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    Clinical evidence-guided network pharmacology analysis reveals a critical contribution of β1-adrenoreceptor upregulation to bradycardia alleviation by Shenxian-Shengmai. Gao Jiaming,Wang Taiyi,Yao Xi,Xie Weiwei,Shi Xianru,He Shuang,Zhao Tao,Wang Chunhua,Zhu Yan BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Shenxian-Shengmai (SXSM) Oral Liquid is a CFDA-approved patent Chinese Herbal medicine, which has been clinically used for the treatment of bradycardia. However, its active components and action mechanism remain to be established. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SXSM on bradycardia and to identify the possible active components and their pharmacological targets for this action. METHODS:A literature-based meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of SXSM on bradycardia, which was confirmed by a rat ex vivo cardiac model. Network pharmacology analysis was then conducted to reveal the potential targets of SXSM active components and their anti-arrhythmia mechanisms. Finally, the identified drug-target interaction was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay in cardiomyocyte. RESULTS:Meta-analysis of the available clinical study data shows that Shenxian-Shengmai Oral Liquid has a favorable effect for bradycardia. In an ex vivo bradycardia model of rat heart, SXSM restored heart rate by affecting Heart rate variability (HRV) which is associated with autonomic nervous system activity. A drug-target-pathway network analysis connecting SXSM components with arrhythmia suggested that a prominent anti-arrhythmia mechanisms of SXSM was via β1-adrenergic signaling pathway, which was subsequently validated by immunofluorescence assay showing that SXSM indeed increased the expression of ADRB1 in cultured cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION:By combining approaches of clinical evidence mining, experimental model confirmation, network pharmacology analyses and molecular mechanistic validation, we show that SXSM is an effective treatment for bradycardia and it involves multiple component interacting via multiple pathways, among which is the critical β1-adrenergic receptor upregulation. Our integrative approach could be applied to other multi-component traditional Chinese medicine investigation where ample clinical data are accumulated but advanced mechanistic studies are lacking. 10.1186/s12906-019-2769-0
    Hemodynamic effects of inotropic drugs in heart failure: A network meta-analysis of clinical trials. Long Ling,Zhao Hao-Tian,Shen Li-Min,He Cong,Ren Shan,Zhao He-Ling Medicine BACKGROUND:There is currently no consensus on the appropriate selection of inotropic therapy in ventricular dysfunction. The objective of the study was to detect the effects of different inotropes on the hemodynamics of patients who developed low cardiac output. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched (all updated December 31, 2017). The inclusion criteria were as follows: low cardiac index (CI < 2.5 L/min/m) or New York Heart Association class II-IV, and at least 1 group receiving an inotropic drug compared to another group receiving a different inotropic/placebo treatment. The exclusion criteria were studies published as an abstract only, crossover studies, and studies with a lack of data on the cardiac index. RESULTS:A total of 1402 patients from 37 trials were included in the study. Inotropic drugs were shown to increase the cardiac index (0.32, 95%CI:0.25, 0.38), heart rate (7.68, 95%CI:6.36, 9.01), and mean arterial pressure (3.17, 95%CI:1.96, 4.38) than the placebo. Overall, the pooled estimates showed no difference in terms of cardiac index, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure among the groups receiving different inotropes. CONCLUSIONS:Our systematic review found that inotrope therapy is not associated with the amelioration of hemodynamics. An accurate evaluation of the benefits and risks, and selection of the correct inotropic agent is required in all clinical settings. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018144
    Comparative effectiveness of tamoxifen, toremifene, letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane on lipid profiles in breast cancer patients: A network meta-analysis. He Tao,Yang Wenhao,Zhang Xinyi,Li Ping,Yang Dandan,Wu Yunhao,Fan Yuan,Xiang Mengya,Huang Qianqian,Chen Jing,Zhou Runke,Lv Qing,Chen Jie Medicine BACKGROUND:Adjuvant endocrine therapy is a vital portion of postoperative comprehensive treatment for breast cancer patients. In recent years, studies have shown that endocrine therapy has a certain impact on the serum lipids of breast cancer patients, and the changes of lipid profiles may bring a series of problems. However, very few studies focus on this issue to date. The results of these studies are inconsistent, and the influence of different adjuvant endocrine modalities on lipid profiles still remains controversial. In order to better explore this issue, we conduct this network meta-analysis. METHOD:The protocol followed preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses protocols. Three main databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) will be searched systematically for eligible randomized controlled trials without language restriction. In addition, a manual search of the references of relevant published studies will also be considered. Two reviewers will conduct studies selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment independently. The primary outcome is the variation of biochemical parameters - the serum lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low low-density lipoprotein). RESULTS:The results will provide useful information about the side effects of different adjuvant endocrine drugs on lipid profiles in postoperative breast cancer patients (estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive). CONCLUSION:The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019129850. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018550
    Carbapenems vs alternative antibiotics for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Tan Xinmei,Pan Qiwen,Mo Changgan,Li Xianshu,Liang Xueyan,Li Yan,Lan Yingnian,Chen Lingyuan Medicine BACKGROUND:Complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) are universal reasons for hospitalization, and highly likely to develop into sepsis or septic shock. Carbapenem antibiotics with potentially higher efficacy or with fewer and milder side effects have increased in popularity, but evidence is limited by a scarcity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different carbapenem antibiotics for cUTI. Network meta-analysis is a useful tool to compare multiple treatments when there is limited or no direct evidence available. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of different carbapenems with alternative antibiotics for the treatment of cUTI. METHODS:Pubmed, Medline, CENTRAL, and Embase were searched in November 2018. Studies of cUTI patients receiving carbapenem were included. We performed network meta-analysis to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% credible interval (CrI) from both direct and indirect evidence; traditional meta-analysis was also performed. Primary outcomes were clinical and microbiological treatment success. RESULTS:A total of 19 studies and 7380 patients were included in the analysis. Doripenem (DOPM) was associated with lower clinical treatment success rates than other carbapenems. Although the efficacy of other carbapenems by RRs with 95% CrIs did not show statistical differences, the cumulative rank probability indicated that meropenem/vaborbactam (MV), ertapenem (ETPM), and biapenem (BAPM) had higher clinical and microbiological treatment success rates; imipenem/cilastatin (IC) and MV showed higher risk of adverse events (AEs). CONCLUSIONS:MV was associated with higher treatment success rates for cUTI, especially for cUTI caused by carbapenem-resistant uropathogens, but also with higher risk of AEs. Our findings suggest MV as a first-choice treatment of carbapenem-resistant cUTI. ETPM, BAPM, and meropenem (MEPM) is another reasonable choice for cUTI empiric therapy. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018769
    Four reconstruction methods after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ma Yanpeng,Li Fei,Zhou Xin,Wang Bingyan,Lu Siyi,Wang Wendong,Yu Shuqing,Fu Wei Medicine BACKGROUND:There is no consensus regarding which reconstruction methods are superior after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). This study compared four reconstruction methods after LDG for gastric cancer. METHODS:Literature in EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library was screened to compare Billroth I (B-I), Billroth II (B-II), Roux-en-Y (RY), and uncut Roux-en-Y (URY) anastomoses after LDG for gastric cancer. A Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare these methods. RESULTS:Eighteen studies involving 4347 patients were eligible for our NMA. The operative time in RY anastomosis was longer than that in B-I and B-II anastomoses. Blood loss and risk of gastrointestinal motility dysfunction were greater with RY anastomosis than with URY or B-I anastomosis. Furthermore, URY anastomosis was superior to the other 3 reconstruction methods for preventing food residue. For remnant gastritis, RY anastomosis was significantly superior to B-I and B-II anastomoses, whereas URY anastomosis was significantly superior to B-II anastomosis. In addition, RY and URY anastomoses were better than B-I and B-II anastomoses for preventing bile reflux. CONCLUSIONS:URY anastomosis tended to be a more favorable reconstruction method after LDG due to its operative simplicity and reduced long-term complications. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018381
    Comparison of endoscopic surgery and Lichtenstein repair for treatment of inguinal hernias: A network meta-analysis. Lyu Yunxiao,Cheng Yunxiao,Wang Bin,Du Weibing,Xu Yueming Medicine BACKGROUND:This study aimed to identify the best procedure for addressing inguinal hernias by comparing results after transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP), totally extraperitoneal (TEP), and Lichtenstein repairs using a network meta-analysis. METHODS:We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to September 1, 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the TAPP, TEP, and Lichtenstein procedures. The study outcome were the hernia recurrence, chronic pain, hematoma, seroma, wound infection, operation time, hospital stay, and return-to-work days. RESULTS:Altogether, 31 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. The results of this network meta-analysis showed there were no significantly differences among the 3 procedures in terms of hernia recurrence, chronic pain, hematoma, seroma, hospital stays. Lichtenstein had a shorter operation time than TAPP+TEP [MD (95%Crl)]: 12 (0.51-25.0) vs 18 (6.11-29.0) minutes, respectively) but was associated with more wound infections than TEP: OR 0.33 (95%Crl 0.090-0.81). Our network meta-analysis suggests that TAPP and TEP require fewer return-to-work days [MD (95%CI)]: - 3.7 (-6.3 to 1.3) vs -4.8 (-7.11 to 2.8) days. CONCLUSION:Our network meta-analysis showed that there were no differences among the TAPP, TEP, and Lichtenstein procedures in terms of safety or effectiveness for treating inguinal hernias. However, TAPP and TEP could decrease the number of return-to-work days. A further study with more focus on this topic for inguinal hernia is suggested. 10.1097/MD.0000000000019134
    New pharmacological treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF): A Bayesian network meta-analysis. Li Heng,Duan Yuting,Chen Benfa,Zhao Yu,Su Weiping,Wang Shanhua,Wu Jiaming,Lu Liming Medicine BACKGROUND:Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has contributed to an increasing number of deaths and readmissions over the past few decades. Despite the appearance of standard treatments, including diuretics, β-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), there are still a large number of patients who have progressive deterioration of heart function and, inevitably, end-stage heart failure. In recent years, new medications for treating chronic heart failure have been clinically applied, but there is controversy surrounding drug selection and whether patients with HFrEF benefit from these medications. Therefore, we aimed to compare and rank different new pharmacological treatments in patients with HFrEF. METHODS:We performed a network meta-analysis to identify both direct and indirect evidence from relevant studies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO through the OVID database and CENTRAL through the Cochrane Library for clinical randomized controlled trials investigating new pharmacological treatments in patients with HFrEF published up to September 30, 2018. We included trials of ivabradine, levosimendan, omega-3, tolvaptan, recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide (rhBNP), isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine (ISDN/HYD) and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition (LCZ696). We extracted the relevant information from these trials with a predefined data extraction sheet and assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Based on these items, more than half of the entries were judged as having an overall low to moderate risk of bias; the remaining studies had a high or unclear risk of bias. The outcomes investigated were left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF %), heart rate (HR) and serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). We performed a random-effects network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework. RESULTS:We deemed 32 trials to be eligible that included 3810 patients and 32 treatments. Overall, 32 (94.1%) trials had a low to moderate risk of bias, while 2 (5.9%) trials had a high risk of bias. The quality of the included studies was rated as low in regard to allocation concealment and blinding and high in regard to other domains according to the Cochrane tools. As for increasing LVEF%, levosimendan was better than placebo (-3.77 (-4.96, -2.43)) and was the best intervention for improving ventricle contraction. As for controlling HR, n3-PUFA was better than placebo (4.01 (-0.44, 8.48)) and was the best choice for regulating HR. As for decreasing BNP, omega-3 was better than placebo (941.99 (-47.48, 1952.89) and was the best therapy for improving ventricle wall tension. CONCLUSIONS:Our study confirmed the effectiveness of the included new pharmacological treatments for optimizing the structural performance and improving the cardiac function in the management of patients with HFrEF and recommended several interventions for clinical practice. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018341
    Traditional Chinese medicine and oral diseases: today and tomorrow. Zheng L W,Hua H,Cheung L K Oral diseases With a history of over 2000 years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) evolves into a unique system of diagnosing and treating illnesses. It is a challenge to convey the fundamentals of this traditional medicine to our Western colleagues because of the differences in language, philosophy and concept of diagnosis and treatment. This review attempts to tackle these barriers by introducing several widely used Chinese medicines for treating oral diseases. China Journals Full-text Database and Pubmed were used as the searching engines. Although many studies have demonstrated that the Chinese medicines are effective in treating oral diseases including recurrent aphthous stomatitis, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, and Sjögren's syndrome, most of them lacked standard criteria of post-treatment assessment and laboratory evidence. Randomized controlled clinical trials with specific assessment criteria are required to close the gap between TCM and evidenced-based medicine. 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2010.01706.x
    Statistical validation of Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome postulates in the context of patients with cardiovascular disease. Xu Zhaoxia,Zhang Nevin L,Wang Yiqin,Liu Guoping,Xu Jin,Liu Tengfei,Liu April Hua Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) OBJECTIVE:Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has many postulates that explain the occurrence and co-occurrence of symptoms using syndrome factors such as yang deficiency and yin deficiency. A fundamental question is whether the syndrome factors have verifiable scientific content or are purely subjective notions. This analysis investigated the issue in the context of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN:In the past, researchers have tried to show that TCM syndrome factors correspond to real entities by means of laboratory tests, with little success. An alternative approach, called latent tree analysis, has recently been proposed. The idea is to discover latent variables behind symptom variables by analyzing symptom data and comparing them with TCM syndrome factors. If there is a good match, then statistical evidence supports the validity of the relevant TCM postulates. This study used latent tree analysis. SETTING:TCM symptom data of 3021 patients with CVD were collected from the cardiology departments of four hospitals in Shanghai, China, between January 2008 and June 2010. RESULTS:Latent tree analysis of the data yielded a model with 34 latent variables. Many of them correspond to TCM syndrome factors. CONCLUSIONS:The results provide statistical evidence for the validity of TCM postulates in the context of patients with CVD; in other words, they show that TCM postulates are applicable to such patients. This finding is important because it is a precondition for the TCM treatment of those patients. 10.1089/acm.2012.0487
    A critical review of traditional Chinese medicine use amongst women with menopausal symptoms. Peng W,Sibbritt D W,Hickman L,Kong X,Yang L,Adams J Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society OBJECTIVES:To provide the first critical review of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use amongst symptomatic menopausal women, drawing upon work examining the perspectives of both TCM users and TCM practitioners. METHODS:A search was conducted in three English-language databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and AMED) and three Chinese-language databases (CNKI, VIP and CBM Disc) for 2002-2013 international peer-reviewed articles reporting empirical findings of TCM use in menopause. RESULTS:A total of 25 journal articles reporting 22 studies were identified as meeting the review inclusion criteria. Chinese herbal medicine appears to be the most common therapy amongst symptomatic menopausal women, and vasomotor symptoms and emotional changes are the most frequent symptoms for which TCM is sought. However, evidence regarding the prevalence of TCM use and users' profile in menopause is limited. Existing studies are of varied methodological quality, often reporting low response rate, extensive recall bias and a lack of syndrome differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:This review provides insights for practitioners and health policy-makers regarding TCM care to symptomatic menopausal women. More nationally representative studies are required to rigorously examine TCM use for the management of menopausal symptoms. Syndrome differentiation of menopausal women is an area which also warrants further attention. 10.3109/13697137.2014.904850
    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders. Teschke Rolf,Wolff Albrecht,Frenzel Christian,Eickhoff Axel,Schulze Johannes World journal of gastroenterology Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures. 10.3748/wjg.v21.i15.4466
    Advantages, Disadvantages, and Trend of Integrative Medicine in the Treatment of Heart Failure. Zhang PeiYing Cell biochemistry and biophysics Integrative medicine therapy using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with western medicine has shown some advantages in treating heart failure (HF), such as holistic concept; multi-target treatment; dialectical logic; personalized therapy; formulae compatibility; and reduction of side effects of western medicine. However, problems still exist in TCM treatment of HF, including non-uniformed categorization of TCM, lack of standardized syndrome differentiation and lack of an evidence base. The future of treatment of HF seems to be focused on reversing ventricular remodeling, improving cardiac rehabilitation, and accelerating experimental research and drug discovery in TCM. 10.1007/s12013-014-0466-7
    Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome. Eisenhardt Sarah,Fleckenstein Johannes Archives of gynecology and obstetrics Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence. 10.1007/s00404-016-4078-x
    Application of proteomics in research on traditional Chinese medicine. Suo Tongchuan,Wang Haixia,Li Zheng Expert review of proteomics INTRODUCTION:Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a widely used complementary alternative medicine approach. Although many aspects of its effectiveness have been approved clinically, rigorous scientific techniques are highly required to translate the promises from TCM into powerful modern therapies. In this respect, proteomics is useful because of its ability to unveil the underlying target proteins and/or protein biomarkers. AREAS COVERED:In this review, we summarize the recent interplay between proteomics and research on TCM, ranging from exploration of the medicinal materials to the biological basis of TCM concepts, and from pathological studies to pharmacological investigations. We show that proteomic analyses provide preliminary biological evidence of the promises in TCM, and the integration of proteomics with other omics and bioinformatics offers a comprehensive methodology to address the complications of TCM. Expert commentary: Currently, only limited information can be obtained regarding TCM issues and thus more work is required to resolve the ambiguity. As such, more collaborations between proteomics and other techniques (other omics, network pharmacology, etc.) are essential for deciphering the underlying biological basis in TCM topics. 10.1080/14789450.2016.1220837
    Steroids in traditional Chinese medicine: what is the evidence? Fung Foon Yin,Linn Yeh Ching Singapore medical journal Local healthcare providers often question the possible steroidal activity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs or herbal products and implicate them as a cause for adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome in patients with a history of TCM intake. We conducted a comprehensive database search for evidence of potential glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgenic or oestrogenic activity of herbs or herbal products. Overall, there are not many herbs whose steroidal activity is well established; among these, most cases were based on preclinical studies. Liquorice root may cause pseudoaldosteronism through interference with the steroidogenesis pathway. Although ginseng and cordyceps have some in vitro glucocorticoid activities, the corroborating clinical data is lacking. Deer musk and deer antler contain androgenic steroids, while epimedium has oestrogenic activity. On the other hand, adulteration of herbal products with exogenous glucocorticoids is a recurrent problem encountered locally in illegal products masquerading as TCM. Healthcare providers should stay vigilant and report any suspicion to the relevant authorities for further investigations. 10.11622/smedj.2017016
    Application of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury. Li Hai-Di,Meng Xiao-Ming,Huang Cheng,Zhang Lei,Lv Xiong-Wen,Li Jun Frontiers in pharmacology Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid loss of renal function, which may further develop into chronic kidney damage (CKD) or even end-stage renal disease (ESRD). AKI is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and costly treatments, and there is no specific or effective strategy to treat AKI. In recent years, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has attracted more attention, with lines of evidence showing that application of TCM improved AKI, and the mechanisms of action for some TCMs have been well illustrated. However, reviews summarizing the progress in this field are still lacking. In this paper, we reviewed TCM preparations and TCM monomers in the treatment of AKI over the last 10 years, describing their renal protective effects and mechanisms of action, including alleviating inflammation, programmed cell death, necrosis, and reactive oxygen species. By focusing on the mechanisms of TCMs to improve renal function, we provide effective complementary evidence to promote the development of TCMs to treat AKI. Moreover, we also summarized TCMs with nephrotoxicity, which provides a more comprehensive understanding of TCMs in the treatment of AKI. This review may provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of TCMs in the future. 10.3389/fphar.2019.00376
    [Relationships between constitutional types of traditional Chinese medicine and hypertension]. Zhu Yan-bo,Wang Qi,Deng Qi-wei,Cai Jing,Song Xiao-hong,Yan Xue Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationships between constitutional types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and hypertension so as to provide epidemiological evidence for the theory of correlation between constitution and disease. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey of TCM constitution data from a population of 7 782 from Beijng and 8 provinces of China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Gansu, Qinghai, Fujian, Jilin, Jiangxi, and Henan) was made in the study. The survey of TCM constitutions was performed by standardized TCM Constitution Questionnaire. Discriminatory analysis was used to judge the individual constitutional types including normal constitution, and qi deficiency, yang deficiency, yin deficiency, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, blood stasis, qi stagnation and special constitutions. A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the significantly influential constitutional factors of hypertension. RESULTS:After controlling several factors like gender, age, marital status, occupation, and educational background, three TCM constitutional factors according to different degrees of relative risks were entered into the multiple stepwise logistic regression model. The three factors were phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency and qi deficiency constitutions, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 2.00 [1.58, 2.55], 1.66 [1.33, 2.08] and 1.37 [1.13, 1.66] respectively. The main constitutional influential factors of hypertension in male patients were phlegm-dampness and yin deficiency constitutions, with OR and 95% CI of 1.61 [1.22, 2.14] and 1.60 [1.17, 2.19]. Phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency and qi deficiency constitutions were the main constitutional influential factors of hypertension in female patients. The OR and 95% CI were 2.80 [1.79, 4.39], 1.55 [1.13, 2.14] and 1.39 [1.05, 1.84] respectively. Phlegm-dampness constitution had more influence on hypertension in female patients than other constitution types. CONCLUSION:Phlegm-dampness, yin deficiency, and qi deficiency constitutions are the main influential factors of hypertension. Hypertensive patients with different gender have different constitutional influential factors.
    Emerging approaches of traditional Chinese medicine formulas for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Xie Weidong,Zhao Yunan,Du Lijun Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas have been widely used in China since ancient times to treat certain diseases (e.g., phlegm, dampness and blood stasis). Recently, the effects of these medicines have been increasingly demonstrated to be helpful for hyperlipidemic patients. AIM OF THE STUDY:This manuscript aims to describe the scientific evidence for the efficacy of TCM and attempts to identify potential TCM formulas for treating hyperlipidemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:TCM formulas approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) were sourced from the official SFDA website (http://www.sda.gov.cn/). Human and animal evidence for the hypolipidemic effects of herbs from TCM formulas were reviewed via the Internet (Elsevier, ACS, Wiley Online Library, SpringerLink, PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, Baidu, and Google) and libraries up to October 31, 2011. RESULTS:More than 50 TCM formulas have been used to treat hyperlipidemia. These herbs can primarily be grouped into three categories: (1) herbs promoting excretions, generally by reducing food retention, enhancing purgative effects, and promoting diuresis and choleretic effects, e.g., Fructus Crataegi (), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (), Semen Cassiae (), and Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (), Rhizoma alismatis (), and Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (); (2) herbs acting on the cardiovascular system, generally by improving blood circulation based on TCM theories, e.g., Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (), Radix Puerariae (), Rhizoma Chuanxiong (), Flos Carthami (), and Folium Nelumbinis (); and (3) herbs that have tonic effects, e.g., Fructus Lycii (), Radix Ginseng (), and Radix Astragali (). CONCLUSIONS:Three basic approaches, including excretory function enhancement, cardiovascular system improvement, and tonic effect reinforcement, are emerging among TCM formulas for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. These approaches may be useful in controlling blood lipid levels, preventing cardiovascular complications, and adjusting bodily functions in hyperlipidemic patients. However, solid evidence of the efficacy of these treatments is required. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.027
    Chinese patent medicine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on principles of tonifying Qi, promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis, and resolving phlegm: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Liu Wei,Yang Shuang,Fu Min,Li Jian,Song Yaling,Wei Baolin,Liu Enshun,Sun Zengtao Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicine (CPM) with the principle of tonifying Qi, promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis, and resolving phlegm (TQ-PBC-RP) in the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS:A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified from electronic databases and print was conducted. RCTs testing CPMs with TQ-PBC-RP against any type of controlled intervention in patients with stable COPD and assessing clinically relevant outcomes were included. Methodological quality was evaluated with the risk of bias tool according to systematic review handbook 5.0.2. Quality of evidence was estimated by the rating approach developed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group. RESULTS:Thirteen eligible RCTs with 12 oral CPMs were tested. Significant differences between groups in favor of CPMs were not reported in all trials. Most trials included were deemed to be of low methodological quality with poor evidence quality. Because of large data heterogeneity, statistical pooling was not performed for all outcomes. CONCLUSION:The effectiveness of CPM in the treatment of stable COPD is not supported by evidence. Currently, evidence from RCTs is scarce and methodologically weak. Considering the popularity of CPMs among patients undergoing COPD, rigorously designed trials are warranted. 10.1016/s0254-6272(15)30001-7
    Hierarchical and Complex System Entropy Clustering Analysis Based Validation for Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Patterns of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis. Zhang Yin,Liu Yue,Li Yannan,Zhao Xia,Zhuo Lin,Zhou Ajian,Zhang Li,Su Zeqi,Chen Cen,Du Shiyu,Liu Daming,Ding Xia Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is the precancerous stage of gastric carcinoma. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treating CAG. This study aimed to reveal core pathogenesis of CAG by validating the TCM syndrome patterns and provide evidence for optimization of treatment strategies. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 4 hospitals in China. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and complex system entropy clustering analysis (CSECA) were performed, respectively, to achieve syndrome pattern validation. Based on HCA, 15 common factors were assigned to 6 syndrome patterns: liver depression and spleen deficiency and blood stasis in the stomach collateral, internal harassment of phlegm-heat and blood stasis in the stomach collateral, phlegm-turbidity internal obstruction, spleen deficiency, internal harassment of phlegm-heat and spleen deficiency, and spleen deficiency. By CSECA, 22 common factors were assigned to 7 syndrome patterns: deficiency, stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, deficiency, and deficiency. Combination of deficiency, stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, deficiency, and deficiency play a crucial role in CAG pathogenesis. In accord with this, treatment strategies by TCM herbal prescriptions should be targeted to regulating , activating blood, resolving turbidity, clearing heat, removing toxin, nourishing , and warming . Further explorations are needed to verify and expand the current conclusions. 10.1089/acm.2017.0386
    Does Danshen improve disability after acute ischaemic stroke? Sze F K-h,Yeung F F,Wong E,Lau J Acta neurologica Scandinavica OBJECTIVES:Danshen, a Chinese herb, has been used as a standard treatment for acute ischaemic stroke in China. This study assesses the quality of all randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing Danshen of any preparation to without Danshen (placebo or other western or herbal medicines), and to evaluate its effectiveness in improving disability. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Systematic review through literature search in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China Biological Medicine Database and others. The main outcome measure is disability improvement on the Chinese National Disability Scale (CNDS) at 2 weeks after intervention. RESULTS:Of 33 Danshen control trials for acute ischaemic stroke identified in the literature, none were placebo-controlled. Eleven RCTs comparing Danshen with one of seven Western and two herbal medicines met the inclusion criteria for review, however, these studies were of poor quality. Compared with the nine medicines, the effect of Danshen was inferior in five trials and not significantly different in another six trials. For the two trials comparing Danshen with Buflomedil, the combined odds ratio (OR) was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.12-0.61) favouring Buflomedil, but the test of homogeneity revealed heterogeneity (P = 0.083). For the two trials comparing Danshen with Naloxone, the combined OR was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.07-0.40) favouring Naloxone. However, none of the nine medicines per se has been proven effective in post-stroke disability improvement. CONCLUSIONS:The existing Danshen RCTs are not placebo-controlled and are of poor quality, therefore, there is no substantial evidence that Danshen is effective. Systematic review on RCTs comparing Danshen with other medicines does not support the notion that Danshen may be beneficial to disability improvement after acute ischaemic stroke. 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2004.00369.x
    A review of potential harmful interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents and Chinese herbal medicines. Tsai Hsin-Hui,Lin Hsiang-Wen,Lu Ying-Hung,Chen Yi-Ling,Mahady Gail B PloS one BACKGROUND:The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS:Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly used single entity CHMs. For those patients who are taking conventional anti-clotting medications with CHMs for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, the potential risks of increased bleeding due to drug-CHM interactions should not be ignored. 10.1371/journal.pone.0064255
    Salvianolic Acid Exerts Cardioprotection through Promoting Angiogenesis in Animal Models of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Preclinical Evidence. Yu Long-Jie,Zhang Ke-Jian,Zhu Jia-Zhen,Zheng Qun,Bao Xiao-Yi,Thapa Saroj,Wang Yan,Chu Mao-Ping Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Radix , danshen root (danshen), is one of the widely used Chinese herbal medicines in clinics, containing rich phenolic compounds. Salvianolic acid is the main active compound responsible for the pharmacologic effects of danshen. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of salvianolic acid on cardioprotection through promoting angiogenesis in experimental myocardial infarction. Studies of salvianolic acid in animal models of myocardial infarction were obtained from 6 databases until April 2016. The outcome measures were vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), blood vessel density (BVD), and myocardial infarct size. All the data were analyzed using Rev-Man 5.3 software. Ultimately, 14 studies were identified involving 226 animals. The quality score of studies ranged from 3 to 6. The meta-analysis of six studies showed significant effects of salvianolic acid on increasing VEGF expression compared with the control group ( < 0.01). The meta-analysis of the two salvianolic acid A studies and three salvianolic acid B studies showed significantly improving BVD compared with the control group ( < 0.01). The meta-analysis of five studies showed significant effects of salvianolic acid for decreasing myocardial infarct size compared with the control group ( < 0.01). In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that salvianolic acid can exert cardioprotection through promoting angiogenesis in animal models of myocardial infarction. 10.1155/2017/8192383
    Compound Danshen Dripping Pill for Treating Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Meta-Analysis of 13 Randomized Controlled Trials. Huang Wenjing,Bao Qi,Jin De,Lian Fengmei Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM OBJECTIVE:We assess the clinical effect of compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) for treating diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS:Electronic databases were searched from January 2001 to October 2016 to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Efficacy was measured as main outcome and microaneurysms, hemorrhage, exudate, vision, and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were measured as second outcomes. Methodological quality for each study was evaluated, RevMan 5 software was used to assess treatment effects, and GRADE was used to rate quality of evidence. RESULTS:We located 13 RCTs and methodological quality was evaluated as high risk. Statistics indicated CDDP for treating DR was better than controls and DR risk was reduced 64% with CDDP (RR: 0.36, = 0.68); retinal microaneurysms (MD = -4.32NO, < 0.00001); retinal hemorrhages (MD = -0.70PD, = 0.03); exudate improvements (MD = -0.09PD, = 0.79); visual changes (MD = -0.12 letter, = 0.006); FFA (RR: 0.40, = 0.003). About GRADE, quality of evidence was "low." . CDDP may be safe and efficacious for treating or delaying DR and may improve vision or delay vision loss. 10.1155/2017/4848076
    How Efficacious is Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) Dripping Pill in Treating Angina Pectoris? Evidence Assessment for Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Jia Yongliang,Leung Siu-Wai Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) BACKGROUND:More than 230 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of danshen dripping pill (DSP) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in treating angina pectoris after the first preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses-compliant comprehensive meta-analysis were published in 2010. Other meta-analyses had flaws in study selection, statistical meta-analysis, and evidence assessment. This study completed the meta-analysis with an extensive assessment of the evidence. METHODS:RCTs published from 1994 to 2016 on DSP and ISDN in treating angina pectoris for at least 4 weeks were included. The risk of bias (RoB) of included RCTs was assessed with the Cochrane's tool for assessing RoB. Meta-analyses based on a random-effects model were performed on two outcome measures: symptomatic (SYM) and electrocardiography (ECG) improvements. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, metaregression, and publication bias analysis were also conducted. The evidence strength was evaluated with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. RESULTS:Among the included 109 RCTs with 11,973 participants, 49 RCTs and 5042 participants were new (after 2010). The RoB of included RCTs was high in randomization and blinding. Overall effect sizes in odds ratios for DSP over ISDN were 2.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-3.41) on SYM (n = 108) and 2.37 (95% CI: 2.08-2.69) by ECG (n = 81) with significant heterogeneities (I = 41%, p < 0.0001 on SYM and I = 44%, p < 0.0001 on ECG). Subgroup, sensitivity, and metaregression analyses showed consistent results without publication bias. However, the evidence strength was low in GRADE. CONCLUSION:The efficacy of DSP was still better than ISDN in treating angina pectoris, but the confidence decreased due to high RoB and heterogeneities. 10.1089/acm.2017.0069
    Atheroprotective Effects and Molecular Targets of Tanshinones Derived From Herbal Medicine Danshen. Fang Jian,Little Peter J,Xu Suowen Medicinal research reviews Medicinal plant-derived bioactive compounds modulate multiple therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), rendering herb-derived phytochemicals effective against one of the major CVDs-atherosclerosis. Danshen (Salvia milthiorriza Bunge) is a Chinese medicine that has been used in cardio- and cerebro-vascular therapeutic remedies in Asian countries for many years. Emerging evidence from cellular, animal, and clinical studies suggests that major lipophilic tanshinones from Danshen can treat atherosclerotic CVDs. In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of tanshinones in treating atherosclerosis, ranging from endothelial dysfunction to chronic inflammation. We also overview new molecular targets of tanshinones, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase, AMP-activated protein kinase, ABC transporter A1, heme oxygenase 1, soluble epoxide hydrolase, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen receptor, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Thus, this review provides a new perspective for advancing our understanding of the "ancient" herb Danshen from "modern" biomedical perspectives, supporting the possibility of exploiting tanshinones and derivatives as effective therapeutics against atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. 10.1002/med.21438
    Salvia miltiorrhizaBurge (Danshen): a golden herbal medicine in cardiovascular therapeutics. Li Zhuo-Ming,Xu Suo-Wen,Liu Pei-Qing Acta pharmacologica Sinica Salvia miltiorrhiza Burge (Danshen) is an eminent medicinal herb that possesses broad cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective actions and has been used in Asian countries for many centuries. Accumulating evidence suggests that Danshen and its components prevent vascular diseases, in particular, atherosclerosis and cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, arrhythmia, cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. The published literature indicates that lipophilic constituents (tanshinone I, tanshinone IIa, tanshinone IIb, cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone, etc) as well as hydrophilic constituents (danshensu, salvianolic acid A and B, protocatechuic aldehyde, etc) contribute to the cardiovascular protective actions of Danshen, suggesting a potential synergism among these constituents. Herein, we provide a systematic up-to-date review on the cardiovascular actions and therapeutic potential of major pharmacologically active constituents of Danshen. These bioactive compounds will serve as excellent drug candidates in small-molecule cardiovascular drug discovery. This article also provides a scientific rationale for understanding the traditional use of Danshen in cardiovascular therapeutics. 10.1038/aps.2017.193
    Danshen Formulae for Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of High-Quality Randomized Controlled Trials. Wang Tianqi,Fu Xianjun,Wang Zhenguo Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Objective:Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases to human life and there is no radical cure for it. In this paper, we compiled quantities of case history to evaluate the current available evidence of herbal Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, RSM) formulae for the treatment of cancer by means of the high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods:English and Chinese electronic databases were searched from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, Wanfang database until September 2018. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated by using the method of Cocharne evidence-based medicine system evaluation, the quality was evaluated by screening the literature that met the requirements, and the Review Manager 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% CIs was used to estimate the correlation between Danshen formulae and therapeutic effects. Results:Thirteen RCTs with 1045 participants were identified. The studies investigated the lung cancer (n = 5), leukemia (n = 3), liver cancer (n = 3), breast or colon cancer (n = 1), and gastric cancer (n = 1). A total of 83 traditional Chinese medicines were used in all prescriptions and there were 3 different dosage forms. Meta-analysis suggested that Danshen formulae had a significant effect on RR (response rate) (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.66-3.42), 1-year survival (OR 1.70 95% CI 1.22-2.36), 3-year survival (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.62-4.78), and 5-year survival (OR 8.45, 95% CI 2.53-28.27). Conclusion:The current research results showed that Danshen formulae combined with chemotherapy for cancer treatment was better than conventional drug treatment plan alone. 10.1155/2019/2310639
    Clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic heart failure. Fu Shufei,Zhang Junhua,Gao Xiumei,Xia Ye,Ferrelli Rita,Fauci Alice,Guerra Ranieri,Hu Limin Heart Asia BACKGROUND:Chinese medicines have been used for chronic heart failure (CHF) for thousands of years; however, the status of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for CHF has not been reported. This review was carried out in the framework of a joint Sino-Italian Laboratory. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the baseline of clinical practice of TCMs for CHF, and to provide valuable information for research and clinical practice. METHODS:The authors included articles about the use of TCMs for the treatment of CHF by searching the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to November 2007). RESULTS:In all, 1029 papers were included, with 239 herbs retrieved from these. The most commonly used herbs included Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Fuling (Poria), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tinglizi (Semen Lepidii). Modern Chinese patent medicines (produced by pharmaceutical companies) and traditional prescriptions (comprising several herbs) are the application forms of these drugs. Shenmai, Shengmai and Astragalus injections were the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines. Some classic prescriptions (including Zhenwu decoction, Shengmai powder and Lingguizhugan decoction) were also frequently used. The effectiveness and safety of the TCMs were both satisfactory, and the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine therapy could significantly improve the clinical effectiveness and reduce some of the adverse reactions from western medicines used alone. CONCLUSION:The authors have acquired overall information about the clinical application of TCMs for CHF. Modern pharmacology has provided limited evidence for the rationality of this clinical use. Further research is needed to provide more evidence. 10.1136/ha.2009.001123
    A summary and evaluation of current evidence for myocardial infarction with Chinese medicine. Wang Yue,Xiao Lu,Mu Wei,Yu Hai-Long,Zhang Shuo,Tian Gui-Hua,Shang Hong-Cai Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical application and provoke thoughts for future researchers by conducting a comprehensive summary and evaluation of the current evidence profile for the role of Chinese medicine (CM) in treating myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS:Online databases including PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Medicine (CBM), VIP Journal Integration Platform, and Wanfang database were systematically searched for literatures on CM in treating MI. After screening, studies were categorized into 5 types, i.e. systematic review (SR), randomized controlled trial (RCT), observational study, case report and basic research. General information was abstracted, and the quality levels of these studies and their conclusions were summarized and assessed. RESULTS:A total of 452 studies including 10 SRs, 123 RCTs, 47 observational studies, 28 case reports, and 244 basic researches were selected. Clinical studies centered primarily on herbal decoction and mostly were not rigorously performed. High-quality studies were predominantly on Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) such as Danshen Injection (), Shenmai Injection (), Shengmai Injection () and Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills (). The most frequently observed pattern of drug combination was decoction plus injection. Results of SRs and clinical studies showed that CM may reduce mortality, decrease risk of complication, reduce myocardial injury, improve cardiac function and inhibit ventricular remodeling. Findings from basic researches also supported the positive role of CM in reducing infarct size and myocardial injury, promoting angiogenesis, preventing ventricular remodeling and improving cardiac function. According to the current evidence body, CM has proven effects in the prevention and treatment of MI. It is also found that the effects of CPMs vary with indications. For instance, Shenmai Injection has been found to be especially effective for reducing the incidence of acute clinical events, while CPMs with qi-nourishing and bloodcirculating properties have been proven to be effective in inhibiting ventricular remodeling. High quality evidence supports the use of CM injection for acute MI and CPM for secondary prevention. Reports on adverse events and other safety outcomes associated with CM for MI are scarce. CONCLUSIONS:Sufficient evidence supported the use of CM as an adjuvant to Western medicine for preventing and treating MI. The choice of drug use varies with disease stage and treatment objective. However, the quality of the evidence body remains to be enhanced. 10.1007/s11655-017-2824-y
    What has traditional Chinese medicine delivered for modern medicine? Wang Jigang,Wong Yin-Kwan,Liao Fulong Expert reviews in molecular medicine The field of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents a vast and largely untapped resource for modern medicine. Exemplified by the success of the antimalarial artemisinin, the recent years have seen a rapid increase in the understanding and application of TCM-derived herbs and formulations for evidence-based therapy. In this review, we summarise and discuss the developmental history, clinical background and molecular basis of an action for several representative TCM-derived medicines, including artemisinin, arsenic trioxide, berberine and Salvia miltiorrhiza or Danshen. Through this, we highlight important examples of how TCM-derived medicines have already contributed to modern medicine, and discuss potential avenues for further research. 10.1017/erm.2018.3
    Meta-analysis of traditional Chinese patent medicine for ischemic stroke. Wu Bo,Liu Ming,Liu Hua,Li Wei,Tan Song,Zhang Shihong,Fang Yuan Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A large number of traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) are widely used for ischemic stroke in China. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing clinical evidence on TCPM for ischemic stroke. METHODS:We identified all TCPM that were listed in the Chinese National Essential Drug list of 2004 and those commonly used TCPM in current clinical practice for ischemic stroke. Fifty-nine TCPM were identified for further evaluation. We applied Cochrane systematic review methods. We searched for reports of randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials on any of the 59 TCPM for ischemic stroke comparing one TCPM with control. PRIMARY OUTCOMES included death or dependency at the end of follow-up (at least 3 months) and adverse events. Effects on neurological impairments were a secondary outcome. RESULTS:One-hundred ninety-one trials (19,338 patients) on 22 TCPM were available and included, of which 120 were definite or possible randomized controlled trials and 71 were controlled clinical trials. The methodological quality of included trials was generally "poor." Few trials reported methods of randomization. Three trials were randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled. PRIMARY OUTCOMES:one trial on Puerarin and one trial on Shenmai injection assessed death or dependency at the end of long-term follow-up (at least 3 months) and found no statistically significant difference between 2 groups. The reported adverse events including allergic reaction, headache, nausea, diarrhea, bellyache, blood pressure change, and subcutaneous ecchymosis. Most of the adverse events were not severe. SECONDARY OUTCOMES:analysis of the secondary outcome, "marked improvement in neurological deficit," showed apparent benefits of about the same magnitude for all the TCPM studied. Of the 22 TCPM, 8 drugs (Milk vetch, Mailuoning, Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrazine, Danshen agents, Xuesetong, Puerarin, and Acanthopanax) had relatively more studies and patient numbers. CONCLUSIONS:There was insufficient good quality evidence on the effects of TCPM in ischemic stroke on the primary outcome (death or dependency). We considered the apparent benefit on neurological impairment was as likely to be attributable to bias from poor methodology as to a real treatment effect. However, because the agents assessed appeared potentially beneficial and nontoxic, further randomized controlled trials are justified. Eight drugs could be further research priorities. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.473165
    Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529. Yan Xue,Wang Wei-Dong,Walters Arthur S,Wang Qi,Liu Yan-Jiao,Chu Fu-Yong Sleep medicine reviews Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. 10.1016/j.smrv.2012.01.003
    Indispensable value of clinical trials in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine: 12 years' experience at CUHK and future perspectives. Liang Willmann,Yew David T,Hon Kam Lun,Wong Chun Kwok,Kwok Timothy C Y,Leung Ping Chung The American journal of Chinese medicine The last decade has seen a wealth of information reporting the beneficial effects of Chinese herbal medicines. While a lot more studies were done using in vitro and in vivo research platforms, much fewer investigations were conducted according to evidence-based requirements in clinical settings. The Institute of Chinese Medicine at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has had the opportunity to collaborate with clinicians over the years to initiate and conduct dozens of clinical trials investigating and verifying the therapeutic values of Chinese herbs in selected disease conditions. Of the many disorders, we chose to focus on those that are known for their difficulties achieving perfect results with conventional treatment methods. Examples include non-healing ulcers, allergic conditions, degenerative diseases and cancer. Protective effects of the herbs in such chronic diseases as coronary artery disease and osteoporosis were also part of our focus. Even in healthy individuals and those recovering from chemotherapy, Chinese herbs could help with the immune system and were studied in our clinical trials as well. This paper aims to highlight the important findings from these clinical studies while at the same time, stressing the indispensable value of clinical trials in modernizing the use of Chinese herbs in present-day medicine. 10.1142/S0192415X14500384
    Medicinal plants of the genus Gelsemium (Gelsemiaceae, Gentianales)--a review of their phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and traditional use. Jin Gui-Lin,Su Yan-Ping,Liu Ming,Xu Ying,Yang Jian,Liao Kai-Jun,Yu Chang-Xi Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:In the genus Gelsemium, Gelsemium elegans (Gardn. & Champ.) Benth. has been recognized as a toxic plant that is widely distributed in Southeast Asia and has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid pain, neuropathic pain, spasticity, skin ulcers and cancers for many years. Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J.St.-Hil. has been used since the nineteenth century in homeopathy for treating anxiety, neuralgia, migraine and spasmodic disorders, such as asthma and whooping cough in North America. This review aims to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology of medicinal plants in the genus Gelsemium. The overall objective is to explore the evidence supporting its ethnopharmacological effectiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A literature survey was performed by searching the scientific databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Scopus, Web of Science and the Chinese CNKI, in addition to traditional Chinese medicine and homeopathic texts for information on Gelsemium. RESULTS:Plants of the genus Gelsemium have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of migraines, neuralgia, sciatica, cancer and various types of sores. Studies into the phytochemical composition of this genus have shown that all of the species are rich sources of monoterpene indole alkaloids and that they have attracted the attention of many researchers due to their markedly diverse and complex architecture. To date, a total of 121 alkaloids have been isolated and identified from the genus. The crude extracts, as well as the monomeric compounds, from the genus possess anti-tumor, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating pharmacological activities. CONCLUSION:It is evident from the available literature that Gelsemium species possess potential for use as a beneficial therapeutic remedy. However, the analysis of previous pharmacological research suggests that a clear assignment of active molecules and mechanisms of action is remain lacking. Due to their high toxicity, the studies available on toxicity and safety are inadequate for providing information on clinical utilization. 10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.003
    Recent progress in Glinus oppositifolius research. Sheu Shi-Yuan,Yao Chun-Hsu,Lei Yi-Chih,Kuo Tzong-Fu Pharmaceutical biology CONTEXT:Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (Molluginaceae), a perennial subshrubs herb, grows at low altitudes in the southern part of Taiwan, and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for herpes zoster and herpangina. OBJECTIVE:This study describes nutritional and therapeutic potential of Glinus oppositifolius and summarizes scientific evidence that supports traditional claims; recent progress in research for this plant is reviewed herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The literature has been retrieved from the web-based online systems including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The articles related to phytochemistry, pharmaceutical biology and ethnopharmacology have been excluded. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:In clinical practice, the plant has been extensively investigated in a broad range of studies to provide scientific evidence for folklore claims or to find new therapeutic uses. The present review may arouse related research and make a more valid display for Taiwanese native medicinal plants. 10.3109/13880209.2013.876653
    Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings. Liu Tao,Wang Ning,Zhang Li,Zhong Linda Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. 10.1155/2016/8652523
    Traditional Chinese medicine for pulmonary fibrosis therapy: Progress and future prospects. Li Liu-Cheng,Kan Lian-Di Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic, debilitating and often lethal lung disorder. Despite the molecular mechanisms of PF are gradually clear with numerous researchers' efforts, few effective drugs have been developed to reverse human PF or even halt the chronic progression to respiratory failure. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the main component of the medical practice used for more than 5000 years especially in China, often exerts wider action spectrum than previously attempted options in treating human diseases. Recent data have shown the anti-fibrotic benefits of the active ingredients from TCM in this field, which may represent an attractive source of the drug discovery against PF. AIM OF THE REVIEW:This review summarizes the pre-clinical and clinical evidence on the benefits of TCM and their active ingredients, and provides a comprehensive information and reliable basis for the exploration of new treatment strategies of botanical drugs in the therapy of PF. METHODS:The literature information was obtained from the scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines (up to Aug 2016), mainly from the Pubmed, Web of Science and CNKI databases, and was to identify the experimental studies on the anti-fibrotic role of the active agents from TCM and the involved mechanisms. The search keywords for such work included: "lung fibrosis" or "pulmonary fibrosis", and "traditional Chinese medicine", "extract" or "herb". RESULTS:A number of studies have shown that the active agents of single herbs and TCM formulas, particularly the flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids, exhibit potential benefits against PF, the mechanisms of which appear to involve the regulation of inflammation, oxidant stress, and pro-fibrotic signaling pathways, etc. Besides, the processing methods for discovering TCM in treating PF were prospectively discussed. CONCLUSION:These research work have shown the therapeutic benefits of TCM in the treatment of PF. However, more continued researches should be undertaken to clarify the unconfirmed chemical composition and regulatory mechanisms, conduct standard clinical trials, and evaluate the possible side effects. The insights provided in present review will be needed for further exploration of botanical drugs in the development of PF therapy. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.12.042
    Marsdenia tenacissima: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Wang Peile,Yang Jing,Zhu Zhenfeng,Zhang Xiaojian The American journal of Chinese medicine The stems and roots of Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Wight et Arn., a traditional Chinese medicine and Dai herbal medicine, have been widely used for the treatment of asthma, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, pneumonia and drug or food poisoning. Nowadays, the extract of Marsdenia tenacissima, under the trademark of "Xiao-ai-ping", is widely used in clinic for the treatment of different cancers in China. To date, approximately 196 chemical ingredients covering steroids, triterpenes and organic acids have been identified from different parts of this plant. Steroids are the major characteristic and bioactive constituents of this plant. Modern pharmacology has demonstrated that the crude extracts and steroids have various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, such as multidrug resistance reversal, antitumor, anti-angiogenic, immunomodulation and anti-HIV activities. The multidrug resistance reversal of steroids provided evidence for the use of this herb in clinic. However, despite wide clinical application, clinical trials, quality control method, pharmacokinetic and toxicity research on Marsdenia tenacissima were seldom reported and deserved further efforts. The present review aimed to achieve a comprehensive and up-to-date investigation in ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, clinical study, pharmacokinetics, toxicology and quality control of Marsdenia tenacissima. In addition, the possible perspectives and trends for future studies of Marsdenia tenacissima have also been put forward. It is believed that this review would provide a theoretical basis and valuable data for future in-depth studies and applications. 10.1142/S0192415X18500751
    Guanxinjing capsule in the treatment of chronic stable angina: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Tian Ying,Zhang Junhua,Zhao Yingqiang,Mao Jingyuan,Zhu Linping,Gao Rui,Wang Xuemei,Zhu Mingjun,Ma Lihong,Zhao Mengyu,Zheng Wenke Trials BACKGROUND:Stable angina is a common cardiovascular disease with high mortality and a poor prognosis. Although there are various interventions against stable angina, none are able to significantly reduce the mortality rate. Guanxinjing capsule (GXJ) is made from the classical Chinese prescription Xuefuzhuyutang (). Both basic research and clinical studies have shown that GXJ can relieve the symptoms of angina, but currently, the effects of GXJ lack high-quality clinical evidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of GXJ compared with placebo. METHODS/DESIGN:This multicentre, blinded, randomized trial will be conducted with a total of 120 participants diagnosed with chronic stable angina (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome). Using a central randomization system, participants will be randomized (1:1) into groups receiving either GXJ or placebo for 8 weeks. After a 2-week run-in period, eligible patients will receive either GXJ or placebo (4 pills, three times daily) for 8 weeks in addition to conventional treatment. The primary outcomes include changes in the total exercise time on exercise tolerance tests and changes in the integral scores of angina symptoms. The secondary outcome measures include changes in the maximal estimated workload, changes in time to a 1 mm ST-segment depression or raise, changes in the time to onset of angina during exercise tolerance testing, changes in the total score of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome, and changes in the total score of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item assessment between baseline and week 8. Other outcome measures will also be assessed. All exercise tolerance tests use a standard Bruce multistage exercise test protocol. Adverse events will be monitored throughout the trial. DISCUSSION:This study will investigate whether GXJ can alleviate clinical symptoms, increase the angina-free walking time, and improve quality of life in patients with chronic stable angina (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome). The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the application of GXJ to the treatment of stable angina. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800014258 . Registered on 2 January 2018. 10.1186/s13063-018-2950-7
    Challenge and Prospect of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Depression Treatment. Zhang Yuan-Wei,Cheng Yung-Chi Frontiers in neuroscience Current medication for depression is inadequate and far from ideal. Development of novel antidepressant drugs is a pressing task. The discovery of ketamine and related agents represents a new era in drug discovery for the rapid treatment of depression. Due to potential neurotoxicity, short-lasting efficacy, the limitation of a single target approach, and a limited role in depression prevention of these agents, additional approaches or drugs that exert synergy and compatibility, with the rapid-acting agents are required for better treatment of depression. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a systems medicine and its clinical experience and integrated theory for diagnosis and treatment provides an alternative method of novel drug discovery in depression treatment. In TCM, there are numerous claimed effective antidepressant formulas, but comprehensive research and evidence-based clinical studies are required for their acceptance as a treatment. In this essay, we review current attempts in the discovery of new agents, TCM drug formulation, and TCM treatment of depression, and discuss the challenges and opportunities of TCM in the new era of antidepressant discovery. TCM could provide an important resource in the discovery of novel agents, assistance of the rapid-acting antidepressants, development of new agents for female patients, and the prevention of depression at its early stages. The study of depression in conjunction with TCM therefore not only provides an opportunity to scientifically evaluate the benefits and risks of TCM, but also accelerates the development of novel antidepressant agents by combining the principle of modern molecular medicine with the ideas of empirical systems medicine. 10.3389/fnins.2019.00190
    A Chinese medicine formula (Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet): A review on its chemical constituents, quality control, pharmacokinetics studies, pharmacological properties and clinical applications. Liu Yi,Wang Aiting,Wen Lina,Yang Zhirui,Yang Xinyu,Zhang Xu,Yan Dan Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Diabetes belongs to the category of "Xiao Ke Zheng" in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been listed as one of the predominant diseases of TCM. Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet (JQJTT), a Chinese medicine formula composed of three herbs (Coptis chinensis, Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica), is an effective prescription for diabetes proved by randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. AIM OF THE REVIEW:To analyze systematic and up-to-date classification information on the study of JQJTT, explain the problems existing in the current research of classics formulas, and further propose the solution, providing a reference for future study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Literatures on JQJTT were collected from a variety of databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Wiley, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang Data. Information was also collected from books and reports, such as Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chinese herbal classic books and reports of re-evaluation on post-marketing drugs conducted by companies. RESULTS:There are some problems for JQJTT: the quality control system is not perfect, the pharmacological functional mechanism is not fully explained, and clinical applications need to be reevaluated. A few of research directions for future research are proposed: (i) the chemical quality evaluation combined with bioassay to evaluate quality; (ii) interaction based on gut microbiota in vivo; (iii) the effects of interaction between components of the polypharmacy on pharmacokinetic studies; (iv) interaction mechanism between drugs and endogenous small molecules and biomacromolecules; (v) evidence-based medicine reconfirmation for clinical evaluation. CONCLUSIONS:The recent research status of JQJTT was summarized and analyzed from the aspects of chemical constituents, quality control, pharmacokinetics studies, pharmacological properties and clinical applications. This review takes JQJTT as an example, points out some typical problems and opinions about the TCM formulas, highlights the importance of the secondary development of classical formula, and lays a foundation for the further research. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.038
    Therapeutic effect of angelica and its compound formulas for hypertension and the complications: Evidence mapping. Wei Huiping,Xiao Yujie,Tong Yajing,Chen Yaolong,Luo Xufei,Wang Yu,Jin Pei,Ma Chengxu,Fu Zhaoyuan,Guo Huan,Zhao Xinke,Li Yingdong Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Hypertension is one of the common diseases, which brings heavy burden to human race. Currently, western medication is in absolutely dominant position in the treatment of hypertension, but it maintains for a short time and there are various side effects and drug tolerance. Therefore, Chinese medicine has attracted great attention in the treatment field of hypertension, and angelica is one of the most frequently used herbs. OBJECTIVES:In order to give some inspiration to researches in these fields, this article presents the current research status of angelica and its compound formulas treating hypertension and its complications with evidence mapping. METHODS:Main databases were systematically searched, and researches about angelica or its compound formulas containing angelica treating hypertension or its complications were included. EXCEL 2013 was used to integrate and process the data, and the result is showed intuitively with the bubble diagram. RESULTS:49 RCTs were included after screening. The articles recruited were published with a rising trend along with time. Of the 49 RCTs, there is the outcome measure of general the efficacy in the result part in 34 RCTs (69.4%), and all the clinical effective rate in the angelica intervention group is significantly higher than the control group. There is the outcome measure of reduction of MAP in the result part in 28 RCTs, and 27 RCTs (96.4%) showed that the angelica intervention group is significantly improved than the control group while 1 (3.6%) showed no significant differences. There is the outcome measure of efficacy of target organ protection in the result part in 26 RCTs, and 25 RCTs (96.2%) showed that there is significant difference between the angelica intervention group and the control group. Of the 49 RCTs, there is the outcome measure of adverse effects in the result part in 17 RCTs. 14 RCTs (82.4%) reported no adverse effects, 2 RCTs (11.8%) reported adverse effects rate as lower than 10%, and 1 RCT (7.1%) reported adverse effects rate as higher than 40%. CONCLUSION:Current research with low quality has revealed that angelica is effective in reduction of MAP and target organ protection and the adverse effects rate is low, and the effectiveness and safety of angelica needs to be proved by further researches with high quality. Researches of high quality are needed to provide scientific evidence for angelica in treating hypertension and its complications. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.11.027
    Natural products in licorice for the therapy of liver diseases: Progress and future opportunities. Li Xiaojiaoyang,Sun Rong,Liu Runping Pharmacological research Liver diseases related complications represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, creating a substantial economic burden. Oxidative stress, excessive inflammation, and dysregulated energy metabolism significantly contributed to liver diseases. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic drugs for the treatment of liver diseases are urgently required. Licorice is one of the most commonly used herbal drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Various bioactive components have been isolated and identified from the licorice, including glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, liquiritigenin, Isoliquiritigenin, licochalcone A, and glycycoumarin. Emerging evidence suggested that these natural products relieved liver diseases and prevented DILI through multi-targeting therapeutic mechanisms, including anti-steatosis, anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, anti-fibrosis, anti-cancer, and drug-drug interactions. In the current review, we summarized the recent progress in the research of hepatoprotective and toxic effects of different licorice-derived bioactive ingredients and also highlighted the potency of these compounds as promising therapeutic options for the treatment of liver diseases and DILI. We also outlined the networks of underlying molecular signaling pathways. Further pharmacology and toxicology research will contribute to the development of natural products in licorice and their derivatives as medicines with alluring prospect in the clinical application. 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.04.025
    Nardostachys chinensis Batalin: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Rehman Tayyeba,Ahmad Saeed Phytotherapy research : PTR Nardostachys chinensis Batalin (Valerianaceae) has been widely used in different traditional systems of medicine, including Islamic, Ayurvedic, Chinese, and Korean folk medicine. It has been used in traditional medicine as a tranquilizer, hepatotonic, cardiotonic, diuretic, and analgesic. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies have provided valuable scientific evidence for its traditional uses. This review aims to summarize reported traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological potential of N. chinensis while identifying potential areas of further research of plant. The review comprises literature pertaining to the pharmacological potential and phytochemistry of N. chinensis using worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Elsevier, Google Scholar, Pub Med, Scopus, Springer, Wiley online library). Moreover, data from ethno botanical text books available in library and electronic search were also included. The Plant List and Kew Herbarium Catalogue databases were used to authenticate the scientific name. Different pharmacological experiments in many in vitro and in vivo models have proved the potential of N. chinensis, namely, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antihypertensive, antifungal, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, aldose reductase inhibition, and antioxidant activities. The plant contains sesquiterpenenes of various varieties including aristolane, guaiane, and nardosinane types. Moreover, it also contains coumarins, phenols, lignans, neolignans, and glycosides. Reported activities suggested that there may be pharmacological potential for developing N. chinensis as a drug for infections, hypertension, cardiac diseases, Alzheimer's disease, insomnia, epilepsy, cancer, gastric, and liver diseases. More toxicological studies should be performed that will aid the progress to clinical trial studies of N. chinensis. 10.1002/ptr.6447
    Considerations of traditional Chinese medicine as adjunct therapy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Zhang Chi,Jiang Miao,Lu Aiping Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology Ulcerative colitis (UC) has been treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for literally thousands of years. This paper gives an overview of TCM in the management of UC, provides an account of the state of the evidence, identifies gaps in the research base, and makes recommendations for future research. TCM is based on patterns and this influences the selection of the type of herbal medication or manipulation technique used for treatment. The majority of clinical studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture in the treatment of UC have methodological shortcomings. The extent of heterogeneity in many of these clinical trials, poor design quality of past studies prevent meaningful systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analysis, although there are positive signs that TCM may be useful in relieving abdominal pain and reducing inflammation. Many unknowns still exist, including the active ingredients within Chinese herbal medicine and the potential for interaction with other drugs or western medications. While there may be a potential role for utilizing TCM in the treatment of UC patients relying on both traditional concepts and modern developments, it should be recognized that there are no studies that irrefutably support the use of TCM in the treatment of UC. Further basic or translational research must be done to elucidate mechanisms of action of these agents, and well-designed and well-conducted clinical studies must also be done to determine efficacy and safety of these agents. 10.1007/s12016-012-8328-9
    Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: from ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings. Xiao Hai-Tao,Zhong Linda,Tsang Siu-Wai,Lin Ze-Si,Bian Zhao-Xiang The American journal of Chinese medicine Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies. 10.1142/S0192415X15500019
    Traditional Chinese medicine for stable angina pectoris via TCM pattern differentiation and TCM mechanism: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Zhang Zhe,Zhang Fan,Wang Yang,Du Yi,Zhang Huiyong,Kong Dezhao,Liu Yue,Yang Guanlin Trials BACKGROUND:Stable angina pectoris is experienced as trans-sternal or retro-sternal pressure or pain that may radiate to the left arm, neck or back. Although available evidence relating to its effectiveness and mechanism are weak, traditional Chinese medicine is used as an alternative therapy for stable angina pectoris. We report a protocol of a randomized controlled trial using traditional Chinese medicine to investigate the effectiveness, mechanism and safety for patients with stable angina pectoris. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a north-east Chinese, multi-center, multi-blinded, placebo-controlled and superiority randomized trail. A total of 240 patients with stable angina pectoris will be randomly assigned to three groups: two treatment groups and a control group. The treatment groups will receive Chinese herbal medicine consisting of Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Zhuo granule and Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Yu granule, respectively, and conventional medicine. The control group will receive placebo medicine in addition to conventional medicine. All 3 groups will undergo a 12-week treatment and 2-week follow-up. Four visits in sum will be scheduled for each subject: 1 visit each in week 0, week 4, week 12 and week 14. The primary outcomes include: the frequency of angina pectoris attack; the dosage of nitroglycerin; body limited dimension of Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The secondary outcomes include: except for the body limited dimension of SAQ, traditional Chinese medicine pattern questionnaire and so on. Therapeutic mechanism outcomes, safety outcomes and endpoint outcomes will be also assessed. DISCUSSION:The primary aim of this trial is to develop a standard protocol to utilize high-quality EBM evidence for assessing the effectiveness and safety of SAP via TCM pattern differentiation as well as exploring the efficacy mechanism and regulation with the molecular biology and systems biology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:ChiCTR-TRC-13003608, registered 18 June 2013. 10.1186/1745-6215-15-422
    [Literature study on prevention and treatment of community acquired pneumonia by traditional Chinese medicine]. Li De-Min,Tang Shi-Huan,Liao Qiang,Chen Wei,Zhang Hong-Chun Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Among the literatures of the prevention and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) published in recent years, there were 16 kinds of classic prescription, including 52 RCTs about Maxingshigan Decoction, 21Chinese patent medicines. There are eight kinds of indications for the drug specification, among which the literatures of Tan Reqing injection accounted for the most about 136 RCTs; There were literatures about non-drug treatment, including: acupuncture, Chinese medicine paste, enema, Chinese medicine ionization, Chinese medicine fumigation, bamboo cans and so on. In this study, author has analysed the classic prescription, Chinese patent medicine and non-drug therapy referring to advantages and disadvantages of CAP, which could be used to treat virus infection instead of antibiotic therapy. Based on antibiotic therapy, Chinese medicine treatment could increase synergistic interaction while decrease the antibiotic side-effects. In addition, Chinese medicine could perform synergistic interaction in CAP every period, which resulted from classified analysis of basic studies about Chinese medicine treatment in CPA. This study is aimed to provides an important basis for clarifying the direction of scientific research. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.2017.0037
    Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine. Song Guanli,Wang Yinghui,Zhang Runshun,Liu Baoyan,Zhou Xuezhong,Zhou Xiaji,Zhang Hong,Guo Yufeng,Xue Yanxing,Xu Lili Frontiers of medicine The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field. 10.1007/s11684-014-0357-8
    Characteristics and prescription patterns of traditional Chinese medicine in atopic dermatitis patients: ten-year experiences at a medical center in Taiwan. Lin Jing-Fan,Liu Pi-Hua,Huang Tzu-Ping,Lien Angela Shin-Yu,Ou Liang-Shiou,Yu Chin-Hui,Yang Shu-Ling,Chang Hen-Hong,Yen Hung-Rong Complementary therapies in medicine OBJECTIVES:Complementary and alternative therapies in treating atopic dermatitis are not uncommon. However, substantial evidence and consensus on treating atopic dermatitis is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with atopic dermatitis. DESIGN:We retrospectively collected patients with atopic dermatitis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan between 2002 and 2011. Patients' demographic data, duration and frequency of treatment, serum total immunoglobulin E levels, and traditional Chinese medicine treatment principles and prescription were analyzed. RESULTS:There were 4145 patients (8.8%) received traditional Chinese medicine therapy between 2002 and 2011. Among them, 2841 (68.54%) chose TCM only and 1304 (31.46%) chose to combine TCM and WM therapies. Those who chose combination therapy were younger, and needed more times of visit and longer duration of treatment. The most frequent comorbid conditions accompany atopic dermatitis were allergic rhinitis (46.06%) and asthma (21.46%). Among the 87,573 prescriptions written for Chinese medicine, the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb were Xiao-Feng-San (Eliminate Wind Powder) (16.98%) and Bai-Xian-Pi (Cortex Dictamni) (12.68%), respectively. The most commonly used therapeutic principles of herbal formulas and single herbs were releasing exterior (20.23%) and clearing heat (41.93%), respectively. CONCLUSION:Our hospital-based study characterized the utilization patterns of traditional Chinese medicine in atopic dermatitis patients. This information could be used as references for clinical application and provide valuable information for future clinical trials. 10.1016/j.ctim.2013.12.003
    Atheroprotective effects and molecular targets of bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicine. Qiao Lei,Chen Wenqiang Pharmacological research Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has served the Chinese people since antiquity, and is playing an important role in today's healthcare. However, there has been controversy in the use of these traditional herbs due to unclear components and absence of scientific proof. As China plans to modernize traditional medicine, successful attempts to better understand the molecular mechanisms of TCM have been made by focusing on isolating active ingredients from these remedies. In this review, we critically examined the current evidence on atheroprotective effects of bioactive compounds from TCM using in vitro or in vivo models in the past two decades. A total of 47 active compounds were included in our review, which were introduced in the order of chemical structures, source, model, efficacy and mechanism. Notablely, this review highlighted the cellular and molecular mechanisms of these active compounds in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Two compounds were also involved in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Besides, we introduced the legislations of the People's Republic of China ensuring quality and safety of products used in TCM. In summary, studies on bioactive compounds from TCM will provide a new approach for better management of atherosclerosis. 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.07.012
    Recent Advances in Traditional Chinese Medicine for Kidney Disease. Zhong Yifei,Menon Madhav C,Deng Yueyi,Chen Yiping,He John Cijiang American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.04.013
    Research progress on classical traditional Chinese medicine formula Lily Bulb and Rehmannia Decoction in the treatment of depression. Chi Xiansu,Wang Shijun,Baloch Zulqarnain,Zhang Hongxiu,Li Xiuyang,Zhang Zhe,Zhang Huiling,Dong Zhenfei,Lu Yan,Yu Huayun,Ma Ke Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Depression pertains to the category of "Emotional Diseases" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its clinical symptoms are similar to the manifestations of "lily disease" from the TCM classics Synopsis of the Golden Chamber written by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty. Also in this book, Lily Bulb and Rehmannia Decoction (LBRD) is the formula for the treatment of "lily disease". The classical herbal formula LBRD is composed of two herbs lily bulb and fresh rehmannia juice, with the function of nourishing yin and replenishing heart and lung. It has been clinically applied to treat "lily disease" for two thousand years. In this review, we focused on recent evidence linking LBRD and depression extracting data from animal and clinical studies, summarizing the primitive dosage and producing area of genuine medicinal materials of LBRD, clinical application, pharmacological mechanism and the effective substance basis for the treatment of depression. In conclusion, we discussed existing problems and future perspective. This systematic review will seek to enhance our understanding about pharmacology mechanism, herb-prescribing and recipe-constructing, and the development of novel formula for depression treatments. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108616
    Traditional Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Insomnia and Priorities Setting of Future Clinical Research. Ni Xiaojia,Shergis Johannah Linda,Zhang Anthony Lin,Guo Xinfeng,Lu Chuanjian,Li Yan,Xue Charlie Changli Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the traditional use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for insomnia in pre-contemporary times. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine (fifth edition) was systematically searched using seven Chinese medicine disease nomenclatures to identify insomnia citations. Citations were coded, and frequently used herbal formulae specific for insomnia were analyzed. RESULTS:Insomnia treatments were mentioned in 940 citations, and insomnia diagnosis treated with Chinese herbal formulae was specifically described in 800 citations. The traditional use of CHM appeared to be individualized based on the cause, pathogenesis, phase, phenotype, demographics, and concurrent medical conditions of insomnia. The most common herbal formulae for insomnia included Wen dan tang, Suan zao ren tang, Ban xia shu mi tang, and Gui pi tang. The most frequently cited herb was suan zao ren (Ziziphi spinosae semen). CONCLUSIONS:A number of herbal formulae for insomnia were cited in the historical literature. The commonly cited formulae such as Wen dan tang and Suan zao ren tang are consistent with current clinical practice and are good prospects for further therapeutic development. 10.1089/acm.2018.0249
    Progress in Experimental and Clinical Research of the Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Using Traditional Chinese Medicine. Xu Zhao-Hui,Gao Ying-Ying,Zhang Hua-Ting,Ruan Ke-Feng,Feng Yi The American journal of Chinese medicine Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetic mellitus, is currently the main cause of adult-acquired blindness. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and the current clinical application of various treatment methods cannot completely prevent the development of this disease. Many reports have been published regarding the treatment of DR with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which has received increasing attention from medical practitioners worldwide. Studies published between 1994 and April 2017 were collected from the CNKI, VIP, Medline and Web of Science databases, as well as from Chinese traditional books and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, subsequently obtaining more than 550 studies. Thereafter, the status quo of DR treatment using TCM had been summarized according to four aspects - compound formula therapy, Chinese herbal medicine extracts and monomer therapy, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy, and Chinese medicine external treatment. According to the literature reviewed herein, TCM has had definite effects on the prevention and treatment of DR, especially when used in combination with modern medical methods. However, the lack of a unified standard on the syndrome differentiation of DR and the lack of support of evidence-based medicine theory in clinical practice have been consistent concerns in previous research studies and needs to be addressed in subsequent studies. 10.1142/S0192415X1850074X
    Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Zhu Jiayi,Shen Lan,Lin Xiao,Hong Yanlong,Feng Yi Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie PURPOSE:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. In order to summarize the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations in the prevention and treatment of ALS through analyzing the mechanism, action site, and symptoms according to effective clinical research. METHODS:We searched ALS, motor neuron disease, chemical drugs, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and various combinations of these terms in databases including the PudMed, Springer, Ovid, Google, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. RESULT:It was found that the chemical drugs almost had not sufficient evidence to show their effectiveness in the treatment of ALS, except RILUZOLE. According to the characteristics of clinical symptoms of ALS, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that this disease belongs to the category of "atrophic disease". In clinical research, many Chinese herbal formulas had good clinical efficacies in the treatment of ALS with multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. And four kinds of dialectical treatment had been developed based on Clinical data analysis and the use of dialectical therapy: Benefiting the kidney; Declaring the lungs; Enhancing the Qi; and Dredging the meridian. CONCLUSION:In this review, we provide an overview of chemical drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine compound and its preparations in therapy of ALS as well as how they may contribute to the ALS pathogenesis, thereby offering some clues for further studies. 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.09.135
    Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an updated meta-analysis of 10 high-quality randomized controlled studies. Hao Chi-zi,Wu Fan,Lu Lin,Wang Juan,Guo Yi,Liu Ai-ju,Liao Wei-jing,Zheng Guo-qing PloS one BACKGROUND:Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is very common in people with diabetes. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) therapy has been developed for DPN empirically over the years. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of CHMs for patients suffering from DPN. METHODS:We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM on DPN. Six databases were searched up to November 2012. The primary outcome measures were the absolute values or changing of motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and the secondary outcome measurements were clinical symptoms improvements and adverse events. The methodological quality was assessed by Jadad scale and the twelve criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. RESULTS:One hundred and sixty-three studies claimed RCTs. Ten studies with 653 individuals were further identified based on the Jadad score ≥ 3. These 10 studies were all of high methodological quality with a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed the effects of NCV favoring CHMs when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There is a significant difference in the total efficacy rate between the two groups (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in all of the ten included studies, and well tolerated in all patients with DPN. CONCLUSION:Despite of the apparently positive findings and low risk of bias, it is premature to conclude the efficacy of CHMs for the treatment of DPN because of the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies. However, CHM therapy was safe for DPN. Further standardized preparation, large sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required. 10.1371/journal.pone.0076113
    GRADE in Systematic Reviews of Acupuncture for Stroke Rehabilitation: Recommendations based on High-Quality Evidence. Xin Zhang,Xue-Ting Liu,De-Ying Kang Scientific reports Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated acupuncture's effectiveness in stroke rehabilitation. The current study reviews the quality of evidence in SRs of acupuncture in stroke rehabilitation, and rates the strength of recommendation for its use based on this evidence using the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations) approach. A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple databases (e.g., Medline, Embase) with advanced search strategies. Two authors independently selected articles, collected data, and assessed the methodological quality of each identified SR according to AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews) and OQAQ (Oxman and Guyatt's overview quality assessment questionnaire). Outcomes related to stroke rehabilitation were evaluated. SRs of high methodological quality (AMSTAR score ≥9 and OQAQ score ≥7) were graded using GRADE. Ultimately, acupuncture yields benefits in stroke rehabilitation (neurological function improvement: RR = 1.34; swallowing improvement: RR = 1.61, 1.49, 1.07; disability: SMD = 0.49 or 0.07). Poor evidentiary quality and insufficient information about harm led to weak recommendations. In conclusion, acupuncture may improve stroke rehabilitation, as the GRADE approach indicated a weak recommendation for acupuncture's usage in this context. 10.1038/srep16582
    The impact of cholecalciferol supplementation on the systemic inflammatory profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Calton E K,Keane K N,Newsholme P,Zhao Y,Soares M J European journal of clinical nutrition Causal links between vitamin D status [25(OH)D] and systemic inflammation were examined through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Selected RCTs were ⩾12 weeks, conducted in adults free of acute inflammatory disease, and of high-quality (Jadad score ⩾3). Of 14 studies that met our criteria, 9 studies (15 study arms) permitted extraction of data. There was no effect on the weighted mean difference (WMD) of IL-6 (WMD (95% confidence interval)=0.1, (-0.166, 0.366) pg/ml, P=0.462) or C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD=-0.324, (-1.007, 0.359) mg/l, P=0.352). Subgroup analyses of trials achieving ⩾80 nmol/l indicated a trend for lower CRP (WMD=-0.834, (-1.726, 0.058) mg/l, P=0.067), however heterogeneity was significant (I=66.7%, P=0.017). Studies employing a low dose (<1000 IU/d) showed increased CRP (WMD=0.615, (0.132, 1.098), P=0.013). In contrast, ⩾1000 IU/d had a favourable effect on CRP (WMD=-0.939, (-1.805, -0.073), P=0.034) but heterogeneity was significant (I=61.3%, P=0.017). Meta-regression indicated that older age predicted a significant decrease in IL-6 (β=-0.02, (-0.034, -0.006) pg/ml, P=0.013) and CRP (β=-0.06, (-0.103, -0.017), P=0.01), whereas a greater percentage of females (β=0.027, (0.011, 0.044), P=0.004) and longer study duration independently predicted a higher WMD for CRP (β=0.049, (0.018, 0.079), P=0.005). Available high-quality RCTs did not support a beneficial effect of cholecalciferol on systemic IL-6 and CRP. Future studies should consider the confounding effects of age, gender and study duration, while possibly targeting an achieved 25(OH)D ⩾80 nmol/l. 10.1038/ejcn.2017.67
    Chinese Herbal Medicine for Vascular Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of High-Quality Randomized Controlled Trials. Xu Qing-Qing,Shan Chun-Shuo,Wang Yong,Shi Yi-Hua,Zhang Qi-Hao,Zheng Guo-Qing Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD BACKGROUND:Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second common form of dementia and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for aging-related disorders for thousands of years. However, there is still a lack of scientific evidence using CHM for VaD. OBJECTIVE:To conduct a systematic review to assess the current evidence available for the effectiveness and safety of CHM for VaD. METHODS:Six databases were searched for high-quality randomized-controlled clinical trials that met the requirements of at least 4 of the 7 domains of the Cochrane risk of bias tool from their inception to February 2017. RevMan 5.3 was applied for data analysis. RESULTS:Forty studies with 42 comparisons and 3,572 individuals were included. The studies investigated the CHM versus placebo (n = 4), CHM versus western conventional treatment (WCT) (n = 36), and CHM plus WCT versus WCT (n = 2). Meta-analysis showed that CHM for VaD could improve Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activities of Daily Living, Hasegawa's dementia scale, and clinical effective rate but had statistically similar effect based on Blessed Behavior Scale (BBS) outcome when compared with WCTs. When compared with placebo, CHMs were more beneficial in improving MMSE but showed no significant difference in BBS scores. CHM as adjuvant therapy exerted an additive anti-VaD benefit on MMSE scores. The participants of CHM group had fewer adverse events than that of the placebo group or WCT group. CONCLUSION:The findings of the present study support, at least to an extent, that CHM can be recommended for routine use for treatment of VaD. 10.3233/JAD-170856
    Hepatic resection compared to chemoembolization in intermediate- to advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis of high-quality studies. Hyun Myung Han,Lee Young-Sun,Kim Ji Hoon,Lee Chan Uk,Jung Young Kul,Seo Yeon Seok,Yim Hyung Joon,Yeon Jong Eun,Byun Kwan Soo Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) treatment guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of surgery has been expanded beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) algorithm. We compared primary hepatectomy (PH) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with intermediate- to advanced-stage (BCLC stage B/C) HCC to determine the current evidence. Through a database search, we included 18 high-quality studies (one randomized controlled trial [RCT], five propensity-score matching nonrandomized comparative trials [NRCTs], and 12 NRCTs) that compared survival outcomes of 5,986 patients after PH and TACE. We found significant survival benefits for PH over TACE in BCLC stage B/C patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.67; P < 0.00001; I = 84%). According to the BCLC, both stage B and stage C patients showed significantly better overall survival (OS) for PH compared to TACE (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43-0.65; P < 0.00001; I = 77%; HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59-0.77; P < 0.00001; I = 79%, respectively). Five-year survival rates for PH were significantly higher than those for TACE in BCLC stage B/C, stage B, and BCLC stage C patients (odds ratio [OR], 2.71, 2.77, and 3.03, respectively; all P < 0.00001). Survival benefits persisted across subgroup, sensitivity, and metaregression analyses; interstudy heterogeneity remained constant. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis suggests that surgical resection provides survival benefits in patients with intermediate- to advanced-stage HCC. The evidence found herein may assist in the choice of treatment modality based on diverse definitions of operability. (Hepatology 2018). 10.1002/hep.29883
    Chinese herbal medicine for headache: A systematic review and meta-analysis of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Shi Yi-Hua,Wang Yong,Fu Huan,Xu Zhen,Zeng Hua,Zheng Guo-Qing Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used to relieve headache in Asia. However, it is uncertain whether there is robust evidence on the effects of CHMs for headache. PURPOSE:To assess the effectiveness and safety of CHMs for headache using systematic review of high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS:Electronic search was conducted on six databases from inception to January 2018. We included the RCTs that met the requirement of at least 4 out of the 7 domains according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS:Thirty RCTs with 3447 subjects were ultimately included for analysis and all trials were conducted in Asia. Meta-analysis showed that CHMs monotherapy were superior to placebo in reducing headache frequency [SMD -0.48 (95% CI -0.76, -0.20); p < 0.01], headache days [SMD -0.29 (95% CI -0.45, -0.13); p < 0.01], headache duration[SMD -0.58 (95% CI -0.81, -0.36); p < 0.01], headache intensity [SMD -0.42 (95% CI -0.62, -0.23); p < 0.01] and analgesic consumption [SMD -0.36 (95% CI -0.52, -0.21); p < 0.01] and improving clinical efficacy rate (p < 0.01). Similarly, CHMs monotherapy were superior to western conventional medicines (WCMs) in headache frequency [SMD -0.57 (95% CI -0.84, -0.29); p < 0.01], headache days (p < 0.01), analgesic consumption [SMD -1.63 (95% CI -1.98, -1.28); p < 0.01], headache intensity [SMD -0.81 (95% CI -1.06, -0.57); p < 0.01], and clinical efficacy rate [RR 1.24 (95% CI 1.18, 1.31); p < 0.01], except reducing headache duration (p > 0.05). CHMs adjunct therapy can improve clinical efficacy rate compared with WCMs alone [RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.09, 1.22); p < 0.01]. Meanwhile, CHMs had fewer adverse events than that of controls. CONCLUSION:The findings supported, at least to an extent, the use of CHM for headache patients; however, we should treat the results cautiously because the clinical heterogeneity. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.12.039