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    An Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Screening Protocol for Acute Stroke: A Quality Improvement Initiative. Ver Hage Anna,Teleb Mohamed,Smith Evelyn The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses BACKGROUND:Nurses play an integral role in triaging stroke patients. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to determine the efficacy of using an emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) screening protocol in the emergency department by nursing staff to improve identification of eligible patients as compared with current practice, improving time to endovascular treatment. METHODS:Retrospective chart review was used to identify 76 patients admitted to a large urban stroke center. Of these, 36 presented during a 4-month period before the implementation of the Stroke Vision, Aphasia, Neglect (Stroke VAN) tool for assessing ELVO risk; 40 patients were admitted during the 4 months after implementation of Stroke VAN. RESULTS:The mean door-to-computed tomography angiography scan times were reduced from 119 to 49 minutes (P < .0001) for all patients and reduced from 77 to 27 minutes in a subset of VAN-positive patients. CONCLUSION:Implementation of the VAN screening tool to assess for ELVO was associated with decreased door-to-computed tomography angiography times and more rapid identification of endovascular eligible patients with ischemic stroke. 10.1097/JNN.0000000000000346
    Scoping review of acute stroke care management and rehabilitation in low and middle-income countries. Chimatiro George Lameck,Rhoda Anthea J BMC health services research BACKGROUND:Stroke is a major public health concern, affecting millions of people worldwide. Care of the condition however, remain inconsistent in developing countries. The purpose of this scoping review was to document evidence of stroke care and service delivery in low and middle-income countries to better inform development of a context-fit stroke model of care. METHODS:An interpretative scoping literature review based on Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage-process was executed. The following databases searched for literature published between 2010 and 2017; Cochrane Library, Credo Reference, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Science Direct, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINNAHL), Academic Search Complete, and Google Scholar. Single combined search terms included acute stroke, stroke care, stroke rehabilitation, developing countries, low and middle-income countries. RESULTS:A total of 177 references were identified. Twenty of them, published between 2010 and 2017, were included in the review. Applying the Donebedian Model of quality of care, seven dimensions of stroke-care structure, six dimensions of stroke care processes, and six dimensions of stroke care outcomes were identified. Structure of stroke care included availability of a stroke unit, an accident and emergency department, a multidisciplinary team, stroke specialists, neuroimaging, medication, and health care policies. Stroke care processes that emerged were assessment and diagnosis, referrals, intravenous thrombolysis, rehabilitation, and primary and secondary prevention strategies. Stroke-care outcomes included quality of stroke-care practice, functional independence level, length of stay, mortality, living at home, and institutionalization. CONCLUSIONS:There is lack of uniformity in the way stroke care is advanced in low and middle-income countries. This is reflected in the unsatisfactory stroke care structure, processes, and outcomes. There is a need for stroke care settings to adopt quality improvement strategies. Health ministry and governments need to decisively face stroke burden by setting policies that advance improved care of patients with stroke. Stroke Units and Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rtPA) administration could be considered as both a structural and process necessity towards improvement of outcomes of patients with stroke in the LMICs. 10.1186/s12913-019-4654-4
    Promoting Evidence-Based Practice at a Primary Stroke Center: A Nurse Education Strategy. Case Christina Anne Dimensions of critical care nursing : DCCN BACKGROUND:Promoting a culture of evidence-based practice within a health care facility is a priority for health care leaders and nursing professionals; however, tangible methods to promote translation of evidence to bedside practice are lacking. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this quality improvement project was to design and implement a nursing education intervention demonstrating to the bedside nurse how current evidence-based guidelines are used when creating standardized stroke order sets at a primary stroke center, thereby increasing confidence in the use of standardized order sets at the point of care and supporting evidence-based culture within the health care facility. METHODS:This educational intervention took place at a 286-bed community hospital certified by the Joint Commission as a primary stroke center. Bedside registered nurse (RN) staff from 4 units received a poster presentation linking the American Heart Association's and American Stroke Association's current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to standardized stroke order sets and bedside nursing care. The 90-second oral poster presentation was delivered by a graduate nursing student during preshift huddle. The poster and supplemental materials remained in the unit break room for 1 week for RN viewing. After the pilot unit, a pdf of the poster was also delivered via an e-mail attachment to all RNs on the participating unit. A preintervention online survey measured nurses' self-perceived likelihood of performing an ordered intervention based on whether they were confident the order was evidence based. The preintervention survey also measured nurses' self-reported confidence in their ability to explain how the standardized order sets are derived from current evidence. The postintervention online survey again measured nurses' self-reported confidence level. However, the postintervention survey was modified midway through data collection, allowing for the final 20 survey respondents to retrospectively rate their confidence before and after the educational intervention. This modification ensured that the responses for each individual participant in this group were matched. RESULTS:Registered nurses reported a significant increase in perceived confidence in ability to explain how standardized stroke order sets reflect current evidence after the intervention (n = 20, P < .001). This sample was matched for each individual respondent. No significant change was shown in unmatched group mean self-reported confidence ratings overall after the intervention or separately by unit for the progressive care unit, critical care unit, or intensive care unit (n = 89 preintervention, n = 43 postintervention). However, the emergency department demonstrated a significant increase in group mean perceived confidence scores (n = 20 preintervention, n = 11 postintervention, P = .020). Registered nurses reported a significantly higher self-perceived likelihood of performing an ordered nursing intervention when they were confident that the order was evidence based compared with if they were unsure the order was evidence based (n = 88, P < .001). DISCUSSION:This nurse education strategy increased RNs' confidence in ability to explain the path from evidence to bedside nursing care by demonstrating how evidence-based clinical practice guidelines provide current evidence used to create standardized order sets. Although further evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness is needed, this educational intervention has the potential for generalization to different types of standardized order sets to increase nurse confidence in utilization of evidence-based practice. 10.1097/DCC.0000000000000251
    New standardized nursing cooperation workflow to reduce stroke thrombolysis delays in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Zhou Yan,Xu Zhuojun,Liao Jiali,Feng Fangming,Men Lai,Xu Li,He Yanan,Li Gang Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment OBJECTIVE:We assessed the effectiveness of a new standardized nursing cooperation workflow in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) to reduce stroke thrombolysis delays. PATIENTS AND METHODS:AIS patients receiving conventional thrombolysis treatment from March to September 2015 were included in the control group, referred to as T0. The intervention group, referred to as T1 group, consisted of AIS patients receiving a new standardized nursing cooperation workflow for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) at the emergency department of Shanghai East Hospital (Shanghai, People's Republic of China) from October 2015 to March 2016. Information was collected on the following therapeutic techniques used: application or not of thrombolysis, computed tomography (CT) time, and door-to-needle (DTN) time. A nursing coordinator who helped patients fulfill the medical examinations and diagnosis was appointed to T1 group. In addition, a nurse was sent immediately from the stroke unit to the emergency department to aid the thrombolysis treatment. RESULTS:The average value of the door-to-CT initiation time was 38.67±5.21 min in the T0 group, whereas it was 14.39±4.35 min in the T1 group; the average values of CT completion-to-needle time were 55.06±4.82 and 30.26±3.66 min; the average values of DTN time were 100.43±6.05 and 55.68±3.62 min, respectively; thrombolysis time was improved from 12.8% (88/689) in the T0 group to 32.5% (231/712) in the T1 group (all <0.01). In addition, the new standardized nursing cooperation workflow decreased the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at 24 h (<0.01) (T0: prethrombolysis, 6.97±3.98; 24 h postthrombolysis, 3.33±2.09; 2 weeks postthrombolysis, 2.25±1.01 and T1: prethrombolysis, 7.00±3.89; 24 h postthrombolysis, 2.60±1.66; 2 weeks postthrombolysis, 2.21±1.02). CONCLUSION:The new standardized nursing cooperation workflow reduced stroke thrombolysis delays in patients with AIS. 10.2147/NDT.S128740
    Response to Symptoms and Prehospital Delay in Stroke Patients. Is It Time to Reconsider Stroke Awareness Campaigns? García Ruiz Rafael,Silva Fernández Julia,García Ruiz Rosa María,Recio Bermejo Marta,Arias Arias Ángel,Del Saz Saucedo Pablo,Huertas Arroyo Rafael,González Manero Ana,Santos Pinto Ana,Navarro Muñoz Santiago,Botia Paniagua Enrique,Abellán Alemán José Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association BACKGROUND:Despite recent advances in acute stroke care, reperfusion therapies are given to only 1%-8% of patients. Previous studies have focused on prehospital or decision delay. We aim to give a more comprehensive view by addressing different time delays and decisions. METHODS:A total of 382 patients with either acute stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively included. Sociodemographic and clinical parameters and data on decision delay, prehospital delay, and first medical contact were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors related to decision delay of 15 minutes or shorter, calling the Extrahospital Emergency Services, and prehospital delay of 60 minutes or shorter and 180 minutes or shorter. RESULTS:Prehospital delay was 60 minutes or shorter in 11.3% of our patients and 180 minutes or shorter in 48.7%. Major vascular risk factors were present in 89.8% of patients. Severity was associated with decision delay of 15 minutes or shorter (odds ratio [OR] 1.08; confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.13), calling the Extrahospital Emergency Services (OR 1.17; CI 1.12-1.23), and prehospital delay of 180 minutes or shorter (OR 1.08; CI 1.01-1.15). Adult children as witnesses favored a decision delay of 15 minutes or shorter (OR 3.44; CI 95% 1.88-6.27; P < .001) and calling the Extrahospital Emergency Services (OR 2.24; IC 95% 1.20-4.22; P = .012). Calling the Extrahospital Emergency Services favored prehospital delay of 60 minutes or shorter (OR 5.69; CI 95% 2.41-13.45; P < .001) and prehospital delay of 180 minutes or shorter (OR 3.86; CI 95% 1.47-10.11; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS:Severity and the bystander play a critical role in the response to stroke. Calling the Extrahospital Emergency Services promotes shorter delays. Future interventions should encourage immediately calling the Extrahospital Emergency Services, but the target should be redirected to those with known risk factors and their caregivers. 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.09.036
    Setting Up a Stroke Team Algorithm and Conducting Simulation-based Training in the Emergency Department - A Practical Guide. Tahtali Damla,Bohmann Ferdinand,Rostek Peter,Wagner Marlies,Steinmetz Helmuth,Pfeilschifter Waltraud Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Time is of the essence when caring for an acute stroke patient. The ultimate goal is to restore blood flow to the ischemic brain. This can be achieved by either thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA), the standard therapy for stroke patients who present within the first hours of symptom onset without contraindications, or by an endovascular approach, if a proximal brain vessel occlusion is detected. As the efficacy of both therapies declines over time, every minute saved along the way will improve the patient's outcome. This critical situation requires thorough work and precise communication with the patient, the family and colleagues from different professions to acquire all relevant information and reach the right decision while carefully monitoring the patient. This is a high fidelity situation. In nonmedical high-fidelity environments such as aviation, Crew Resource Management (CRM) is used to enhance safety and team efficiency. This guide shows how a Stroke Team algorithm, which is transferable to other hospital settings, was established and how regular simulation-based trainings were performed. It requires determination and endurance to maintain these time-consuming simulation trainings on a regular basis over the course of time. However, the resulting improvement of team spirit and excellent door-to-needle times will benefit both the patients and the work environment in any hospital. A dedicated Stroke Team of 7 persons who are notified 24/7 by a collective call via speed dial and run a binding algorithm that takes approximately 20 min, was established. To train everybody involved in this algorithm, a simulation-based team training for all new Stroke Team members was conceived and conducted at monthly intervals. This led to a relevant and sustained reduction of the mean door-to-needle time to 25 min, and enhanced the feeling of stroke readiness especially in junior doctors and nurses. 10.3791/55138
    Protected Code Stroke: Hyperacute Stroke Management During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Khosravani Houman,Rajendram Phavalan,Notario Lowyl,Chapman Martin G,Menon Bijoy K Stroke Background and Purpose- Hyperacute assessment and management of patients with stroke, termed code stroke, is a time-sensitive and high-stakes clinical scenario. In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the ability to deliver timely and efficacious care must be balanced with the risk of infectious exposure to the clinical team. Furthermore, rapid and effective stroke care remains paramount to achieve maximal functional recovery for those needing admission and to triage care appropriately for those who may be presenting with neurological symptoms but have an alternative diagnosis. Methods- Available resources, COVID-19-specific infection prevention and control recommendations, and expert consensus were used to identify clinical screening criteria for patients and provide the required nuanced considerations for the healthcare team, thereby modifying the conventional code stroke processes to achieve a protected designation. Results- A protected code stroke algorithm was developed. Features specific to prenotification and clinical status of the patient were used to define precode screening. These include primary infectious symptoms, clinical, and examination features. A focused framework was then developed with regard to a protected code stroke. We outline the specifics of personal protective equipment use and considerations thereof including aspects of crisis resource management impacting team role designation and human performance factors during a protected code stroke. Conclusions- We introduce the concept of a protected code stroke during a pandemic, as in the case of COVID-19, and provide a framework for key considerations including screening, personal protective equipment, and crisis resource management. These considerations and suggested algorithms can be utilized and adapted for local practice. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029838
    Emergency department shift change is associated with pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Jones Erica M,Albright Karen C,Fossati-Bellani Marco,Siegler James E,Martin-Schild Sheryl Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Emergency department (ED) nurses play a pivotal role in early acute ischemic stroke patient management. We hypothesized that patients exposed to ED nursing shift changes (SC) may develop pneumonia (PNA) more frequently and have worse early outcomes than do patients who have continuity of care until stroke unit admission. METHODS:Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients presenting to our ED were studied using chart review and prospectively collected registry data. We evaluated the association of patient presence during an ED SC (ie, 07:00-08:00, 19:00-20:00) with length of stay in the ED, PNA rates, and early outcome measures (discharge disposition, modified Rankin Scale score, and death). RESULTS:Three hundred sixty-six consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients met the criteria. Of those, 54.9% were present during an SC. After adjusting for baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, admission glucose, and intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator, patients present during SC were half as likely to be discharged home or to inpatient rehab (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.96; P=0.04) and were 2.5 times more likely to develop PNA (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.02-6.30; P=0.045). After additional adjustment for time in the ED, the difference in favorable discharge disposition was no longer significant, but SC was associated with 5 times the odds of PNA (OR, 5.35; 95% CI, 1.34-21.39; P=0.018) compared with patients with continuity of care. CONCLUSIONS:In our center, acute ischemic stroke patients present during an ED nursing SC experienced higher rates of PNA and had decreased rates of favorable discharge disposition compared with patients with continuity of care. Strategies to prevent PNA and improve hand-off communication during SC may reduce this risk. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.613026
    Disparities in Antihypertensive Prescribing After Stroke: Linked Data From the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry. Dalli Lachlan L,Kim Joosup,Thrift Amanda G,Andrew Nadine E,Lannin Natasha A,Anderson Craig S,Grimley Rohan,Katzenellenbogen Judith M,Boyd James,Lindley Richard I,Pollack Michael,Jude Martin,Durairaj Ramesh,Shah Darshan,Cadilhac Dominique A,Kilkenny Monique F Stroke Background and Purpose- Despite evidence to support the prescription of antihypertensive medications before hospital discharge to promote medication adherence and prevent recurrent events, many patients with stroke miss out on these medications at discharge. We aimed to examine patient, clinical, and system-level differences in the prescription of antihypertensive medications at hospital discharge after stroke. Methods- Adults with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage alive at discharge were included (years 2009-2013) from 39 hospitals participating in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry. Patient comorbidities were identified using the ) codes from the hospital admissions and emergency presentation data. The outcome variable and other system factors were derived from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry dataset. Multivariable, multilevel logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the prescription of antihypertensive medications at hospital discharge. Results- Of the 10 315 patients included, 79.0% (intracerebral hemorrhage, 74.1%; acute ischemic stroke, 79.8%) were prescribed antihypertensive medications at discharge. Prescription varied between hospital sites, with 6 sites >2 SDs below the national average for provision of antihypertensives at discharge. Prescription was also independently associated with patient and clinical factors including history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, management in an acute stroke unit, and discharge to rehabilitation. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, females (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94), those who had greater stroke severity (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI 0.72-0.92), or dementia (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.52-0.81) were less likely to be prescribed. Conclusions- Prescription of antihypertensive medications poststroke varies between hospitals and according to patient factors including age, sex, stroke severity, and comorbidity profile. Implementation of targeted quality improvement initiatives at local hospitals may help to reduce the variation in prescription observed. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026823
    Nurse-Initiated Acute Stroke Care in Emergency Departments. Middleton Sandy,Dale Simeon,Cheung N Wah,Cadilhac Dominique A,Grimshaw Jeremy M,Levi Chris,McInnes Elizabeth,Considine Julie,McElduff Patrick,Gerraty Richard,Craig Louise Eisten,Schadewaldt Verena,Fitzgerald Mark,Quinn Clare,Cadigan Greg,Denisenko Sonia,Longworth Mark,Ward Jeanette,D'Este Catherine, , , Stroke Background and Purpose- We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to improve triage, treatment, and transfer for patients with acute stroke admitted to the emergency department (ED). Methods- A pragmatic, blinded, multicenter, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between July 2013 and September 2016 in 26 Australian EDs with stroke units and tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) protocols. Hospitals, stratified by state and tPA volume, were randomized 1:1 to intervention or usual care by an independent statistician. Eligible ED patients had acute stroke <48 hours from symptom onset and were admitted to the stroke unit via ED. Our nurse-initiated T intervention targeted (1) Triage to Australasian Triage Scale category 1 or 2; (2) Treatment: tPA eligibility screening and appropriate administration; clinical protocols for managing fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing; (3) prompt (<4 hours) stroke unit Transfer. It was implemented using (1) workshops to identify barriers and solutions; (2) face-to-face, online, and written education; (3) national and local clinical opinion leaders; and (4) email, telephone, and site visit follow-up. Outcomes were assessed at the patient level. Primary outcome: 90-day death or dependency (modified Rankin Scale score of ≥2); secondary outcomes: functional dependency (Barthel Index ≥95), health status (Short Form [36] Health Survey), and ED quality of care (Australasian Triage Scale; monitoring and management of tPA, fever, hyperglycemia, swallowing; prompt transfer). Intention-to-treat analysis adjusted for preintervention outcomes and ED clustering. Patients, outcome assessors, and statisticians were masked to group allocation. Results- Twenty-six EDs (13 intervention and 13 control) recruited 2242 patients (645 preintervention and 1597 postintervention). There were no statistically significant differences at follow-up for 90-day modified Rankin Scale (intervention: n=400 [53.5%]; control n=266 [48.7%]; P=0.24) or secondary outcomes. Conclusions- This evidence-based, theory-informed implementation trial, previously effective in stroke units, did not change patient outcomes or clinician behavior in the complex ED environment. Implementation trials are warranted to evaluate alternative approaches for improving ED stroke care. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12614000939695. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.020701
    The effect of Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale on telephone triage of stroke patients: evidence-based practice in emergency medical services. Malekzadeh Javad,Shafaee Hojjat,Behnam Hamidreza,Mirhaghi Amir International journal of evidence-based healthcare BACKGROUND:The emergency medical service is designed to recognize and transfer critically ill patients. Evidence-based practice has rarely been emphasized in the emergency medical service field, especially in the dispatch center. AIMS:To identify the effect of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) on telephone triage of stroke patients by telephone triage nurses at the emergency medical dispatch center and to compare CPSS with the National Guidelines for Telephone Triage Tool (NGTT). METHODS:A quasi-empirical study was conducted from June 2013 to June 2014. The setting of the study was the Mashhad dispatch center of the EMS. Two hundred and forty-six patients were randomly allocated to the CPSS intervention group (n = 121) and the NGTT control group (n = 125). True triage, triage error and odds ratio were statistically reported. RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 70.9 ± 12.7 years. Of all the cases, 77.7 and 65.6% of patients in the intervention and the control groups, respectively, were accurately triaged. Under-triage cases were 10.7 and 13.6% of the patients in the intervention and the control groups. Odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.62-2.07) for the CPSS compared with the NGTT. CONCLUSION:CPSS is more efficient for use by telephone triage nurses in identifying stroke. The use of CPSS assists nurses by reducing the triage error and supports the evidence-based care. It needs to be developed to cover signs and symptoms of posterior-circulation stroke patients. 10.1097/XEB.0000000000000046
    A shorter system delay for haemorrhagic stroke than ischaemic stroke among patients who use emergency medical service. Andersson Hagiwara M,Wireklint Sundström B,Brink P,Herlitz J,Hansson P-O Acta neurologica Scandinavica OBJECTIVES:We compare various aspects in the early chain of care among patients with haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke. MATERIALS & METHODS:The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and nine emergency hospitals, each with a stroke unit, were included. All patients hospitalised with a first and a final diagnosis of stroke between 15 December 2010 and 15 April 2011 were included. The primary endpoint was the system delay (from call to the EMS until diagnosis). Secondary endpoints were: (i) use of the EMS, (ii) delay from symptom onset until call to the EMS; (iii) priority at the dispatch centre; (iv) priority by the EMS; and (v) suspicion of stroke by the EMS nurse and physician on admission to hospital. RESULTS:Of 1336 patients, 172 (13%) had a haemorrhagic stroke. The delay from call to the EMS until diagnosis was significantly shorter in haemorrhagic stroke. The patient's decision time was significantly shorter in haemorrhagic stroke. The priority level at the dispatch centre did not differ between the two groups, whereas the EMS nurse gave a significantly higher priority to patients with haemorrhage. There was no significant difference between groups with regard to the suspicion of stroke either by the EMS nurse or by the physician on admission to hospital. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with a haemorrhagic stroke differed from other stroke patients with a more frequent and rapid activation of EMS. 10.1111/ane.12895
    Triage, treatment and transfer of patients with stroke in emergency department trial (the T Trial): a cluster randomised trial protocol. Middleton Sandy,Levi Chris,Dale Simeon,Cheung N Wah,McInnes Elizabeth,Considine Julie,D'Este Catherine,Cadilhac Dominique A,Grimshaw Jeremy,Gerraty Richard,Craig Louise,Schadewaldt Verena,McElduff Patrick,Fitzgerald Mark,Quinn Clare,Cadigan Greg,Denisenko Sonia,Longworth Mark,Ward Jeanette, Implementation science : IS BACKGROUND:Internationally recognised evidence-based guidelines recommend appropriate triage of patients with stroke in emergency departments (EDs), administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and proactive management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing before prompt transfer to a stroke unit to maximise outcomes. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness in EDs of a theory-informed, nurse-initiated, intervention to improve multidisciplinary triage, treatment and transfer (T) of patients with acute stroke to improve 90-day death and dependency. Organisational and contextual factors associated with intervention uptake also will be evaluated. METHODS:This prospective, multicentre, parallel group, cluster randomised trial with blinded outcome assessment will be conducted in EDs of hospitals with stroke units in three Australian states and one territory. EDs will be randomised 1:1 within strata defined by state and tPA volume to receive either the T intervention or no additional support (control EDs). Our T intervention comprises an evidence-based care bundle targeting: (1) triage: routine assignment of patients with suspected stroke to Australian Triage Scale category 1 or 2; (2) treatment: screening for tPA eligibility and administration of tPA where applicable; instigation of protocols for management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing; and (3) transfer: prompt admission to the stroke unit. We will use implementation science behaviour change methods informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework [1, 2] consisting of (i) workshops to determine barriers and local solutions; (ii) mixed interactive and didactic education; (iii) local clinical opinion leaders; and (iv) reminders in the form of email, telephone and site visits. Our primary outcome measure is 90 days post-admission death or dependency (modified Rankin Scale >2). Secondary outcomes are health status (SF-36), functional dependency (Barthel Index), quality of life (EQ-5D); and quality of care outcomes, namely, monitoring and management practices for thrombolysis, fever, hyperglycaemia, swallowing and prompt transfer. Outcomes will be assessed at the patient level. A separate process evaluation will examine contextual factors to successful intervention uptake. At the time of publication, EDs have been randomised and the intervention is being implemented. DISCUSSION:This theoretically informed intervention is aimed at addressing important gaps in care to maximise 90-day health outcomes for patients with stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000939695 . Registered 2 September 2014. 10.1186/s13012-016-0503-6
    Treatment Delays for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke in an Iranian Emergency Department: A Retrospective Chart Review. Hassankhani Hadi,Soheili Amin,Vahdati Samad S,Mozaffari Farough A,Fraser Justin F,Gilani Neda Annals of emergency medicine STUDY OBJECTIVE:We evaluate the extent and nature of treatment delays and the contributing factors influencing them for patients with acute ischemic stroke, as well as main barriers to stroke care in an Iranian emergency department (ED). METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted on 394 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were referred to the ED of a tertiary academic medical center in northwest Iran from March 21 to June 21, 2017. The steps of this review process included instrument development, medical records retrieval, data extraction, and data verification. Primary outcomes were identified treatment delays and causes of loss of eligibility for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA). RESULTS:Of patients with acute ischemic stroke, 80.2% did not meet intravenous r-tPA eligibility; the most common cause was delayed (>4.5 hours) ED arrival after symptom onset (71.82%; n=283). Of 19.8% of subjects for whom the stroke code was activated, intravenous r-tPA was administered in only 5.3%. The average time from patients' arrival to first emergency medicine resident visit, notification of acute stroke team, presence of neurology resident, and computed tomography scan interpretation was lower for patients who met criteria of intravenous r-tPA than for those who lost eligibility for fibrinolytic therapy. The average door-to-needle time was 69 minutes (interquartile range 46 to 91 minutes). CONCLUSION:Our ED and acute stroke team had a favorable clinical performance meeting established critical time goals of inhospital care for potentially eligible patients, but a poor clinical performance for the majority of patients who were not candidates for fibrinolytic therapy. 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.08.435
    A qualitative assessment of practices associated with shorter door-to-needle time for thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Olson DaiWai M,Constable Mark,Britz Gavin W,Lin Cheryl B,Zimmer Louise O,Schwamm Lee H,Fonarow Gregg C,Peterson Eric D The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses Early treatment with intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator/alteplase (tPA) is associated with improved outcomes for patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Thus, rapid triage and treatment of stroke patients are essential, with a goal of door-to-needle time of no more than 60 minutes. We sought to identify best practices associated with faster treatment among hospitals participating in Get With the Guidelines--Stroke. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted to elicit strategies being used by these centers to assess, treat, and monitor stroke patients treated with IV tPA. We sequentially carried out these interviews until we no longer identified novel factors. Interviews were conducted with 13 personnel at 7 top-performing U.S. hospitals. With the use of a hermeneutic-phenomenological framework, 5 distinct domains associated with rapid IV tPA delivery were identified. These included (a) communication and teamwork, (b) process, (c) organizational culture, (d) performance monitoring and feedback, and (e) overcoming barriers. 10.1097/JNN.0b013e318234e7fb
    Emergency Neurological Life Support: Acute Ischemic Stroke. Gross Hartmut,Grose Noah Neurocritical care Acute ischemic stroke is a neurological emergency that can be treated with time-sensitive interventions, including both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular approaches to thrombus removal. Extensive study has demonstrated that rapid, protocolized, assessment and treatment is essential to improving neurological outcome. For this reason, acute ischemic stroke was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. The protocol focuses on the first hour of medical care following the acute onset of a neurological deficit. 10.1007/s12028-017-0449-9
    Stroke awareness among inpatient nursing staff at an academic medical center. Adelman Eric E,Meurer William J,Nance Dorinda K,Kocan Mary Jo,Maddox Kate E,Morgenstern Lewis B,Skolarus Lesli E Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Because 10% of strokes occur in hospitalized patients, we sought to evaluate stroke knowledge and predictors of stroke knowledge among inpatient and emergency department nursing staff. METHODS:Nursing staff completed an online stroke survey. The survey queried outcome expectations (the importance of rapid stroke identification), self-efficacy in recognizing stroke, and stroke knowledge (to name 3 stroke warning signs or symptoms). Adequate stroke knowledge was defined as the ability to name ≥2 stroke warning signs. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between stroke symptom knowledge and staff characteristics (education, clinical experience, and nursing unit), stroke self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. RESULTS:A total of 875 respondents (84% response rate) completed the survey and most of the respondents were nurses. More than 85% of respondents correctly reported ≥2 stroke warning signs or symptoms. Greater self-efficacy in identifying stroke symptoms (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.27) and higher ratings for the importance of rapid identification of stroke symptoms (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.51) were associated with stroke knowledge. Clinical experience, educational experience, nursing unit, and personal knowledge of a stroke patient were not associated with stroke knowledge. CONCLUSIONS:Stroke outcome expectations and self-efficacy are associated with stroke knowledge and should be included in nursing education about stroke. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002905
    Stroke Referrals from Nursing Homes: High Rate of Mimics and Late Presentation. Kneihsl Markus,Enzinger Christian,Niederkorn Kurt,Wünsch Gerit,Müller Lisa,Culea Valeriu,Lueger Andreas,Fazekas Franz,Gattringer Thomas Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland) BACKGROUND:Stroke has become a treatable condition with increasing evidence of treatment benefits in older people. However, stroke mimics in geriatric patients are especially prevalent, causing incorrect suspicion and consecutive burden to patients and emergency room resources. We therefore examined the dimension of this problem by investigating emergency room admissions from nursing homes for suspected stroke. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of all nursing home residents who were admitted to the neurological emergency room of our primary and tertiary care university hospital between 2013 and 2015. Patients were further divided into those with confirmed stroke and stroke mimics after diagnostic stroke work-up. RESULTS:Of 419 nursing home patients referred to the emergency room, nearly one third had suspected stroke (n = 126; mean age: 78 ± 14 years, polypharmacy rate: 77%). Of those, 43 (34%) had a confirmed stroke (ischaemic: n = 34; haemorrhagic: n = 9) and 83 (66%) had stroke mimics after diagnostic work-up. Only one patient underwent intravenous thrombolysis, followed by mechanical thrombectomy for middle cerebral artery occlusion. Prehospital delay (47%) and multimorbidity-associated contraindications (27%) were the main reasons for withholding recanalization therapy. Among the stroke-mimicking conditions, infectious diseases (24%) and epileptic seizures (20%) were the most frequent. Multivariate analysis identified focal deficits (OR 16.6, 95% CI 4.3-64.0), atrial fibrillation (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.5-10.5) and previous stroke (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-8.9) as indicators that were associated with stroke. CONCLUSIONS:In our region, nursing home referrals for suspected stroke have a high false positive rate and occur delayed, which most often precludes specific stroke treatment in addition to multimorbidity. Such problems may also exist in other centres and highlight the need for targeted educational and organizational efforts. Simple indicators as identified in this study may help to sort out patients with true stroke more efficiently. 10.1159/000487813
    Emergency and critical care management of acute ischaemic stroke. Figueroa Stephen A,Zhao Weidan,Aiyagari Venkatesh CNS drugs Ischaemic stroke is a devastating condition that is the leading cause of disability in the USA. Over the last 2 decades, the focus of management has shifted from secondary stroke prevention to acute treatment. Coordinated care starts in the field with the emergency medical service providers and continues in the ambulance and the emergency department through to the intensive care unit. After diagnosis and stabilization, a major goal is reperfusion therapy with intravenous fibrinolytics. Neuroimaging research is focused on improving patient selection, expanding treatment windows, and increasing the safety of therapeutic intervention. The role of adjunctive intra-arterial and mechanical thrombectomy remains undefined, and methods to improve reperfusion using sonolysis and new-generation fibrinolytics are currently investigational. Treatment in the intensive care unit targets prevention of secondary brain injury through optimization of blood pressure, cerebral perfusion, glucose, and temperature management, ventilation, and oxygenation. The most feared complications include malignant cerebral edema and symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. Decompressive craniectomy is life saving, but questions regarding patient selection and timing remain. Hyperosmolar agents are currently used to mitigate cerebral edema, but newer agents to prevent the formation of cerebral edema at the molecular level are being studied. We outline a practical approach to current emergency and intensive care management based on consensus guidelines and the best available evidence. 10.1007/s40263-014-0210-2
    Determination of nursing procedures and competencies in emergency departments: A cross-sectional study. Dağ Gülten S,Bişkin Songül,Gözkaya Meral Nursing & health sciences The aim of this study was to determine the nursing procedures carried out by emergency department nurses. This descriptive study was carried out between April and September 2015 in the emergency departments of two state hospitals and one university hospital in Turkey. The study population comprised 139 emergency nurses working for at least 1 year in the emergency department of one of the three hospitals. Data were gathered by using the Emergency Nursing Procedures Questionnaire, which is composed of three sections to reveal nursing procedures performed in emergency departments. The procedures most frequently performed by the participants were administration of pain medication and assessment of patient responses (3.97 ± .18). Assessment of the patient's nutritional status (1.79 ± 1.16) was among the least frequently performed nursing procedures. Emergency nurses carried out nursing care procedures less frequently and took part most frequently in procedures related to medical diagnosis and treatment. According to results of this study, these procedures and competencies will highlight what knowledge and skills emergency nurses need. They will also guide in the creation of in-service training programs and illuminate competencies that need improvement. 10.1111/nhs.12598
    The Extended Treatment Window's Impact on Emergency Systems of Care for Acute Stroke. Miller Joseph B,Heitsch Laura,Madsen Tracy E,Oostema John,Reeves Mat,Zammit Christopher G,Sabagha Noor,Sozener Cemal,Lewandowski Christopher,Schrock Jon W Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine The window for acute ischemic stroke treatment was previously limited to 4.5 hours for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and to 6 hours for thrombectomy. Recent studies using advanced imaging selection expand this window for select patients up to 24 hours from last known well. These studies directly affect emergency stroke management, including prehospital triage and emergency department (ED) management of suspected stroke patients. This narrative review summarizes the data expanding the treatment window for ischemic stroke to 24 hours and discusses these implications on stroke systems of care. It analyzes the implications on prehospital protocols to identify and transfer large-vessel occlusion stroke patients, on issues of distributive justice, and on ED management to provide advanced imaging and access to thrombectomy centers. The creation of high-performing systems of care to manage acute ischemic stroke patients requires academic emergency physician leadership attentive to the rapidly changing science of stroke care. 10.1111/acem.13698
    Evaluation of the implementation of a 24-hr stroke thrombolysis emergency treatment for patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Zhao Jun,Li Xingqiang,Liang Yingchun,Zhao Liang,Zhang Xinping,Liu Yunlin Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To assess the trends of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) among patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) admitted to our hospital between 2012-2014 and investigate the effects of a 24-hr stroke thrombolysis emergency treatment on the intrahospital clinical data and outcomes of these patients treated with IV rt-PA thrombolysis. BACKGROUND:Although prenotification of stroke by emergency medical services has been endorsed by the national recommendations and implemented in some developed countries, the development in China is limited. DESIGN:A retrospective, single-centre, observational study. METHODS:Patients with AIS admitted to our hospital between January 2012-December 2014 were included; those who received IV rt-PA thrombolysis within 4.5 hr of onset were investigated. Demographic characteristics, including age and sex, and clinical data and outcomes, including onset-to-treatment time (OTT), door-to-needle time (DNT), premorbid modified Rankin Scale score and proportion of patients treated per year, were all recorded. RESULTS:The proportion of patients with AIS who received thrombolytic therapy within 4.5 hr increased from 2012-2014. The baseline characteristics of all patients were similar. Since the implementation of 24-hr stroke thrombolysis emergency treatment in 2013, the median DNT significantly decreased in 2014 after implementation (42 min) compared with that in 2012 before implementation (81 min) (p < .05). Moreover, the admission-to-imaging time (37 vs. 33 vs. 36 min) and OTT (176 vs. 147 vs. 124 min) significantly decreased during the 3 years (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS:The 24-hr stroke thrombolysis emergency treatment reduced in-hospital delay before thrombolytic therapy but had no effect on the functional outcomes of the patients with AIS. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:This study provides opportunities to improve the experiences in using 24-h stroke thrombolysis emergency treatment in patients with AIS in clinical practice. 10.1111/jocn.14272
    Development and validation of an assessment tool for nursing workload in emergency departments. Iordache Steluta,Elseviers Monique,De Cock Rita,Van Rompaey Bart Journal of clinical nursing AIMS:To develop the Workload Assessment of Nurses on Emergency (WANE) tool and to test its validity and reliability to measure nursing workload in the emergency departments. BACKGROUND:Ensuring safe nursing staffing in emergency departments is a worldwide concern. There is no valid tool to measure emergency nursing workload in order to determine the needed nurse staffing in the emergency departments. DESIGN:A two-year, cross-sectional, multicenter study. METHODS:Workload was operationalised as the time nurses spent with nursing activities, classified into direct and indirect care. A board of experts provided content validity. Construct validity was evaluated by examining the WANE's correlations and group-discriminations patterns within the network of variables known to determine nursing workload. Reliability was assessed by the tool's ability to yield consistent results across repeated measurements. Reporting of this research adheres to STROBE guidelines. RESULTS:Seven emergency departments, including 3,024 patients, were involved in the first year and 18 emergency departments and 7,442 patients in the second year. Direct care time correlated positively and significantly with patient dependency on nursing care, age and length of emergency department stay and discriminated between the categories of dependency on nursing care, age and hospitalisation. Both direct and indirect care time discriminated between the emergency departments according to different patient care profiles and unit characteristics. WANE showed consistent results across measurements. CONCLUSIONS:Results support the WANE's reliability and validity to measure emergency nursing workload. This tool could be used to determine, on patient and unit, a baseline nurse staffing and the nursing skill mix in the emergency departments. WANE is also an evidence-based management tool for benchmarking purposes. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The use of an evidence-based workload tool in making staffing decisions in emergency departments is crucial to ensure safe patient care and prevent work overload in nursing staff. 10.1111/jocn.15106
    Emergency department evaluation and management of stroke: acute assessment, stroke teams and care pathways. Gorelick Alissa R,Gorelick Philip B,Sloan Edward P Neurologic clinics The emergency department (ED) is the entry point into the health care system for many stroke victims. Rapid evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of stroke in the prehospital setting as well as the ED are integral to preventing morbidity and mortality. In some centers, emergency medicine physicians are the health care professionals most often able to provide thrombolytic therapy to stroke patients during the brief three-hour window for this therapy. An organized ED approach including implementing stroke care pathways and collaborating with specialized stroke teams in the ED enhance the ability to identify and manage stroke patients effectively. This approach has the potential to improve outcomes on a large scale. 10.1016/j.ncl.2008.05.008
    Hospital prenotification of stroke patients by emergency medical services improves stroke time targets. McKinney James S,Mylavarapu Krishna,Lane Judith,Roberts Virginia,Ohman-Strickland Pamela,Merlin Mark A Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association BACKGROUND:Prenotification to hospitals by emergency medical services of patients with suspected stroke is recommended to reduce delays in time-dependent therapies. We hypothesized that hospital prenotification would reduce recommended stroke time targets. METHODS:We used the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH) Brain Attack Database, which includes demographic and clinical data on all emergency department (ED) patients alerted as a Brain Attack between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010. Outcome variables included the time from door to stroke team arrival, computed tomographic (CT) scan completion, CT scan interpretation, electrocardiogram, laboratory results, treatment decision, and intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. The primary independent variable was brain attack activation before arrival to the emergency department (ED; prenotification) versus on or after ED arrival (no prenotification). Analysis of covariance was used with patient predictors as covariates in addition to the one of interest (prenotification vs no prenotification). P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There were 229 patients (114 prenotification and 115 no prenotification) alerted as having a brain attack within the study period. Patients with prehospital notification were older (69.5 years vs 61.5 years; P = .0002), had more severe strokes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 11.1 vs 6.9; P < .0001), and received IV tPA twice as often (27% vs 15%; P = .024). Prenotification resulted in a significant reduction in all stroke time targets except door to treatment decision and tPA administration. CONCLUSIONS:Prehospital notification of suspected stroke patients reduces time to stroke team arrival, CT scan completion, and CT scan interpretation. IV thrombolysis occurred twice as often in the prenotification group. 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2011.06.018
    Medical dispatchers recognise substantial amount of acute stroke during emergency calls. Viereck Søren,Møller Thea Palsgaard,Iversen Helle Klingenberg,Christensen Hanne,Lippert Freddy Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine BACKGROUND:Immediate recognition of stroke symptoms is crucial to ensure timely access to revascularisation therapy. Medical dispatchers ensure fast admission to stroke facilities by prioritising the appropriate medical response. Data on medical dispatchers' ability to recognise symptoms of acute stroke are therefore critical in organising emergency stroke care. We aimed to describe the sensitivity and positive predictive value of medical dispatchers' ability to recognise acute stroke during emergency calls, and to identify factors associated with recognition. METHODS:This was an observational study of 2653 consecutive unselected patients with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All admitted through the Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, during a 2-year study period (2012-2014). Final diagnoses were matched with dispatch codes from the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated. The effect of age, gender, and time-of-day was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:The sensitivity was 66.2 % (95 % CI: 64.4 %-68.0 %), and the positive predictive value was 30.2 % (95 % CI: 29.1 %-31.4 %). The multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that emergency calls during daytime and a final diagnosis of TIA vs. intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), was positively associated with recognition of stroke (OR 2.70, 95 % CI: 2.04-3.57). DISCUSSION:This study reports a high rate of stroke recognition compared to other studies ranging from 31% to 74%. The high sensitivity is likely the result of a profound reorganisation of the Emergency Medical ServicesCopenhagen, including the introduction of EMDs with a medical profession, and a criteria-based dispatch tool. A recognition rate of 100 % is not obtainable without an inappropriate amount of false positive cases. CONCLUSIONS:We report an overall high recognition of stroke by medical dispatchers. A final diagnosis of TIA, compared to ICH, was positively associated with recognition of acute stroke. Emergency medical dispatchers serve as the essential first step in ensuring fast-track stroke treatment, which would promote timely acute therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Unique identifier: NCT02191514. 10.1186/s13049-016-0277-5
    Evaluation of emergency department nursing services and patient satisfaction of services. Mollaoğlu Mukadder,Çelik Pelin Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To identify nursing services and assess patient satisfaction in patients who present to the emergency department. BACKGROUND:Emergency nursing care is a significant determinant of patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is often regarded as a reliable indicator of the quality of services provided in the emergency department. DESIGN:This is a descriptive study. METHODS:Eighty-four patients who presented to the university emergency department were included in the study. The study data were collected by the Patient Information Form and the Satisfaction Level Form. RESULTS:Emergency nursing services, including history taking, assessing vital signs, preparing the patient for an emergency intervention, oxygen therapy, drug delivery and blood-serum infusion were shown to be more commonly provided compared with other services such as counselling the patients and the relatives about their care or delivering educational and psychosocial services. However, 78·6% of the patients were satisfied with their nursing services. The highest satisfaction rates were observed in the following sub-dimensions of the Satisfaction Level Form: availability of the nurse (82·1%), behaviour of the nurse towards the patient (78·6%) and the frequency of nursing rounds (77·4%). CONCLUSIONS:The most common practices performed by nurses in the emergency department were physical nursing services. Patient satisfaction was mostly associated with the availability of nurses when they were needed. Our results suggest that in addition to the physical care, patients should also receive education and psychosocial care in the emergency department. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:We believe that this study will contribute to the awareness and understanding of principles and concepts of emergency nursing, extend the limits of nursing knowledge and abilities, and improve and maintain the quality of clinical nursing education and practice to train specialist nurses with high levels of understanding in ethical, intellectual, administrative, investigative and professional issues. 10.1111/jocn.13272
    Clinical features of stroke mimics in the emergency department. Okano Yuichi,Ishimatsu Kazuaki,Kato Yoichi,Yamaga Junichi,Kuwahara Ken,Okumoto Katsuki,Wada Kuniyasu Acute medicine & surgery Aim:To clarify the features of stroke mimics. Methods:We retrospectively investigated stroke mimic cases among the suspected stroke cases examined at our emergency department, over the past 9 years, during the tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment time window. Results:Of 1,557 suspected acute stroke cases examined at the emergency department, 137 (8.8%) were stroke mimics. The most common causes were symptomatic epilepsy (28 cases, 20.4%), neuropathy-like symptoms (21 cases, 15.3%), and hypoglycemia (15 cases, 10.9%). Outcomes were survival to hospital discharge for 91.2% and death for 8.8% of the cases. Clinical results were significantly different between stroke mimics and the stroke group for low systolic blood pressure, low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on initial treatment, history of diabetes, and no history of arrhythmia. On multivariate analysis, distinguishing factors for stroke mimics include systolic blood pressure ≤ 140 mmHg, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤ 5 points, history of diabetes, and no history of arrhythmia. Conclusions:Frequency of stroke mimics in cases of acute stroke suspected cases is 8.8%, and the most common cause is epilepsy. In order to distinguish stroke mimics, it is useful to understand common diseases presenting as stroke mimics and evaluate clinical features different from stroke by medical interview or nerve examination. 10.1002/ams2.338
    A review of barriers to thrombolytic therapy: implications for nursing care in the emergency department. Johnson Melissa,Bakas Tamilyn The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses Despite stroke being the third leading cause of death and a leading cause of disability in the United States, less than 7% of stroke survivors receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the treatment of acute stroke. The purpose of this review was to determine what research is available on barriers to tPA use and to determine gaps in the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, and PubMed. Keywords were stroke, emergency, nursing, thrombolytics, cerebrovascular accident, ischemia, intervention, tPA, and barriers. Pertinent references from articles obtained were searched as well. The search yielded 45 articles for review. Barriers to tPA use were found in both prehospital and in-hospital settings. Prehospital delays were related to contacting primary care physicians, mode of arrival to the hospital, and survivors' lack of knowledge regarding stroke. Sources of in-hospital delays included non-stroke center status, lack of training of emergency department staff, delays in computed tomography scans, and poor understanding regarding priority stroke treatment (e.g., mild or improving symptoms and disparities related to age, gender, and race). Future research to evaluate the impact of nursing care and attitudes toward stroke patients on the administration of tPA is recommended.
    [Early treatment and nursing role in the case of a haemorrhagic stroke]. Héraud-Carré Séverine,Le Roy Bruno,Prével Gladys Soins. Pediatrie, puericulture Paediatric stroke constitute a medical and/or surgical emergency. The speed and timeliness of the treatment have a significant impact on the prognosis. The nursing role, from carrying out continuous observation to specific procedures, is essential in the assessment, the care pathway and the short-, medium- and long-term outcome for the child. 10.1016/j.spp.2017.01.005
    Delayed Recognition of Acute Stroke by Emergency Department Staff Following Failure to Activate Stroke by Emergency Medical Services. Tennyson Joseph C,Michael Sean S,Youngren Marguerite N,Reznek Martin A The western journal of emergency medicine Introduction:Early recognition and pre-notification by emergency medical services (EMS) improves the timeliness of emergency department (ED) stroke care; however, little is known regarding the effects on care should EMS providers fail to pre-notify. We sought to determine if potential stroke patients transported by EMS, but for whom EMS did not provide pre-notification, suffer delays in ED door-to-stroke-team activation (DTA) as compared to the other available cohort of patients for whom the ED is not pre-notified-those arriving by private vehicle. Methods:We queried our prospective stroke registry to identify consecutive stroke team activation patients over 12 months and retrospectively reviewed the electronic health record for each patient to validate registry data and abstract other clinical and operational data. We compared patients arriving by private vehicle to those arriving by EMS without pre-notification, and we employed a multivariable, penalized regression model to assess the probability of meeting the national DTA goal of ≤15 minutes, controlling for a variety of clinical factors. Results:Our inclusion criteria were met by 200 patients. Overall performance of the regression model was excellent (area under the curve 0.929). Arrival via EMS without pre-notification, compared to arrival by private vehicle, was associated with an adjusted risk ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.96) for achieving DTA ≤ 15 minutes. Conclusion:Our single-center data demonstrate that potential stroke patients arriving via EMS without pre-notification are less likely to meet the national DTA goal than patients arriving via other means. These data suggest a negative, unintended consequence of otherwise highly successful EMS efforts to improve stroke care, the root of which may be ED staff over-reliance on EMS for stroke recognition. 10.5811/westjem.2018.12.40577
    Stroke patients' delay of emergency treatment. Hjelmblink Finn,Holmström Inger,Kjeldmand Dorte Scandinavian journal of caring sciences Scand J Caring Sci; 2010; 24; 307-311 Stroke patients' delay of emergency treatment Treatment of stroke victims with fibrinolysis should take place within a time limit of 3 hours. In spite of comprehensive endeavours to reduce hospital arrival time, too many patients still delay arrival beyond this time limit. This qualitative case study explored the meaning of acute stroke and treatment to four patients with more than 24-hour delayed arrival. The setting of the study was the catchment area of a university hospital. Semi-structured interviews were analysed through the empirical psychological, phenomenological method. An essence was found which was constituted by four themes. The essence of stroke symptoms and treatment was: 'Threatened control of bodily function, autonomy and integrity'. When the patients fell ill they acted as if nothing had happened. They treated their body like a defective device. In encounters with physicians they demanded to be met as a person by a person; otherwise they rejected both the physician and her or his prescriptions. They did not involve their near ones in decision-making. The conclusions were the following: Health care information about how to act in cases of early stroke symptoms may need to imbue people with an understanding of how early treatment of neurological symptoms and preserved control of life are intimately connected. Furthermore emergency care of acute stroke patients might need to take place in an organisation where patients are sure to be met by physicians as a person by a person. 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2009.00721.x
    Ambulance use affects timely emergency treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. Lau K K,Yu E L,Lee M F,Ho S H,Ng P M,Leung C S Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi INTRODUCTION:For acute ischaemic stroke patients, treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator within a 4.5-hour therapeutic window is essential. We aimed to assess the time delays experienced by stroke patients arriving at the emergency department and to compare ambulance users and non-ambulance users. METHODS:We performed a prospective cohort study in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. All acute stroke patients attending the emergency department from January to June 2017 were recruited. Patients who were in hospital at the time of stroke onset and those who transferred from other hospitals were excluded. Three phases were compared between ambulance users and non-ambulance users: phase I, between stroke onset and calling for help; phase II, between calling for help and arriving at the emergency department; and phase III, between arriving and receiving medical assessment. RESULTS:Of 102 consecutive patients recruited, 48 (47%) patients arrived at the emergency department by ambulance. The percentage of stroke patients attending emergency department within the therapeutic window was significantly higher for ambulance users than for non-ambulance users (64.6% vs 29.6%; P<0.001). For phases I, II and III, the median times were significantly shorter for ambulance users (77.5, 32 and 8 min, respectively) than for non-ambulance users (720, 44.5 and 15 min, respectively; all P<0.001). CONCLUSION:Transport of patients to the emergency department by ambulance is important for timely and effective stroke treatment. 10.12809/hkmj177025
    Effects of Nursing Quality Improvement on Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke. Liu Zhuo,Zhao Yingkai,Liu Dandan,Guo Zhen-Ni,Jin Hang,Sun Xin,Yang Yi,Sun Huijie,Yan Xiuli Frontiers in neurology Intravenous thrombolytic therapy significantly improves the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients in a time-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous nursing quality improvement in stroke nurses has a positive effect on reducing the time to thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. The implementation of nursing quality improvement measures includes establishing full-time stroke nurses, pre-notification by emergency medical services (EMS), stroke team notification protocols, rapid triage, publicity and education, etc. Using a history-controlled approach, we analyzed acute ischemic stroke patients with intravenous thrombolysis during a pre-intervention period (April 1, 2015-July 31, 2016), trial period (August 1, 2016-October 31, 2016), and post-intervention period (November 1, 2016-September 30, 2017). This was done in accordance with the implementation of nursing quality improvement measures, including the general characteristics of the three groups, the time of each step in the process of thrombolysis, and the prognosis. After the implementation of nursing quality improvement measures, the median door-to-needle time (DNT) was shortened from 73 min (interquartile range [IQR] 62-92 min) to 49 min (IQR 40-54 min; < 0.001) in the post-intervention period. The median onset-to-needle time (ONT) was reduced from 193 min (IQR 155-240 min) to 167 min (IQR 125-227 min; < 0.001). The proportion of patients with DNT ≤ 60 min increased from 23.94% (51/213) to 86.36% (190/220; < 0.001) while the proportion of patients with DNT ≤ 40 min increased from 3.29% (7/213) to 25.00% (55/220; < 0.001). The median time for door-to-laboratory results was decreased from 68 min to 56 min ( < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the fatality rate, 90-day modified Rankin score, length of stay or hospitalization expenses between the three groups of patients (> 0.05). Implementation of nursing quality improvement measures in stroke nurses is an important factor in shortening the time of medication in patients with thrombolytic therapy, reducing the delay of intravenous thrombolysis in the hospital and helping to expedite presenting patients' arrival to the hospital post-stroke. 10.3389/fneur.2018.01025
    Development of evidence-based nursing-sensitive quality indicators for emergency nursing: A Delphi study. Ju Qiao-Yan,Huang Li-Hua,Zhao Xue-Hong,Xing Mei-Yuan,Shao Le-Wen,Zhang Mei-Yun,Shao Rong-Ya Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To establish evidence-based nursing-sensitive quality indicators for emergency nursing in China. BACKGROUND:China lacks nursing-sensitive quality indicators necessary for assessing the quality of emergency nursing and essential to nursing management. DESIGN:Prospective. METHODS:A literature search for relevant evidence-based studies was performed using several databases from January 2009-May 2014. Previously reported quality indicators were identified as appropriate for assessment by a panel of 40 experts in emergency medicine and nursing. Two successive rounds of Delphi surveys were conducted using questionnaires designed by the experts. Kendal's W coordination coefficients were calculated for indicator importance, rationality of calculation and feasibility of data collection. RESULTS:Thirty-three quality indicators were initially proposed for expert evaluation. After round 1 of expert discussion, Kendal's W coordination coefficients were .152 for importance, .092 for rationality and .141 for feasibility of data collection (all p < .001). Seven unsuitable items were discarded in round 1 and 11 discarded in round 2, which also added one new item. Finally, the experts reached consensus on 16 items established as appropriate nursing-sensitive quality indicators for emergency nursing care. CONCLUSION:Evidence-based nursing-sensitive quality indicators were established through a consensus of experts in emergency nursing and medicine. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The current findings may provide a theoretical basis for establishing an emergency nursing quality database and improving the quality of emergency nursing care in China. 10.1111/jocn.14256
    Emergency nurses' knowledge of evidence-based ischemic stroke care: a pilot study. Harper John P Journal of emergency nursing INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this pilot study was to assess emergency nurses' knowledge of evidence-based ischemic stroke care. DESIGN AND METHODS:A descriptive, correlational design was used. Emergency nurses (N = 20) working in 2 hospitals in the Mid-Atlantic region completed a 10-item multiple choice test on evidence-based ischemic stroke care. RESULTS:Test scores ranged from 30% to 90%, with a mean of 53% (SD = 12.93) on a scale of 0 to 100%. Forty-five percent (N = 9) of respondents indicated that they read literature on evidence-based ischemic stroke care within the previous 12 months. Respondents who read literature on evidence-based ischemic stroke care had a significantly higher mean test score (P = .04) than did respondents who did not read any literature on evidence-based ischemic stroke care. Only 15% (N = 3) of respondents reported that they had participated in continuing education on evidence-based ischemic stroke care within the previous 12 months. In addition, there was a significant correlation (P = .02) between number of years worked in emergency nursing as a registered nurse and test scores. Nurses with more years experience in emergency nursing had higher test scores. DISCUSSION:Overall, emergency nurses demonstrated a knowledge deficit in evidence-based ischemic stroke care. The majority of nurses had not participated in continuing education on evidence-based ischemic stroke care within the previous 12 months. Nurses should be provided with evidence-based education on ischemic stroke care and opportunities to participate in continuing education. 10.1016/j.jen.2006.11.002
    Role of emergency care staff in managing acute stroke. Watkins Caroline,Anderson Craig,Forshaw Denise,Lightbody Liz Emergency nurse : the journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association In June, the University of Central Lancashire opened its clinical trials unit, where staff will run complex intervention trials in a range of care areas, including stroke, musculoskeletal health, public health and mental health. One of the first trials looks at how hospital nursing policies in the first 24 hours after patients have had stroke affect their subsequent survival and disabilities. Known as HeadPoST, the study will recruit 20,000 patients globally, with the 6,000 UK research participants managed by Lancashire. This article explores the role of emergency nurses in supporting the research. 10.7748/en.22.5.18.e1363
    Initial Emergency Room Triage of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Waqas Muhammad,Vakharia Kunal,Munich Stephan A,Morrison John F,Mokin Maxim,Levy Elad I,Siddiqui Adnan H Neurosurgery Early recognition and differentiation of acute ischemic stroke from intracranial hemorrhage and stroke mimics and the identification of large vessel occlusion (LVO) are critical to the appropriate management of stroke patients. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and practices surrounding safe and efficient triage in the emergency room. As the indications of stroke intervention are evolving to further improve stroke care, focus has begun to revolve around recognition of LVO and provision of endovascular thrombectomy with or without the administration of tissue plasminogen activator. Systems of stroke care are being organized to achieve this goal without delay. Clinical history is important in determining time of onset or last known well time, but, alone or along with an examination, it cannot reliably predict an LVO or exclude intracranial hemorrhage and stroke mimics. The choice of imaging is influenced mainly by the duration of symptoms. On the basis of recent trials, patients presenting after the 6-h therapeutic window can be considered for endovascular thrombectomy if the computed tomographic or magnetic resonance perfusion imaging shows favorable findings. The Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery has established time metrics for each step of triage and initial management. Hospitals are required to develop multidisciplinary stroke teams and emergency protocols to meet these goals. There also needs to be coordination of the emergency medical services with the emergency facility of an appropriate stroke center (a primary stroke center, comprehensive stroke care center, or a thrombectomy-capable stroke center). 10.1093/neuros/nyz067
    Impact of emergency department transitions of care on thrombolytic use in acute ischemic stroke. Madej-Fermo Olga P,Staff Ilene,Fortunato Gil,Abbott Lincoln,McCullough Louise D Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:In-hospital mortality is higher for certain medical conditions based on the time of presentation to the emergency department. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether patients with acute ischemic stroke who arrived to the emergency department during a nursing shift change had similar rates of thrombolytic use and functional outcomes compared with patients presenting during nonshift change hours. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting to the emergency department of a primary stroke center from 2005 through 2010. The time to notify the stroke team, perform a head CT scan, and to start intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis was assessed. Thrombolysis rates, mortality rate, discharge disposition, change in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and change in modified Barthel Index at 3 and 12 months were assessed. RESULTS:Of 3133 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 917 met criteria for inclusion. Arrival during nursing shift change, weekends, and July through September had no impact on process times, thrombolysis rates, and functional outcomes. Arrival at night did result in longer time to intra-arterial but not to intravenous thrombolysis, higher mortality rate, and smaller gain in functional status as measured by the modified Barthel Index at 3 months. The degree of emergency department "busyness" also did not influence tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment times. CONCLUSIONS:Presentation during a nursing shift change, a time of transition of care, did not delay thrombolytic use in eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke. Presentation with acute ischemic stroke at night did result in delays of care for patients undergoing interventional therapies. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.643437
    Evaluation of Nursing Documentation Completion of Stroke Patients in the Emergency Department: A Pre-Post Analysis Using Flowsheet Templates and Clinical Decision Support. Richardson Karen J,Sengstack Patricia,Doucette Jeffrey N,Hammond William E,Schertz Matthew,Thompson Julie,Johnson Constance Computers, informatics, nursing : CIN The primary aim of this performance improvement project was to determine whether the electronic health record implementation of stroke-specific nursing documentation flowsheet templates and clinical decision support alerts improved the nursing documentation of eligible stroke patients in seven stroke-certified emergency departments. Two system enhancements were introduced into the electronic record in an effort to improve nursing documentation: disease-specific documentation flowsheets and clinical decision support alerts. Using a pre-post design, project measures included six stroke management goals as defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and three clinical decision support measures based on entry of orders used to trigger documentation reminders for nursing: (1) the National Institutes of Health's Stroke Scale, (2) neurological checks, and (3) dysphagia screening. Data were reviewed 6 months prior (n = 2293) and 6 months following the intervention (n = 2588). Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was found for documentation of five of the six stroke management goals, although effect sizes were small. Customizing flowsheets to meet the needs of nursing workflow showed improvement in the completion of documentation. The effects of the decision support alerts on the completeness of nursing documentation were not statistically significant (likely due to lack of order entry). For example, an order for the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was entered only 10.7% of the time, which meant no alert would fire for nursing in the postintervention group. Future work should focus on decision support alerts that trigger reminders for clinicians to place relevant orders for this population. 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000206
    An evidence-based practice approach to improving nursing care of acute stroke in an Australian Emergency Department. Considine Julie,McGillivray Bree Journal of clinical nursing AIMS:The aim of this study was to improve the emergency nursing care of acute stroke by enhancing the use of evidence regarding prevention of early complications. BACKGROUND:Preventing complications in the first 24-48 hours decreases stroke-related mortality. Many patients spend considerable part of the first 24 hours following stroke in the Emergency Department therefore emergency nurses play a key role in patient outcomes following stroke. DESIGN:A pre-test/post-test design was used and the study intervention was a guideline for Emergency Department nursing management of acute stroke. METHODS:The following outcomes were measured before and after guideline implementation: triage category, waiting time, Emergency Department length of stay, time to specialist assessment, assessment and monitoring of vital signs, temperature and blood glucose and venous-thromboembolism and pressure injury risk assessment and interventions. RESULTS:There was significant improvement in triage decisions (21.4% increase in triage category 2, p = 0.009; 15.6% decrease in triage category 4, p = 0.048). Frequency of assessments of respiratory rate (p = 0.009), heart rate (p = 0.022), blood pressure (p = 0.032) and oxygen saturation (p = 0.001) increased. In terms of risk management, documentation of pressure area interventions increased by 28.8% (p = 0.006), documentation of nil orally status increased by 13.8% (ns), swallow assessment prior to oral intake increased by 41.3% (p = 0.003), speech pathology assessment in Emergency Department increased by 6.1% (ns) and there was 93.5 minute decrease in time to speech pathology assessment for admitted patients (ns). RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:An evidence-based guideline can improve emergency nursing care of acute stroke and optimise patient outcomes following stroke. As the continuum of stroke care begins in the Emergency Department, detailed recommendations for evidence-based emergency nursing care should be included in all multidisciplinary guidelines for the management of acute stroke. 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02970.x
    Fast-tracking acute stroke care in China: Shenzhen Stroke Emergency Map. Ren Lijie,Li Chao,Li Weiping,Zeng Yixuan,Ye Shisheng,Li Zhichao,Feng Hongye,Lei Zhihao,Cai Jingjing,Hu Shiyu,Sui Yi,Liu Qiang,Cheung Bernard M Y Postgraduate medical journal China has the largest stroke population and at-risk population in the world. However, it has a lower thrombolytic therapy rate and longer onset-to-needle time/door-to-needle time for patients who had an acute stroke compared with developed countries, which might be due to redundant procedures or inefficient systems. Things are changing due to some new initiatives. Two years ago, a new emergency system in China, Stroke Emergency Map, was first launched as a regional emergency system in Shenzhen, the bustling metropolis just north of Hong Kong. As a result of the Stroke Emergency Map in Shenzhen, the number of thrombolytic cases increased in the last 2 years, from 568 to 809 annually. The Stroke Emergency Map, first pioneered in Shenzhen and now spreading to the rest of China, is a comprehensive and interdisciplinary system. The benefits are not just the immediate improvements in the acute stroke care because the continuous data collection and audit allows for improvements in logistics and future strategies. 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-136192
    Strategies for streamlining emergency stroke care. DeSousa Keith G,Haussen Diogo C,Yavagal Dileep R Current neurology and neuroscience reports There has been a tremendous evolution in the stroke systems of care in the USA. Public awareness, prehospital care, and in-hospital protocols have never been so effectively connected. However, given the critical role of time to effective reperfusion in the setting of acute ischemic stroke, it is vital and timely to implement strategies to further streamline emergency stroke care. This article reviews the most current standards and guidelines related to the flow of stroke care in the prehospital and emergency settings. 10.1007/s11910-014-0497-x