparison of HA analyses. Histochemistry of skin inflammation, serum HA, and molecular mass of HA were determined. : Overall improvements in clinical parameters were observed. Eight of 18 patients reached minimum disease activity after 12 weeks and disease activity was significantly reduced (p < 0.0001). Patients with elevated serum HA values were significantly older, had later onset of arthritis and more deformed joints, still had swollen joints after treatment, and had more circulating inflammatory biomarkers. More severe disease pathology showed a wide spectrum of high-molecular-mass HA accompanied by low mass HA. The treatment appears partly to normalize the HA mass distribution. : HA concentration and mass seem to be two possible factors in the inflammatory pathology of PsA acting as biomarkers for disease severity, resistance to treatment, and worse outcome.
A novel role of low molecular weight hyaluronan in breast cancer metastasis.
Wu Man,Cao Manlin,He Yiqing,Liu Yiwen,Yang Cuixia,Du Yan,Wang Wenjuan,Gao Feng
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA), a degradation fragment of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA), has been proven to play a crucial role in cancer progression. However, no systematic clinical study of breast cancer has been performed to correlate LMW-HA levels with metastasis. In the present study, we analyzed 176 serum specimens and found for the first time that the serum LMW-HA (but not total HA) level significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, suggesting that serum LMW-HA represents a better prognostic indicator of breast cancer progression than HA. Similarly, we found that breast cancer cell lines displaying higher invasive potential had a higher LMW-HA concentration than less-invasive cell lines. This higher LMW-HA level was accompanied by the overexpression of hyaluronan synthase (HAS2) and hyaluronidase (both HYAL1 and HYAL2). Of great importance, decreasing LMW-HA production significantly inhibited breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Overall, our results suggest that during cancer progression, cancer cells may actively remodel their microenvironment via an autocrine/paracrine-like process, resulting in elevated LMW-HA levels, which in turn may facilitate cancer progression by promoting the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Therefore, cancer-associated LMW-HA may be a more promising molecular biomarker than total HA for detecting metastasis and may have further applications in breast cancer treatment.
Regulation of hyaluronan biosynthesis and clinical impact of excessive hyaluronan production.
Heldin Paraskevi,Lin Chun-Yu,Kolliopoulos Constantinos,Chen Yen-Hsu,Skandalis Spyros S
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
The tightly regulated biosynthesis and catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, as well as its role in organizing tissues and cell signaling, is crucial for the homeostasis of tissues. Overexpression of hyaluronan plays pivotal roles in inflammation and cancer, and markedly high serum and tissue levels of hyaluronan are noted under such pathological conditions. This review focuses on the complexity of the regulation at transcriptional and posttranslational level of hyaluronan synthetic enzymes, and the outcome of their aberrant expression and accumulation of hyaluronan in clinical conditions, such as systemic B-cell cancers, aggressive breast carcinomas, metabolic diseases and virus infection.
Effect of Chondroitin Sulfate on Blood Serum Cytokine Profile during Carrageenan-induced Edema and Monoiodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis in Rats.
Korotkyi Oleksandr,Vovk Andrii,Blokhina Oksana,Dvorshchenko Kateryna,Falalyeyeva Tetyana,Abenavoli Ludovico,Ostapchenko Liudmyla
Reviews on recent clinical trials
BACKGROUND:Blood cytokines affect the development of inflammatory processes in both normal and pathological states. We have studied changes in the concentration of interleukins (ILs) - 1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12B p40, transforming growth factor β (TGF β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation and degenerative-dystrophic changes of knee joint caused by monoiodoacetate-induced Osteoarthritis (OA) in experimental models on rats. We also investigated the change in the cytokine profile during prophylactic and therapeutic administration of chondroitin sulfate to animals under experimental conditions. METHODS:The concentration of the cytokines was measured in blood serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:The manifestation of articular lesions was characterized by a disturbance in the balance between proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-12B p40, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, TGF -β) cytokines. CONCLUSION:A reduction in the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines in blood serum after prophylactic and therapeutic administration of chondroitin sulfate to the rat with experimental models of acute inflammation of the hind limb and degenerative-dystrophic changes in the knee joint with OA is associated with anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties of the drug.
Colorectal cancer-associated ~ 6 kDa hyaluronan serves as a novel biomarker for cancer progression and metastasis.
Zhang Guoliang,Lu Renquan,Wu Man,Liu Yiwen,He Yiqing,Xu Jing,Yang Cuixia,Du Yan,Gao Feng
The FEBS journal
Low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) is believed to accumulate in tumors and to exert protumor effects. This study aimed to identify colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated LMW-HA, precisely determine its MW, and elucidate its role in predicting tumor progression. The MW distribution of HA extracted from CRC and paired noncancerous tissues was evaluated. We found that the level of HA with a MW below 30 kDa was markedly elevated in CRC tissues, and we defined HA with a MW of ~ 6 kDa as CRC-associated LMW-HA. In line with this finding, ~ 6 kDa HA was significantly accumulated in cancer tissues relative to total HA, and this LMW-HA played a critical role in tumor metastasis. Moreover, serum ~ 6 kDa HA levels in CRC patients were significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels in matched cancer tissues. Elevated serum ~ 6 kDa HA levels could be used to discriminate patients with or without CRC and was associated with early relapse, advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node (LN) metastasis. Notably, serum ~ 6 kDa HA levels were significantly reduced after tumor resection. Our study suggests that ~ 6 kDa HA may serve as a new biomarker for estimating tumor progression, predicting LN metastasis, and monitoring tumor recurrence.
A guide to hyaluronan and related enzymes in breast cancer: biological significance and diagnostic value.
Velesiotis Christos,Vasileiou Stella,Vynios Demitrios H
The FEBS journal
Hyaluronan (HA) is a unique nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan that contributes to breast cancer cells growth and functional properties, including cell migration, invasion, adhesion, as well as tumor-associated angiogenesis in different stages of breast cancer progression and especially metastasis. Latest data show that the levels of HA and/or low molecular mass HA in blood serum and plasma of breast cancer patients may be a useful biomarker for breast cancer prognosis, differential diagnosis, and patients' treatment monitoring. Therefore, the qualitative and quantitative determination of HA in biological samples is an emerging area of research. This review gathers, categorizes, and sums up all the currently used methodologies to analyze HA and HA-related enzymes. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations in use, and the information they provide, are critically considered and discussed. Moreover, emphasis is given to the significance of HA determination in breast cancer, as well as of its related enzymes, for diagnosis and prognosis of this type of cancer.
Serum Hyaluronic Acid Levels Are Altered in Acute Leukemia Patients: Potential Prognostic Implications.
Anagnostopoulou Eleni,Papanastasopoulou Chrysanthi,Papastamataki Maria,Kotsiou Antonia,Topouzoglou Zoi,Anagnostopoulos Nikolaos,Sitaras Nikolaos
BACKGROUND:Studies on the serum concentration of hyaluronic acid (HA) in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) are scarce. In this study, we focused on investigating whether HA could serve as a possible prognostic marker in patients with AML, B-ALL, and MCL. METHODS:The serum concentration of HA was measured in a total of 51 patients with newly diagnosed AML, B-ALL, and MCL. Venous blood was collected 1 day before the initiation of chemotherapy (D0), on day 16 of the first cycle of chemotherapy (D16), and on D30. RESULTS:The serum HA concentration on D0 in patients with AML, B-ALL, and MCL was higher than in the control group. For all types of hematological malignancy, on D0, serum HA values of nonsurvivors were higher than in survivors. Moreover, patients in relapse had higher levels of serum HA than patients in remission. A strong positive correlation between serum HA and ferritin, β2-microglobulin, and lactate dehydrogenase was found. CONCLUSION:Serum HA may serve as a possible prognostic marker for AML, B-ALL, and MCL patients, especially on D0. Prospective case-control studies on larger populations may provide further information.
Crosstalk between tumor cells and lymphocytes modulates heparanase expression.
Theodoro Thérèse Rachell,Matos Leandro Luongo,Cavalheiro Renan Pelluzzi,Justo Giselle Zenker,Nader Helena Bonciani,Pinhal Maria Aparecida Silva
Journal of translational medicine
BACKGROUND:Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that degrades heparan sulfate (HS) chains on proteoglycans. The oligosaccharides generated by HPSE promote angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Heparanase-2 (HPSE2), a close homolog of HPSE, does not exhibit catalytic activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that serum or plasma from breast cancer patients showed increased expression of both heparanases in circulating lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms involved in the upregulation of heparanases in circulating lymphocytes. METHODS:Lymphocytes collected from healthy women were incubated in the presence of MCF-7 breast cancer cells (co-culture) to stimulate HPSE and HPSE2 overexpression. The protein level of heparanases was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, while mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS:The medium obtained from co-culture of MCF-7 cells and circulating lymphocytes stimulated the expression of HPSE and HPSE2. Previous treatment of the co-culture medium with an anti-heparan sulfate proteoglycan antibody or heparitinase II inhibited the upregulation of heparanases in circulating lymphocytes. The addition of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS) enhanced the expression of both heparanases. Moreover, the co-cultured cells, as well as MCF-7 cells, secreted a higher number of exosomes expressing an increased level of HS compared to that of the exosomes secreted by circulating lymphocytes from women who were not affected by cancer. CONCLUSIONS:The results revealed that HS is likely responsible for mediating the expression of heparanases in circulating lymphocytes. HS secreted by tumor cells might be carried by exosome particles, confirming the key role of tumor cells, as well as secreted HS, in upregulating the expression of heparanases, suggesting a possible mechanism of crosstalk between tumor cells and circulating lymphocytes.
Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.
Haslene-Hox Hanne,Oveland Eystein,Woie Kathrine,Salvesen Helga B,Tenstad Olav,Wiig Helge
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances.
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan serglycin influences protein cargo loading and functions of tumor-derived exosomes.
Purushothaman Anurag,Bandari Shyam K,Chandrashekar Darshan S,Jones Richard J,Lee Hans C,Weber Donna M,Orlowski Robert Z
Tumor cells produce and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-cell-derived exosomes deliver cargos that partially mimic the contents of the parent cell to nearby or distant normal or abnormal cells, thereby reprogramming the recipient cells to support tumor progression. Mechanisms by which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. Here we demonstrate a critical role of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan serglycin in regulating the protein cargo and functions of myeloma cell-derived exosomes. Previous studies have shown that serglycin, the only known intracellular proteoglycan, functions mainly in the storage of basically charged components within the intracellular granules/vesicles serglycin's densely clustered, negatively charged glycosaminoglycan chains. Here we demonstrate that serglycin plays a critical role in the protein cargo loading of tumor-derived exosomes. Serglycin was detected in exosomes derived from cell culture supernatants of human myeloma cell lines and serum of myeloma patients. Mass spectrometry analysis of exosomal proteins identified significantly fewer protein components within exosomes derived from serglycin-knockdown myeloma cells than within exosomes from control cells. On gene ontology analysis, exosomes derived from serglycin-knockdown cells, but not from control cells, lacked many proteins that are required for mediating different cellular processes. In functional assays, exosomes from serglycin-knockdown cells failed to induce an invasive phenotype in myeloma cells and failed to promote migration of macrophages. These findings reveal that serglycin plays an important role in maintaining the protein cargo in tumor-derived exosomes and suggest that targeting serglycin may temper the influence of these exosomes on cancer progression.
Evolutionary conservation of heavy chain protein transfer between glycosaminoglycans.
Sanggaard Kristian W,Hansen Lone,Scavenius Carsten,Wisniewski Hans-Georg,Kristensen Torsten,Thøgersen Ida B,Enghild Jan J
Biochimica et biophysica acta
The bikunin proteins are composed of heavy chains (HCs) covalently linked to a chondroitin sulfate chain originating from Ser-10 of bikunin. Tumor necrosis factor stimulated gene-6 protein (TSG-6)/heavy chain 2 (HC2) cleaves this unique cross-link and transfers the HCs to hyaluronan and other glycosaminoglycans via a covalent HC*TSG-6 intermediate. In the present study, we have investigated if this reaction is evolutionary conserved based on the hypothesis that it is of fundamental importance. The results revealed that plasma/serum samples from mammal, bird, and reptile were able to form TSG-6 complexes suggesting the presence of proteins with the same function as the human bikunin proteins. To substantiate this, the complex forming protein from Gallus gallus (Gg) plasma was purified and identified as a Gg homolog of human HC2*bikunin. In addition, Gg pre-alpha-inhibitor and smaller amount of high molecular weight forms composed of bikunin and two HCs were purified. Like the human bikunin proteins, the purified Gg proteins were all stabilized by a protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein cross-link, i.e. the HCs were covalently attached to a chondroitin sulfate originating from bikunin. Furthermore, the complex formed between Gg HC2*bikunin and human TSG-6 appeared to be identical to that of the human proteins. Akin to human, Gg HC2 was further transferred to hyaluronan when present, and when incubated in vitro, Gg pre-alpha-inhibitor and TSG-6, failed to form the intermediate covalent complex, essential for HC transfer. Significantly, Gg HC2, analogous to human HC2, promoted complex formation between human HC3 and human TSG-6, substantiating the evolutionary conservation of these interactions. The present study demonstrates that the unique interactions between bikunin proteins, glycosaminoglycans, and TSG-6 are evolutionary conserved, emphasizing the physiological importance of the TSG-6/HC2-mediated HC-transfer reaction. In addition, the data show that the evolution of HC transfer is likely to predate the role of HC.HA complexes in female fertility and thus has evolved in the context of inflammation rather than fertility.
Glycosaminoglycan sulodexide inhibition of MMP-9 gelatinase secretion and activity: possible pharmacological role against collagen degradation in vascular chronic diseases.
Mannello Ferdinando,Medda Virginia,Ligi Daniela,Raffetto Joseph D
Current vascular pharmacology
We evaluated the effects of the glycosaminoglycan sulodexide (SDX; antithrombotic/profibrinolytic drug) on the activity and release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human blood. This was a prospective non-randomized study, analyzing by zymography and ELISA the in vitro effects of SDX on pro-enzyme, complexed, and active MMP forms in plasma and serum from 60 healthy donors, and in U-937 leukemia cell line. The levels and zymographic profile of MMP-2 did not show significant changes among samples and during SDX treatments. However, pro- and complexed forms of MMP-9 were strongly affected by SDX treatment (P<0.001), with significant decrease of MMP-9 secretion from white blood cells in a dose-dependent fashion (P<0.0001), without any displacement of MMP prodomains. The mechanism of reduced release of MMP-9 forms from leukocytes and inhibition of proteolytic activity due to SDX treatment may support the hypothesis that drugs based upon inhibitors of MMP-9 activity may provide a therapeutic tool for the underlying pathological destruction of extracellular matrix, and offering novel pharmacologic applications for chronic inflammatory vascular diseases, including varicose vein and chronic venous diseases associated with enhanced MMP activation in blood and limbs.
Glycotranscriptome study reveals an enzymatic switch modulating glycosaminoglycan synthesis during B-cell development and activation.
Duchez Sophie,Pascal Virginie,Cogné Nadine,Jayat-Vignoles Chantal,Julien Raymond,Cogné Michel
European journal of immunology
B-cell fate and responses are modulated by soluble mediators and direct cellular interactions. Migration properties also vary during differentiation, commitment and activation. In many cells, modulation of responses to stimuli involves cell surface glycans, whose architecture depends on the simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes. By looking at the glycosylation-related gene expression patterns among B-cell populations, we determined in this study that the strongest variations were observed for CSGalNAcT-1 and EXTL1. These are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of alternative forms of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), namely chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate, respectively. These two enzymes showed inverse fluctuations in progenitors, resting B cells and activated B cells, suggesting a developmentally regulated switch between chondroitin and heparan sulfate synthesis. To explore whether these variations contributed to optimal B-cell differentiation, we overexpressed EXTL1 in the B-cell lineage of transgenic mice, yielding a partial differentiation blockade at the pro-B to pre-B transition. In the periphery, this defect was almost fully compensated for in vivo, with normal-size B-cell compartments and normal serum immunoglobulin levels in the transgenic EXTL1 mice. The peripheral B cells from EXTL1 transgenics were only affected with regard to their in vitro responses to polyclonal activation, showing reduced proliferation. Together the data suggest that despite their low amounts in lymphocytes, the heparan sulfate chains decorating the endogenous GAGs appear to be regulators of B-cell physiology.
Age- and gender-dependent changes in circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and sulfated glycosaminoglycan in healthy people.
Komosinska-Vassev Katarzyna,Olczyk Pawel,Winsz-Szczotka Katarzyna,Klimek Katarzyna,Olczyk Krystyna
Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
BACKGROUND:In this study, the effect of gender and physiological ageing on circulating concentrations of plasma sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) as well as molecules involved in pro- (tumor necrosis factor-α; TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory responses (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, sTNF-RI) were assessed. The relationships between sGAG and molecules involved in age-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during physiological ageing were also investigated. METHODS:Circulating TNF-α and sTNF-RI were measured in 91 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. sGAG were quantified using an Alcian blue-binding assay. RESULTS:A linear age-related decline in plasma sGAG was found during the first five decades of life (r=-0.61, p<0.05), followed by an increase occurring only in females (r=0.46, p<0.05). Circulating TNF-α concentrations were inversely correlated with age (r=-0.24, p<0.05) over the lifetime. For TNF-α, the observed changes were gender specific. Serum sTNF-RI concentrations were not affected by age in either men or women. A significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of TNF-α and both sGAG (r=0.22, p<0.05) and sTNF-RI (r=0.21, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate that physiological ageing is associated with ECM remodeling, reflected by plasma sGAGs concentrations. Changes in the ECM metabolism during the ageing process were influenced by circulating TNF-α. Furthermore, serum concentrations of biomolecules involved in pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are not increased in healthy elderly subjects.