Tongue coating microbiome as a potential biomarker for gastritis including precancerous cascade. Cui Jiaxing,Cui Hongfei,Yang Mingran,Du Shiyu,Li Junfeng,Li Yingxue,Liu Liyang,Zhang Xuegong,Li Shao Protein & cell The development of gastritis is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Current invasive gastritis diagnostic methods are not suitable for monitoring progress. In this work based on 78 gastritis patients and 50 healthy individuals, we observed that the variation of tongue-coating microbiota was associated with the occurrence and development of gastritis. Twenty-one microbial species were identified for differentiating tongue-coating microbiomes of gastritis and healthy individuals. Pathways such as microbial metabolism in diverse environments, biosynthesis of antibiotics and bacterial chemotaxis were up-regulated in gastritis patients. The abundance of Campylobacter concisus was found associated with the gastric precancerous cascade. Furthermore, Campylobacter concisus could be detected in tongue coating and gastric fluid in a validation cohort containing 38 gastritis patients. These observations provided biological evidence of tongue diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine, and indicated that tongue-coating microbiome could be a potential non-invasive biomarker, which might be suitable for long-term monitoring of gastritis. 10.1007/s13238-018-0596-6
    Gut microbiome analysis as a tool towards targeted non-invasive biomarkers for early hepatocellular carcinoma. Ren Zhigang,Li Ang,Jiang Jianwen,Zhou Lin,Yu Zujiang,Lu Haifeng,Xie Haiyang,Chen Xiaolong,Shao Li,Zhang Ruiqing,Xu Shaoyan,Zhang Hua,Cui Guangying,Chen Xinhua,Sun Ranran,Wen Hao,Lerut Jan P,Kan Quancheng,Li Lanjuan,Zheng Shusen Gut OBJECTIVE:To characterise gut microbiome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the potential of microbiome as non-invasive biomarkers for HCC. DESIGN:We collected 486 faecal samples from East China, Central China and Northwest China prospectively and finally 419 samples completed Miseq sequencing. We characterised gut microbiome, identified microbial markers and constructed HCC classifier in 75 early HCC, 40 cirrhosis and 75 healthy controls. We validated the results in 56 controls, 30 early HCC and 45 advanced HCC. We further verified diagnosis potential in 18 HCC from Xinjiang and 80 HCC from Zhengzhou. RESULTS:Faecal microbial diversity was increased from cirrhosis to early HCC with cirrhosis. Phylum was increased in early HCC versus cirrhosis. Correspondingly, 13 genera including and were enriched in early HCC versus cirrhosis. Butyrate-producing genera were decreased, while genera producing-lipopolysaccharide were increased in early HCC versus controls. The optimal 30 microbial markers were identified through a fivefold cross-validation on a random forest model and achieved an area under the curve of 80.64% between 75 early HCC and 105 non-HCC samples. Notably, gut microbial markers validated strong diagnosis potential for early HCC and even advanced HCC. Importantly, microbial markers successfully achieved a cross-region validation of HCC from Northwest China and Central China. CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first to characterise gut microbiome in patients with HCC and to report the successful diagnosis model establishment and cross-region validation of microbial markers for HCC. Gut microbiota-targeted biomarkers represent potential non-invasive tools for early diagnosis of HCC. 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315084
    Network-based cancer precision medicine: A new emerging paradigm. Tan Aidi,Huang Huiya,Zhang Peng,Li Shao Cancer letters The complex interactions in biological systems have been shown to affect the response to single-targeted therapies which were initially developed under the "reductionist paradigm" of cancer precision medicine. To address these fundamental challenges, great efforts have been dedicated from a network perspective to explore the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis and progression and to extend our understanding of cancer as a complex disease, which is exploiting new advances in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. This review summarizes recent progress of network applications in cancer precision medicine research, including biomarker identification, cancer patient stratification and network target recognition, highlights network-based systematic integrations across macro and micro networks, and discusses the tremendous potential of this new emerging network-based "systems paradigm" for precision medicine, which would ultimately make substantial progress for fighting cancer. 10.1016/j.canlet.2019.05.015
    Evidence-Based Cardiovascular Risk Management in Diabetes. Mooradian Arshag D American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions Multipronged risk management in diabetes has contributed to the recent decline in cardiovascular mortality. Few antihyperglycemic drugs have been conclusively shown to have cardioprotective effects. These include metformin, liraglutide, semaglutide, dulaglutide, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors. Statins are the cornerstone of treatment for people with established coronary artery disease (CAD) or at risk of CAD. In patients with persistent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels > 70 mg/dL, the addition of ezetimibe or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors is recommended. In general, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers should be included in the treatment regimen. The goal is to have blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, whereas a lower goal of < 130/80 mmHg is recommended in patients with CAD or proteinuria (> 1 g/day). Aspirin antiplatelet therapy should be restricted for people with established CAD or those with multiple CAD risk factors. While antiobesity medications have a modest role in managing obesity, bariatric surgery in people with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 or ≥ 35 with comorbidities can substantially affect quality of life and may reduce cardiovascular risks. Prescribing therapeutic agents should take into consideration a variety of factors, including the patient's preferences and the drug's affordability, side effect profile, and proven cardiovascular benefit. 10.1007/s40256-019-00336-6
    Clinical factors related to morbidity and mortality in high-risk heart failure patients: the GUIDE-IT predictive model and risk score. O'Connor Christopher,Fiuzat Mona,Mulder Hillary,Coles Adrian,Ahmad Tariq,Ezekowitz Justin A,Adams Kirkwood F,Piña Ileana L,Anstrom Kevin J,Cooper Lawton S,Mark Daniel B,Whellan David J,Januzzi James L,Leifer Eric S,Felker G Michael European journal of heart failure BACKGROUND:Most heart failure (HF) risk scores have been derived from cohorts of stable HF patients and may not incorporate up to date treatment regimens or deep phenotype characterization that change baseline risk over the short- and long-term follow-up period. We undertook the current analysis of participants in the GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence-Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment) trial to address these limitations. METHODS AND RESULTS:The GUIDE-IT study randomized 894 high-risk patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (≤ 40%) to biomarker-guided treatment strategy vs. usual care. We performed risk modelling using Cox proportional hazards models and analysed the relationship between 35 baseline clinical factors and the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization, the secondary endpoint of all-cause mortality, and the exploratory endpoint of 90-day HF hospitalization or death. Prognostic relationships for continuous variables were examined and key predictors were identified using a backward variable selection process. Predictive models and risk scores were developed. Over a median follow-up of 15 months, the cumulative number of HF hospitalizations and CV deaths was 328 out of 894 patients (Kaplan-Meier event rate 34.5% at 12 months). Frequency of all-cause deaths was 143 out of 894 patients (Kaplan-Meier event rate 12.2% at 12 months). Outcomes for the primary and secondary endpoints between strategy arms of the study were similar. The most important predictor that was present in all three models was the baseline natriuretic peptide level. Hispanic ethnicity, low sodium and high heart rate were present in two of the three models. Other important predictors included the presence or absence of a device, New York Heart Association class, HF duration, black race, co-morbidities (sleep apnoea, elevated creatinine, ischaemic heart disease), low blood pressure, and a high congestion score. CONCLUSION:Risk models using readily available clinical information are able to accurately predict short- and long-term CV events and may be useful in optimizing care and enriching patients for clinical trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID number NCT01685840. 10.1002/ejhf.1450
    Screening and Management of Depression in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Jha Manish K,Qamar Arman,Vaduganathan Muthiah,Charney Dennis S,Murrough James W Journal of the American College of Cardiology Depression is a common problem in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with increased mortality, excess disability, greater health care expenditures, and reduced quality of life. Depression is present in 1 of 5 patients with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and heart failure. Depression complicates the optimal management of CVD by worsening cardiovascular risk factors and decreasing adherence to healthy lifestyles and evidence-based medical therapies. As such, standardized screening pathways for depression in patients with CVD offer the potential for early identification and optimal management of depression to improve health outcomes. Unfortunately, the burden of depression in patients with CVD is under-recognized; as a result, screening and management strategies targeting depression have been poorly implemented in patients with CVD. In this review, the authors discuss a practical approach for the screening and management of depression in patients with CVD. 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.041
    Hot topics and trends in cardiovascular research. Gal Diane,Thijs Bart,Glänzel Wolfgang,Sipido Karin R European heart journal AIMS:Comprehensive data on research undertaken in cardiovascular medicine can inform the scientific community and can support policy building. We used the publication output from 2004 to 2013 and the 2014 references to these documents, to identify research topics and trends in the field of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS:Text fragments were extracted from the titles and abstracts of 478 000 publications using natural language processing. Through machine-learning algorithms, these text fragments combined to identify specific topics across all publications. A second method, which included cross-references, assigned each publication document to a specific cluster. Experts named the topics and document clusters based on various outputs from these semi-automatic methods. We identified and labelled 175 cardiovascular topics and 20 large document clusters, with concordance between the approaches. Overarching, strongly growing topics in clinical and population sciences are evidence-based guidance for treatment, research on outcomes, prognosis, and risk factors. 'Hot' topics include novel treatments in valve disease and in coronary artery disease, and imaging. Basic research decreases its share over time but sees substantial growth of research on stem cells and tissue engineering, as well as in translational research. Inflammation, biomarkers, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and lipids are hot topics across population, clinical and basic research, supporting integration across the cardiovascular field. CONCLUSION:Growth in clinical and population research emphasizes improving patient outcomes through novel treatments, risk stratification, and prevention. Translation and innovation redefine basic research in cardiovascular disease. Medical need, funding and publishing policies, and scientific opportunities are potential drivers for these evolutions. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz282
    Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors using the WHO STEPS approach in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Mamani-Ortiz Yercin,San Sebastián Miguel,Armaza Ada X,Luizaga Jenny M,Illanes Daniel E,Ferrel Marcia,Mosquera Paola A BMC public health BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered the number one cause of death worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, Bolivia included. Lack of reliable estimates of risk factor distribution can lead to delay in implementation of evidence-based interventions. However, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of preventable risk factors associated with CVDs and to identify the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with them in Cochabamba, Bolivia. METHODS:A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among youth and adults (N = 10,704) with permanent residence in Cochabamba, selected through a multistage sampling technique, from July 2015 to November 2016. An adapted version of the WHO STEPS survey was used to collect information. The prevalence of relevant behavioural risk factors and anthropometric measures were obtained. The socio-demographic variables included were age, ethnicity, level of education, occupation, place of residence, and marital status. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals were first calculated, and prevalence ratios were estimated for each CVD risk factor, both with crude and adjusted models. RESULTS:More than half (57.38%) were women, and the mean age was 37.89 ± 18 years. The prevalence of behavioural risk factors were: current smoking, 11.6%; current alcohol consumption, 42.76%; low consumption of fruits and vegetables, 76.73%; and low level of physical activity, 64.77%. The prevalence of overweight was 35.84%; obesity, 20.49%; waist risk or abdominal obesity, 54.13%; and raised blood pressure, 17.5%. Indigenous populations and those living in the Andean region showed in general a lower prevalence of most of the risk factors evaluated. CONCLUSION:We provide the first CVD risk factor profile of people living in Cochabamba, Bolivia, using a standardized methodology. Overall, findings suggest that the prevalence of CVD risk factors in Cochabamba is high. This result highlights the need for interventions to improve early diagnosis, monitoring, management, and especially prevention of these risk factors. 10.1186/s12889-019-7064-y
    Global Updates on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Trends and Attribution of Traditional Risk Factors. Jagannathan Ram,Patel Shivani A,Ali Mohammed K,Narayan K M Venkat Current diabetes reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The last 2-3 decades have witnessed a decline in age-standardized cardiovascular mortality rates in high-income regions, whereas this has only slightly decreased or even increased in most of the low- and middle-income countries. A systematic comparison of global CVD mortality by regions attributable to various modifiable risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, poor diet, and physical inactivity is not available. RECENT FINDINGS:We present a summary of time trends and heterogeneity in the distribution of global CVD mortality and the attribution of risk factors between 1990 and 2017 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. Globally, an estimated ~ 17.8 million (233.1 per 100,000) people died of CVD in 2017. The rate of CVD death was decreased in high-income countries (1990: 271.8 (95% UI (uncertainty interval), 270.9-273.5); 2017: 128.5 (95% UI, 126.4-130.7) per 100,000)) whereas it remained the same in lower- and middle-income countries (1990: 368.2 (95% UI, 335.6-383.3); 2017: 316.9 (95% UI, 307.0-325.5) per 100,000). Among the various traditional risk factors, high systolic blood pressure, unhealthy diet, high fasting plasma glucose, and high low-density lipoprotein levels were attributed to most of the CVD death and disability-adjusted life year lost. We also observed gender variations in tobacco and increased alcohol consumption. In addition to the traditional risk factors, poor air quality is associated with increased CVD burden in developing countries. Surveillance, country-specific guidelines, evidence-based policies, reinforcement of multisectoral health systems, and innovative solutions are urgently needed in resource-challenged settings to curb CVD risk factors and overall burden. 10.1007/s11892-019-1161-2
    Health-Related Quality of Life of Hypertension Patients: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chongqing, China. Xiao Meng,Zhang Fan,Xiao Nanzi,Bu Xiaoqing,Tang Xiaojun,Long Qian International journal of environmental research and public health : Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and stroke, and it requires lifelong medication. This study aimed to investigate the factors impacting on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among hypertensive patients in Chongqing, China, and to provide evidence-based strategies to improve their HRQoL. : This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chongqing, China. Of 600 randomly selected patients, 586 patients agreed to participate and 567 patients completed the survey. A SF-36 (Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form Health Survey questionnaire) that included eight domains: physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, body pain, general health, vitality, social function, role limitations due to emotional problems, and mental health was used to measure HRQoL. Linear regressions were used; each domain of HRQoL was measured in the stratification of sex. : Self-perceived relatively low economic burden caused by hypertension and regular physical activity had a positive impact on HRQoL ( < 0.05) for both men and women. For women, younger age was associated with higher scores of measuring physical functioning and body pain. Living with more than three family members had a positive impact on domains, including physical functioning. Emotional self-regulation had a positive association with women's mental health. Alcohol use for men was associated with higher scores in physical and mental health measures, and emotional self-regulation showed some positive impact on general health. : Perceived economic burden caused by hypertension was the most common factor impacting on patients' HRQoL. Female patients were more susceptible when compared to male patients. Health intervention strategies need to be further explored and adapted to the context of improving HRQoL for patients who suffer from hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases. 10.3390/ijerph16132348
    SGLT2 Inhibitors: Cardiovascular Benefits Beyond HbA1c-Translating Evidence into Practice. Ali Amar,Bain Steve,Hicks Debbie,Newland Jones Phillip,Patel Dipesh C,Evans Marc,Fernando Kevin,James June,Milne Nicola,Viljoen Adie,Wilding John, Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure (HF), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). CVD and T2DM share common risk factors for development and progression, and there is significant overlap between the conditions in terms of worsening outcomes. In assessing the cardiovascular (CV) safety profiles of anti-diabetic drugs, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) therapies have emerged with robust evidence for reducing the risk of adverse CVD outcomes in people with T2DM who have either established CVD or are at risk of developing CVD. A previous consensus document from the Improving Diabetes Steering Committee has examined the potential role of SGLT2is in T2DM management and considered the risk-benefit profile of the class and the appropriate place for these medicines within the T2DM pathway. This paper builds on these findings and presents practical guidance for maximising the pleiotropic benefits of this class of medicines in people with T2DM in terms of reducing adverse CVD outcomes. The Improving Diabetes Steering Committee aims to offer evidence-based practical guidance for the use of SGLT2i therapies in people with T2DM stratified by CVD risk. This is of particular importance currently because some treatment guidelines have not been updated to reflect recent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs) and real-world studies that complement the CVOTs. The Improving Diabetes Steering Committee seeks to support healthcare professionals (HCPs) in appropriate treatment selection for people with T2DM who are at risk of developing or have established CVD and examines the role of SGLT2i therapy for these people.Funding: Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited. 10.1007/s13300-019-0657-8
    Cohort Profile: The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center Cohort in Korea. Shim Jee Seon,Song Bo Mi,Lee Jung Hyun,Lee Seung Won,Park Ji Hye,Choi Dong Phil,Lee Myung Ha,Ha Kyoung Hwa,Kim Dae Jung,Park Sungha,Lee Won Woo,Youm Yoosik,Shin Eui Cheol,Kim Hyeon Chang Yonsei medical journal Mortalities from cardiovascular disease in Korea have decreased markedly over the past three decades. The major cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, however, remain prevalent, and their burden on health is large. The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC) planned a cohort study in order to identify novel risk factors and to develop evidence-based prevention strategies of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The CMERC deliberately designed two prospective cohorts, a community-based general population cohort (the CMERC cohort) and its sister cohort (a hospital-based high-risk patient cohort), covering a broad spectrum of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This paper describes the CMERC cohort study of community-dwelling adults aged 30 to 64 years. A total of 8097 adults completed baseline measurement between 2013 and 2018. Baseline measurements assessed socio-demographic factors, medical history, health-related behaviors, psychological health, social network and support, anthropometry, body composition, and resting blood pressure and comprised electrocardiography, carotid artery ultrasonography, fasting blood analysis, and urinalysis. Both active follow-up through an annual telephone survey and a 5-year on-site health examination survey and passive follow-up through secondary data linkage with national databases, such as national death records, have been applied. Researchers interested in collaborative research may contact the corresponding author. 10.3349/ymj.2019.60.8.804
    Perceptions of risk factors of cardiovascular disease and cardiac rehabilitation: a cross-sectional study targeting the Chinese population in the Midlands, UK. Za Tay,Lau Jeff C F,Wong Arthur C K,Wong Alice W S,Lui Sally,Fong James W D,Chow Patrick Y C,Jolly Kate B Heart Asia OBJECTIVES:To find out and explore the knowledge and opinion of Chinese people on cardiovascular disease and awareness of cardiac rehabilitation. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study using 14-item bilingual (Chinese and English) questionnaires that include information on demographics, health status, cardiovascular disease related knowledge and perception, and awareness and understanding of the cardiac rehabilitation programme. SETTING:Chinese community groups in the Midlands, UK from January to April 2008. PARTICIPANTS:436 questionnaires from Chinese adults over 18 were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Current knowledge and attitude towards cardiovascular disease and awareness of cardiac rehabilitation. RESULTS:Obesity was the most common risk factor identified by 80.7% of participants. Those originated from China had significantly less knowledge compared with subjects from other countries (p<0.001). People who have had exposure or experience of cardiac disease rated a higher risk of cardiac disease for Chinese living in the UK than people without experience. A majority (81.7%) used orthodox medicine and perceived it to be most effective against cardiac disease. Only 30% of participants were aware of cardiac rehabilitation. CONCLUSION:The coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors of Chinese population have increased significantly in the last decade. Cardiac rehabilitation awareness was poor among the sample population of this study and language barrier is still a problem. More large studies on Chinese population assessing CAD risk should be done to provide more evidence on CAD prevention for this growing population in the Western world. 10.1136/heartasia-2011-010080
    Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yiqi Huaju Formula on hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Chen Yi,Fu De-yu,Chen Yu,He Yan-ming,Fu Xiao-dong,Xu Yan-qiu,Liu Yi,Feng Xiao-Tao,Zhang Teng,Wang Wen-Jian Journal of integrative medicine BACKGROUND:Patients with hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are among the high risk population in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, it is essential to appropriately control blood pressure together with other cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE:The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects on blood pressure, blood pressure variability and other cardiovascular risk factors by giving Yiqi Huaju Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, in addition to routine treatment to hypertensive patients coupled with MetS. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:A total of 43 patients with hypertension coupled with MetS were recruited into this study. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into the Chinese herbal formula group (anti-hypertensive drugs plus Yiqi Huaju Formula, CHF) and the control group (anti-hypertensive drugs plus placebo). The CHF group enrolled 22 patients while the control group received 21 cases. Treatments were given for 12 weeks in both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Parameters examined include 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin, serum lipid, etc. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the CHF group had significant improvement (P<0.01) in anthropometric parameters, FPG, HOMA-IR, blood pressure amplitude, blood pressure variability and blood pressure load. CONCLUSION:This study showed that integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment can achieve better results in controlling blood pressure as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanism of controlling of blood pressure may be associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity due to the Yiqi Huaju intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION IDENTIFIER: ChiCTR-TRC-11001633. 10.3736/jintegrmed2013031
    Patient classification of hypertension in Traditional Chinese Medicine using multi-label learning techniques. Li Guo-Zheng,He Zehui,Shao Feng-Feng,Ou Ai-Hua,Lin Xiao-Zhong BMC medical genomics BACKGROUND:Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Research on the patient classification of hypertension has become an important topic because Traditional Chinese Medicine lies primarily in "treatment based on syndromes differentiation of the patients". METHODS:Clinical data of hypertension was collected with 12 syndromes and 129 symptoms including inspection, tongue, inquiry, and palpation symptoms. Syndromes differentiation was modeled as a patient classification problem in the field of data mining, and a new multi-label learning model BrSmoteSvm was built dealing with the class-imbalanced of the dataset. RESULTS:The experiments showed that the BrSmoteSvm had a better results comparing to other multi-label classifiers in the evaluation criteria of Average precision, Coverage, One-error, Ranking loss. CONCLUSIONS:BrSmoteSvm can model the hypertension's syndromes differentiation better considering the imbalanced problem. 10.1186/1755-8794-8-S3-S4
    Traditional Chinese Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Western Medicine Hospitals in China. Spatz Erica S,Wang Yongfei,Beckman Adam L,Wu Xuekun,Lu Yuan,Du Xue,Li Jing,Xu Xiao,Davidson Patricia M,Masoudi Frederick A,Spertus John A,Krumholz Harlan M,Jiang Lixin Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes BACKGROUND:Amid national efforts to improve the quality of care for people with cardiovascular disease in China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is increasing, yet little is known about its use in the early management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS AND RESULTS:We aimed to examine intravenous use of TCM within the first 24 hours of hospitalization (early IV TCM) for AMI. Data come from the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Retrospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction, restricted to a large, representative sample of Western medicine hospitals throughout China (n=162). We conducted a chart review of randomly sampled patients with AMI in 2001, 2006, and 2011, comparing early intravenous TCM use across years, predictors of any early intravenous TCM use, and association with in-hospital bleeding and mortality. From 2001 to 2011, early intravenous TCM use increased (2001: 38.2% versus 2006: 49.1% versus 2011: 56.1%; <0.01). Nearly all (99%) hospitals used early intravenous TCM. Salvia miltiorrhiza was most commonly prescribed, used in one third (35.5%) of all patients admitted with AMI. Patients receiving any early intravenous TCM, compared with those who did not, were similar in age and sex and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors. In multivariable hierarchical models, admission to a secondary (versus tertiary) hospital was most strongly associated with early intravenous TCM use (odds ratio: 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.98-4.11). Hospital-level factors accounted for 55% of the variance (adjusted median odds ratio: 2.84). In exploratory analyses, there were no significant associations between early intravenous TCM and in-hospital bleeding or mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Early intravenous TCM use for AMI in China is increasing despite the lack of evidence of their benefit or harm. There is an urgent need to define the effects of these medications because they have become a staple of treatment in the world's most populous country. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624883. 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.117.004190
    Gut Flora: Novel Therapeutic Target of Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. Ou Yangwen,Zhang Cuiping,Yao Miaoen,Wang Lei Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the three major threats to human health identified by WHO. Dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity are well established as common CVD risk factors. However, controversies exist on the effects of gut flora on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence suggests that gut microbiota is a double-edged sword for CVD risk, and its effects are largely determined by the metabolites of the gut microbiota. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), as one of the metabolites of gut flora, is consistently associated with higher CVD risk. A few studies have emerged providing early evidence about the safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating cardiovascular diseases by regulating gut flora. In this article, we review and interpret the existing evidence as well as explore the potential of intestinal flora as novel therapeutic targets of traditional Chinese medicine for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). 10.1155/2019/3719596
    Analysis on outcome of 5284 patients with coronary artery disease: the role of integrative medicine. Gao Zhu-ye,Xu Hao,Shi Da-zhuo,Wen Chuan,Liu Bao-yan Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a history of thousands of years and has made great contributions to the health and well-being of the people. Integrative medicine (IM) treatment, combing TCM and conventional medicine, has been the most representative characteristic for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients in China, especially those in IM hospitals. However, the secondary prevention status of CAD and the potential benefit of IM therapy in improving CAD prognosis remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:By means of a unified clinical and research information platform, we collected clinical information of hospitalized patients with CAD in cardiovascular department of 9 IM hospitals in Beijing and Tianjin from January 2003 to September 2006. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) which include all-cause death in hospital and during one-year follow-up, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The diagnostic and therapeutic status of CAD patients was evaluated based on the latest available clinical guidelines. Meanwhile, a logistic stepwise regression analysis was also used to identify independent prognostic factors. RESULTS:5284 hospitalized patients with CAD were registered. The top five TCM patterns were in turn blood stasis 79.3%, Qi deficiency 56.5%, phlegm-turbidness 41.1%, Yin deficiency 24.8%, Yang deficiency 11.3%. The standard-reaching rate of CAD patients with hyperlipidemia was 85.6% for total cholesterol, 31.2% for triglyceride, 21.4% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 52.5% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while it was 61.9% and 80.9% in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of CAD with hypertension respectively. The top five commonly used herbs by functions were Qi-tonifying agents 89.25%, blood-activating agents 86.04%, Qi-regulating agents 77.60%, heat-clearing agents 67.50%, dampness-draining agents 65.95%. The herbs commonly used were Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge 63.10%, Poria 59.99%, Raidx Astragali 49.67%, Radix Paeoniae Rubra 48.71%, peach seed 47.32%, angelica 46.82%, Radix Ligustici Chuanxiong 46.36%, safflower 45.40%, Pinellia 45.30%, glycyrrhiza 41.36%. 90 patients (1.7%) died in hospital, and the overall incidence of endpoints was 6.1% (322/5284). The logistic stepwise regress analysis showed that AMI (OR, 5.62, 95% CI=2.56-12.33), heart failure (OR, 2.68, 95% CI=1.67-4.29), age≥60 years (OR, 2.01, 95% CI=1.22-3.30), and medication of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (OR, 1.67, 95% CI=1.15-2.42) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality and one-year follow-up MACEs, while statins (OR, 0.23, 95% CI=0.06-0.91) and IM therapy (OR, 0.69, 95% CI=0.49-0.97) were protective factors. CONCLUSION:There was still certain gap between the usage of conventional medicine and clinical guideline in IM hospitals of China. Integrative Medicine might have potential benefit for CAD patients in reducing MACEs. However, the scheme of IM intervention and the mechanism of action are still needed to be further determined. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.071
    Atherosclerosis, vascular aging and therapeutic strategies. Liu Yue,Chen Ke-Ji Chinese journal of integrative medicine With the arrival of the era of global population aging, we strive for healthy aging and a healthy senior life rather than simple prolongation of the physical age. For the past 50 years, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been the most common cause of death among the elderly people globally. In China, there has been an exponential increase in the incidence of heart disease and stroke in the elderly population. Atherosclerosis is the pathological change in the coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Despite the significant benefit demonstrated, control of classic risk factors alone, such as lifestyle change or drug therapy, was shown to have limitations in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events. Vascular aging has been shown to be an important independent predictor of CVD events. Interventions targeting vascular aging have emerged as a new paradigm in conjunction with control of risk factors for the prevention of CVD. Vascular aging and atherosclerosis are two distinct pathological changes and difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent research with Chinese medicine (CM) has shown encouraging observations, linking the clinical benefit of delaying vascular aging and treating atherosclerosis. These results demonstrate great potential of CM in the prevention and treatment of CVD. 10.1007/s11655-012-0996-z
    Intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in China: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors. Liu C-Y,Chen C-Q European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:Data regarding the cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis (CAS) and incidence of stroke are conflicting. The number of stroke patients is more than three times that from coronary heart disease in China. The main aim of this report is to review the current status of intracranial and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis including epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors in China. METHODS:Data was identified by searches of MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 2008), China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc 1979 to 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI 1994 to December 2008). RESULTS:The occurrence of intracranial artery stenosis was more frequent than that of extracranial artery in the Chinese population. TCD, Doppler ultrasound, CTA, MRA and DSA techniques are established to examine intracranial and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in China. Evidence-based treatments and CAS are more commonly applied in patients with cerebrovascular stenosis in China. However, the development of carotid endoarterectomy (CEA) is limited in Chinese communities. The risks of cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis include age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS:Further studies are needed to focus on the intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.
    Risk factors for erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. Chaudhary Rakesh Kumar,Shamsi Bilal Haider,Chen Hui-Ming,Tan Tan,Tang Kai-Fa,Xing Jun-Ping The Journal of international medical research OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between risk factors for cardiac disease and erectile dysfunction (ED) in men from Xi'an, China. METHODS:Participants were patients with cardiovascular disease who visited the Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Xi'an Jiaotong University First Affiliated Hospital between September 2011 and March 2012. Two hundred and fifty patients were issued with questionnaires and underwent a physical examination and blood test.Risk factors for ED were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS:In total, 222 participants returned valid questionnaires (89% response rate), underwent a physical examination and blood test, and were included in the study. The most common cardiovascular diseases were hypertension (n = 142; 64%), coronary heart disease (n = 90; 41%) and angina pectoris (n = 78; 35%). Most patients (n = 144; 65%) had two or more cardiovascular diseases. Age, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol level, hypertension and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly associated with ED. Domestic location, level of education, participation in physical activity, diabetes and drinking alcohol were not associated with ED. CONCLUSIONS:Common risk factors for cardiovascular disease are associated with ED in patients with cardiovascular disease. This study furthers understanding of the risk factors for ED in Chinese patients with cardiovascular disease and paves the way for further research into the prevention of ED. 10.1177/0300060515621637
    Sodium Tanshinone II A Sulfonate for Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Yu Mei-Li,Li Si-Ming,Gao Xiang,Li Jin-Gen,Xu Hao,Chen Ke-Ji Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To assess whether an adjunctive therapy of Sodium Tanshinone II A Sulfonate Injection (STS) is effective and safe in improving clinical outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS:A literature search was conducted through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Knowledge Infrastructure Databases (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) and Wanfang Database up to August 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing STS with placebo or no additional treatments on the basis of standard conventional medicine therapies were included. The outcomes were all-cause mortality, major acute cardiovascular events (MACEs), cardiac function and inflammatory factors. The risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane Handbook was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included trials. Revman 5.3 software was used for data analyses. RESULTS:A total of 22 RCTs involving 1,873 participants were included. All of the trials used STS as adjunctive treatment to standard conventional medicine therapy. Due to the poor quality of methodologies of most trials, only limited evidence showed that a combination of STS with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolytic therapy (TT) might be more effective on reduction of all cause death rate than TT alone [risk ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.87] or PCI alone (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.04 to 4.36). The results of 6 trials comparing STS plus TT with TT alone showed that the addition of STS significantly reduced the incidence of cardiac shock (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.86), heart failure (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.83) and arrhythmia (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.46). STS combined with TT also showed a superior effect on cardiac function and inflammatory factor. No severe adverse event was reported related to STS. CONCLUSIONS:As an adjunctive therapy, STS combined with standard conventional medicine seems to be more effective on all-cause mortality or MACEs than conventional medicine treatment alone with less side effects. However, we cannot make a firm conclusion due to low quality of inclusion trials. Well-designed trials with high methodological quality are needed to validate the effect of STS for CHD patients. 10.1007/s11655-018-2556-7
    Metabolomics and its application in the treatment of coronary heart disease with traditional Chinese medicine. Wu Gao-Song,Li Hou-Kai,Zhang Wei-Dong Chinese journal of natural medicines Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the treasure of Chinese Nation and gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, the methods and theories of TCM understanding of diseases are lack of appropriate modern scientific characterization systems. Moreover, traditional risk factors cannot promote to detection and prevent those patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who have not developed acute myocardial infarction (MI) in time. To sum up, there is still no objective systematic evaluation system for the therapeutic mechanism of TCM in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular disease. Thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. The development of omics technology, especially metabolomics, can be used to predict the level of metabolites in vivo and diagnose the physiological state of the body in time to guide the corresponding intervention. In particular, metabolomics is also a very powerful tool to promote the modernization of TCM and the development of TCM in personalized medicine. This article summarized the application of metabolomics in the early diagnosis, the discovery of biomarkers and the treatment of TCM in CAD. 10.1016/S1875-5364(19)30037-8
    Utility of genetic and non-genetic risk factors in predicting coronary heart disease in Singaporean Chinese. Chang Xuling,Salim Agus,Dorajoo Rajkumar,Han Yi,Khor Chiea-Chuen,van Dam Rob M,Yuan Jian-Min,Koh Woon-Puay,Liu Jianjun,Goh Daniel Yt,Wang Xu,Teo Yik-Ying,Friedlander Yechiel,Heng Chew-Kiat European journal of preventive cardiology Background Although numerous phenotype based equations for predicting risk of 'hard' coronary heart disease are available, data on the utility of genetic information for such risk prediction is lacking in Chinese populations. Design Case-control study nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods A total of 1306 subjects comprising 836 men (267 incident cases and 569 controls) and 470 women (128 incident cases and 342 controls) were included. A Genetic Risk Score comprising 156 single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been robustly associated with coronary heart disease or its risk factors ( p < 5 × 10) in at least two independent cohorts of genome-wide association studies was built. For each gender, three base models were used: recalibrated Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) Model (M); ATP III model fitted using Singapore Chinese Health Study data (M) and M: M + C-reactive protein + creatinine. Results The Genetic Risk Score was significantly associated with incident 'hard' coronary heart disease ( p for men: 1.70 × 10-1.73 × 10; p for women: 0.001). The inclusion of the Genetic Risk Score in the prediction models improved discrimination in both genders (c-statistics: 0.706-0.722 vs. 0.663-0.695 from base models for men; 0.788-0.790 vs. 0.765-0.773 for women). In addition, the inclusion of the Genetic Risk Score also improved risk classification with a net gain of cases being reclassified to higher risk categories (men: 12.4%-16.5%; women: 10.2% (M)), while not significantly reducing the classification accuracy in controls. Conclusions The Genetic Risk Score is an independent predictor for incident 'hard' coronary heart disease in our ethnic Chinese population. Inclusion of genetic factors into coronary heart disease prediction models could significantly improve risk prediction performance. 10.1177/2047487316676609
    Finding an early warning signal for acute respiratory distress syndrome: are we getting closer? Rogers Angela J,Dhillon Gundeep S Critical care medicine 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000800
    A targeted real-time early warning score (TREWScore) for septic shock. Henry Katharine E,Hager David N,Pronovost Peter J,Saria Suchi Science translational medicine Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States, with mortality highest among patients who develop septic shock. Early aggressive treatment decreases morbidity and mortality. Although automated screening tools can detect patients currently experiencing severe sepsis and septic shock, none predict those at greatest risk of developing shock. We analyzed routinely available physiological and laboratory data from intensive care unit patients and developed "TREWScore," a targeted real-time early warning score that predicts which patients will develop septic shock. TREWScore identified patients before the onset of septic shock with an area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81 to 0.85]. At a specificity of 0.67, TREWScore achieved a sensitivity of 0.85 and identified patients a median of 28.2 [interquartile range (IQR), 10.6 to 94.2] hours before onset. Of those identified, two-thirds were identified before any sepsis-related organ dysfunction. In comparison, the Modified Early Warning Score, which has been used clinically for septic shock prediction, achieved a lower AUC of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.76). A routine screening protocol based on the presence of two of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, suspicion of infection, and either hypotension or hyperlactatemia achieved a lower sensitivity of 0.74 at a comparable specificity of 0.64. Continuous sampling of data from the electronic health records and calculation of TREWScore may allow clinicians to identify patients at risk for septic shock and provide earlier interventions that would prevent or mitigate the associated morbidity and mortality. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aab3719
    A computational approach to early sepsis detection. Calvert Jacob S,Price Daniel A,Chettipally Uli K,Barton Christopher W,Feldman Mitchell D,Hoffman Jana L,Jay Melissa,Das Ritankar Computers in biology and medicine OBJECTIVE:To develop high-performance early sepsis prediction technology for the general patient population. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (from the MIMIC II dataset) who were not septic at the time of admission. RESULTS:A sepsis early warning algorithm, InSight, was developed and applied to the prediction of sepsis up to three hours prior to a patient's first five hour Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) episode. When applied to a never-before-seen set of test patients, InSight predictions demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.89-0.91) and a specificity of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.80-0.82), exceeding or rivaling that of existing biomarker detection methods. Across predictive times up to three hours before a sustained SIRS event, InSight maintained an average area under the ROC curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.86). Analysis of patient sepsis risk showed that contributions from the coevolution of multiple risk factors were more important than the contributions from isolated individual risk factors when making predictions further in advance. CONCLUSIONS:Sepsis can be predicted at least three hours in advance of onset of the first five hour SIRS episode, using only nine commonly available vital signs, with better performance than methods in standard practice today. High-order correlations of vital sign measurements are key to this prediction, which improves the likelihood of early identification of at-risk patients. 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2016.05.003
    Quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, and Early Warning Scores for Detecting Clinical Deterioration in Infected Patients outside the Intensive Care Unit. Churpek Matthew M,Snyder Ashley,Han Xuan,Sokol Sarah,Pettit Natasha,Howell Michael D,Edelson Dana P American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:The 2016 definitions of sepsis included the quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score to identify high-risk patients outside the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVES:We sought to compare qSOFA with other commonly used early warning scores. METHODS:All admitted patients who first met the criteria for suspicion of infection in the emergency department (ED) or hospital wards from November 2008 until January 2016 were included. The qSOFA, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) were compared for predicting death and ICU transfer. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Of the 30,677 included patients, 1,649 (5.4%) died and 7,385 (24%) experienced the composite outcome (death or ICU transfer). Sixty percent (n = 18,523) first met the suspicion criteria in the ED. Discrimination for in-hospital mortality was highest for NEWS (area under the curve [AUC], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), followed by MEWS (AUC, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.71-0.74), qSOFA (AUC, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.67-0.70), and SIRS (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.63-0.66) (P < 0.01 for all pairwise comparisons). Using the highest non-ICU score of patients, ≥2 SIRS had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 13% for the composite outcome compared with 54% and 67% for qSOFA ≥2, 59% and 70% for MEWS ≥5, and 67% and 66% for NEWS ≥8, respectively. Most patients met ≥2 SIRS criteria 17 hours before the combined outcome compared with 5 hours for ≥2 and 17 hours for ≥1 qSOFA criteria. CONCLUSIONS:Commonly used early warning scores are more accurate than the qSOFA score for predicting death and ICU transfer in non-ICU patients. These results suggest that the qSOFA score should not replace general early warning scores when risk-stratifying patients with suspected infection. 10.1164/rccm.201604-0854OC
    Prediction of Sepsis in the Intensive Care Unit With Minimal Electronic Health Record Data: A Machine Learning Approach. Desautels Thomas,Calvert Jacob,Hoffman Jana,Jay Melissa,Kerem Yaniv,Shieh Lisa,Shimabukuro David,Chettipally Uli,Feldman Mitchell D,Barton Chris,Wales David J,Das Ritankar JMIR medical informatics BACKGROUND:Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite this fact, a reliable means of predicting sepsis onset remains elusive. Early and accurate sepsis onset predictions could allow more aggressive and targeted therapy while maintaining antimicrobial stewardship. Existing detection methods suffer from low performance and often require time-consuming laboratory test results. OBJECTIVE:To study and validate a sepsis prediction method, InSight, for the new Sepsis-3 definitions in retrospective data, make predictions using a minimal set of variables from within the electronic health record data, compare the performance of this approach with existing scoring systems, and investigate the effects of data sparsity on InSight performance. METHODS:We apply InSight, a machine learning classification system that uses multivariable combinations of easily obtained patient data (vitals, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, Glasgow Coma Score, and age), to predict sepsis using the retrospective Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC)-III dataset, restricted to intensive care unit (ICU) patients aged 15 years or more. Following the Sepsis-3 definitions of the sepsis syndrome, we compare the classification performance of InSight versus quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA), modified early warning score (MEWS), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) to determine whether or not patients will become septic at a fixed period of time before onset. We also test the robustness of the InSight system to random deletion of individual input observations. RESULTS:In a test dataset with 11.3% sepsis prevalence, InSight produced superior classification performance compared with the alternative scores as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and area under precision-recall curves (APR). In detection of sepsis onset, InSight attains AUROC = 0.880 (SD 0.006) at onset time and APR = 0.595 (SD 0.016), both of which are superior to the performance attained by SIRS (AUROC: 0.609; APR: 0.160), qSOFA (AUROC: 0.772; APR: 0.277), and MEWS (AUROC: 0.803; APR: 0.327) computed concurrently, as well as SAPS II (AUROC: 0.700; APR: 0.225) and SOFA (AUROC: 0.725; APR: 0.284) computed at admission (P<.001 for all comparisons). Similar results are observed for 1-4 hours preceding sepsis onset. In experiments where approximately 60% of input data are deleted at random, InSight attains an AUROC of 0.781 (SD 0.013) and APR of 0.401 (SD 0.015) at sepsis onset time. Even with 60% of data missing, InSight remains superior to the corresponding SIRS scores (AUROC and APR, P<.001), qSOFA scores (P=.0095; P<.001) and superior to SOFA and SAPS II computed at admission (AUROC and APR, P<.001), where all of these comparison scores (except InSight) are computed without data deletion. CONCLUSIONS:Despite using little more than vitals, InSight is an effective tool for predicting sepsis onset and performs well even with randomly missing data. 10.2196/medinform.5909
    From manageable to losing control: a grounded theory study of psychosis risk syndrome. Cheng Sunny Chieh,Schepp Karen G,Liu Chen-Chung,McGrath Barbara G,Walsh Elaine,Chen Eleanor Early intervention in psychiatry AIM:The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical explanation of the prodromal schizophrenia process, or so-called psychosis risk syndrome, by describing patients' own experiences with symptoms, thoughts and feelings. METHODS:A total of 40 interviews were conducted in Taiwan. A Grounded Theory method was selected because of its demonstrated effectiveness in generating theory around dynamic and complex processes on which little is known, all of which is the case with psychosis risk syndrome. Constant comparison analysis, memo writing, member checking, and theoretical sampling were adopted. RESULTS:A core theoretical framework was developed in which the process of the psychosis risk syndrome is described as proceeding from manageable to uncontrollable. Four stages emerged from the analysis: (1) something is wrong, (2) boiling up, (3) breaking point, and (4) losing control. CONCLUSIONS:The framework resulting from this Grounded Theory research is innovative in presenting patterns and clinical staging that marks the progression from premorbid stage to full-blown psychosis. In addition to specifying the detailed process through in-depth interviews, this research makes two fundamental contributions by: (1) adding evidence to current science and (2) taking patients' experience into consideration to improve the validity of screening tools and design appropriate intervention programs for people with early warning signs of developing schizophrenia. 10.1111/eip.12525
    Development and Evaluation of a Machine Learning Model for the Early Identification of Patients at Risk for Sepsis. Delahanty Ryan J,Alvarez JoAnn,Flynn Lisa M,Sherwin Robert L,Jones Spencer S Annals of emergency medicine STUDY OBJECTIVE:The Third International Consensus Definitions (Sepsis-3) Task Force recommended the use of the quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score to screen patients for sepsis outside of the ICU. However, subsequent studies raise concerns about the sensitivity of qSOFA as a screening tool. We aim to use machine learning to develop a new sepsis screening tool, the Risk of Sepsis (RoS) score, and compare it with a slate of benchmark sepsis-screening tools, including the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), qSOFA, Modified Early Warning Score, and National Early Warning Score. METHODS:We used retrospective electronic health record data from adult patients who presented to 49 urban community hospital emergency departments during a 22-month period (N=2,759,529). We used the Rhee clinical surveillance criteria as our standard definition of sepsis and as the primary target for developing our model. The data were randomly split into training and test cohorts to derive and then evaluate the model. A feature selection process was carried out in 3 stages: first, we reviewed existing models for sepsis screening; second, we consulted with local subject matter experts; and third, we used a supervised machine learning called gradient boosting. Key metrics of performance included alert rate, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Performance was assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after an index time. RESULTS:The RoS score was the most discriminant screening tool at all time thresholds (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.93 to 0.97). Compared with the next most discriminant benchmark (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment), RoS was significantly more sensitive (67.7% versus 49.2% at 1 hour and 84.6% versus 80.4% at 24 hours) and precise (27.6% versus 12.2% at 1 hour and 28.8% versus 11.4% at 24 hours). The sensitivity of qSOFA was relatively low (3.7% at 1 hour and 23.5% at 24 hours). CONCLUSION:In this retrospective study, RoS was more timely and discriminant than benchmark screening tools, including those recommend by the Sepsis-3 Task Force. Further study is needed to validate the RoS score at independent sites. 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.11.036
    Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitutions and Physiological Indexes Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Data Mining Approach. Tang Yanchao,Zhao Tong,Huang Nian,Lin Wanfu,Luo Zhiying,Ling Changquan Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Objective:In order to find the predictive indexes for metabolic syndrome (MS), a data mining method was used to identify significant physiological indexes and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutions. Methods:The annual health check-up data including physical examination data; biochemical tests and Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) measurement data from 2014 to 2016 were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A predictive matrix was established by the longitudinal data of three consecutive years. TreeNet machine learning algorithm was applied to build prediction model to uncover the dependence relationship between physiological indexes, TCM constitutions, and MS. Results:By model testing, the overall accuracy rate for prediction model by TreeNet was 73.23%. Top 12.31% individuals in test group (n=325) that have higher probability of having MS covered 23.68% MS patients, showing 0.92 times more risk of having MS than the general population. Importance of ranked top 15 was listed in descending order . The top 5 variables of great importance in MS prediction were TBIL difference between 2014 and 2015 (D_TBIL), TBIL in 2014 (TBIL 2014), LDL-C difference between 2014 and 2015 (D_LDL-C), CCMQ scores for balanced constitution in 2015 (balanced constitution 2015), and TCH in 2015 (TCH 2015). When D_TBIL was between 0 and 2, TBIL 2014 was between 10 and 15, D_LDL-C was above 19, balanced constitution 2015 was below 60, or TCH 2015 was above 5.7, the incidence of MS was higher. Furthermore, there were interactions between balanced constitution 2015 score and TBIL 2014 or D_LDL-C in MS prediction. Conclusion:Balanced constitution, TBIL, LDL-C, and TCH level can act as predictors for MS. The combination of TCM constitution and physiological indexes can give early warning to MS. 10.1155/2019/1686205
    Distribution of geographical scale, data aggregation unit and period in the correlation analysis between temperature and incidence of HFRS in mainland China: A systematic review of 27 ecological studies. Bai Xing-Hua,Peng Cheng,Jiang Tao,Hu Zhu-Min,Huang De-Sheng,Guan Peng PLoS neglected tropical diseases BACKGROUND:Changes in climate and environmental conditions could be the driving factors for the transmission of hantavirus. Thus, a thorough collection and analysis of data related to the epidemic status of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and the association between HFRS incidence and meteorological factors, such as air temperature, is necessary for the disease control and prevention. METHODS:Journal articles and theses in both English and Chinese from Jan 2014 to Feb 2019 were identified from PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP Info. All identified studies were subject to the six criteria established to ensure the consistency with research objectives, (i) they provided the data of the incidence of HFRS in mainland China; (ii) they provided the type of air temperature indexes; (iii) they indicated the underlying geographical scale information, temporal data aggregation unit, and the data sources; (iv) they provided the statistical analysis method that had been used; (v) from peer-reviewed journals or dissertation; (vi) the time range for the inclusion of data exceeded two consecutive calendar years. RESULTS:A total of 27 publications were included in the systematic review, among them, the correlation between HFRS activity and air temperature was explored in 12 provinces and autonomous regions and also at national level. The study period ranged from 3 years to 54 years with a median of 10 years, 70.4% of the studies were based on the monthly HFRS incidence data, 21 studies considered the lagged effect of air temperature factors on the HFRS activity and the longest lag period considered in the included studies was 34 weeks. The correlation between HFRS activity and air temperature varied widely, and the effect of temperature on the HFRS epidemic was seasonal. CONCLUSIONS:The present systematic review described the heterogeneity of geographical scale, data aggregation unit and study period chosen in the ecological studies that seeking the correlation between air temperature indexes and the incidence of HFRS in mainland China during the period from January 2014 to February 2019. The appropriate adoption of geographical scale, data aggregation unit, the length of lag period and the length of incidence collection period should be considered when exploring the relationship between HFRS incidence and meteorological factors such as air temperature. Further investigation is warranted to detect the thresholds of meteorological factors for the HFRS early warning purposes, to measure the duration of lagged effects and determine the timing of maximum effects for reducing the effects of meteorological factors on HFRS via continuous interventions and to identify the vulnerable populations for target protection. 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007688
    Decision tree model for predicting in-hospital cardiac arrest among patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome. Li Hong,Wu Ting Ting,Yang Dong Liang,Guo Yang Song,Liu Pei Chang,Chen Yuan,Xiao Li Ping Clinical cardiology BACKGROUND:In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) may be preventable, with patients often showing signs of physiological deterioration before an event. Our objective was to develop and validate a simple clinical prediction model to identify the IHCA risk among cardiac arrest (CA) patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). HYPOTHESIS:A predicting model could help to identify the risk of IHCA among patients admitted with ACS. METHODS:We conducted a case-control study and analyzed 21 337 adult ACS patients, of whom 164 had experienced CA. Vital signs, demographic, and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic health record. Decision tree analysis was applied with 10-fold cross-validation to predict the risk of IHCA. RESULTS:The decision tree analysis detected seven explanatory variables, and the variables' importance is as follows: VitalPAC Early Warning Score (ViEWS), fatal arrhythmia, Killip class, cardiac troponin I, blood urea nitrogen, age, and diabetes. The development decision tree model demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.762, a specificity of 0.882, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.844 (95% CI, 0.805 to 0.849). A 10-fold cross-validated risk estimate was 0.198, while the optimism-corrected AUC was 0.823 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.860). CONCLUSIONS:We have developed and internally validated a good discrimination decision tree model to predict the risk of IHCA. This simple prediction model may provide healthcare workers with a practical bedside tool and could positively impact decision-making with regard to deteriorating patients with ACS. 10.1002/clc.23255