Distinct preoperative clinical features predict four histopathological subtypes of high-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. Ohsuga Takuma,Yamaguchi Ken,Kido Aki,Murakami Ryusuke,Abiko Kaoru,Hamanishi Junzo,Kondoh Eiji,Baba Tsukasa,Konishi Ikuo,Matsumura Noriomi BMC cancer BACKGROUND:The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network reported that high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) can be classified based on gene expression profiles into four subtypes, termed "immunoreactive," "differentiated," "proliferative," and "mesenchymal." We previously established a novel histopathological classification of HGSC, corresponding to the gene expression subtypes: immune reactive (IR), papillo-glandular (PG), solid and proliferative (SP), and mesenchymal transition (MT). The purpose of this study is to identify distinct clinical findings among the four pathological subtypes of HGSC, as well as to predict pathological subtype based on preoperative images. METHODS:We retrospectively assessed 65 HGSC cases (IR: 17, PG: 7, SP: 14, MT: 27) and analyzed preoperative images. RESULTS:All IR cases originated from either the ovary or fallopian tube (P = 0.0269). Significantly more IR cases were diagnosed at earlier stages (P = 0.0013), and IR cases displayed lower levels of ascites (P = 0.0014), fewer peritoneal lesions (P = 0.0080), a sporadic pattern of peritoneal lesions (P = 0.0016), a lower incidence of omental cake (P = 0.0416), and fewer distant metastases (P = 0.0146) compared with the other subtypes. MT cases were more likely to be of peritoneal origin (P = 0.0202), presented at advanced stages with higher levels of ascites (P = 0.0008, 0.0052, respectively), and more frequently had a diffuse pattern of peritoneal lesions (P = 0.0059), omental cake (P = 0.0179), and distant metastasis (P = 0.0053). A decision tree analysis estimated the histopathological subtypes based on preoperative images, with a sensitivity of 67.3%. CONCLUSIONS:Pathological subtypes of HGSC have distinct clinical behaviors, and preoperative images enable better prediction of pathological subtype. These findings may lead to individualized treatment plans if the effect of treatment based on the HGSC subtype is elucidated. 10.1186/s12885-017-3573-1
    Intra-tumor heterogeneity in TP53 null High Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma progression. Mota Alba,Triviño Juan Carlos,Rojo-Sebastian Alejandro,Martínez-Ramírez Ángel,Chiva Luis,González-Martín Antonio,Garcia Juan F,Garcia-Sanz Pablo,Moreno-Bueno Gema BMC cancer BACKGROUND:High grade serous ovarian cancer is characterised by high initial response to chemotherapy but poor outcome in the long term due to acquired resistance. One of the main genetic features of this disease is TP53 mutation. The majority of TP53 mutated tumors harbor missense mutations in this gene, correlated with p53 accumulation. TP53 null tumors constitute a specific subgroup characterised by nonsense, frameshift or splice-site mutations associated to complete absence of p53 expression. Different studies show that this kind of tumors may have a worse prognosis than other TP53 mutated HGSC. METHODS:In this study, we sought to characterise the intra-tumor heterogeneity of a TP53 null HGSC consisting of six primary tumor samples, two intra-pelvic and four extra-pelvic recurrences using exome sequencing and comparative genome hybridisation. RESULTS:Significant heterogeneity was found among the different tumor samples, both at the mutational and copy number levels. Exome sequencing identified 102 variants, of which only 42 were common to all three samples; whereas 7 of the 18 copy number changes found by CGH analysis were presented in all samples. Sanger validation of 20 variants found by exome sequencing in additional regions of the primary tumor and the recurrence allowed us to establish a sequence of the tumor clonal evolution, identifying those populations that most likely gave rise to recurrences and genes potentially involved in this process, like GPNMB and TFDP1. Using functional annotation and network analysis, we identified those biological functions most significantly altered in this tumor. Remarkably, unexpected functions such as microtubule-based movement and lipid metabolism emerged as important for tumor development and progression, suggesting its potential interest as therapeutic targets. CONCLUSIONS:Altogether, our results shed light on the clonal evolution of the distinct tumor regions identifying the most aggressive subpopulations and at least some of the genes that may be implicated in its progression and recurrence, and highlights the importance of considering intra-tumor heterogeneity when carrying out genetic and genomic studies, especially when these are aimed to diagnostic procedures or to uncover possible therapeutic strategies. 10.1186/s12885-015-1952-z
    Proteomics advances for precision therapy in ovarian cancer. Labrie Marilyne,Kendsersky Nicholas D,Ma Hongli,Campbell Lydia,Eng Jennifer,Chin Koei,Mills Gordon B Expert review of proteomics : Due to the relatively low mutation rate and high frequency of copy number variation, finding actionable genetic drivers of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is a challenging task. Furthermore, emerging studies show that genetic alterations are frequently poorly represented at the protein level adding a layer of complexity. With improvements in large-scale proteomic technologies, proteomics studies have the potential to provide robust analysis of the pathways driving high HGSC behavior. : This review summarizes recent large-scale proteomics findings across adequately sized ovarian cancer sample sets. Key words combined with 'ovarian cancer' including 'proteomics', 'proteogenomic', 'reverse-phase protein array', 'mass spectrometry', and 'adaptive response', were used to search PubMed. : Proteomics analysis of HGSC as well as their adaptive responses to therapy can uncover new therapeutic liabilities, which can reduce the emergence of drug resistance and potentially improve patient outcomes. There is a pressing need to better understand how the genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity intrinsic to ovarian cancer is reflected at the protein level and how this information could be used to improve patient outcomes. 10.1080/14789450.2019.1666004
    Low levels of IGFBP7 expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is associated with patient outcome. Gambaro Karen,Quinn Michael C J,Cáceres-Gorriti Katia Y,Shapiro Rebecca S,Provencher Diane,Rahimi Kurosh,Mes-Masson Anne-Marie,Tonin Patricia N BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been suggested to act as a tumour suppressor gene in various human cancers, yet its role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not yet been investigated. We previously observed that IGFBP7 was one of several genes found significantly upregulated in an EOC cell line model rendered non-tumourigenic as consequence of genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IGFBP7 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), the most common type of EOC. METHODS:We analysed IGFBP7 gene expression in 11 normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (NOSE), 79 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), and seven EOC cell lines using a custom gene expression array platform. IGFBP7 mRNA expression profiles were also extracted from publicly available databases. Protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry of 175 HGSC and 10 normal fallopian tube samples using tissue microarray and related to disease outcome. We used EOC cells to investigate possible mechanisms of gene inactivation and describe various in vitro growth effects of exposing EOC cell lines to human recombinant IGFBP7 protein and conditioned media. RESULTS:All HGSCs exhibited IGFBP7 expression levels that were significantly (p = 0.001) lower than the mean of the expression value of NOSE samples and that of a whole ovary sample. IGFBP7 gene and protein expression were lower in tumourigenic EOC cell lines relative to a non-tumourigenic EOC cell line. None of the EOC cell lines harboured a somatic mutation in IGFBP7, although loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the IGFBP7 locus and epigenetic methylation silencing of the IGFBP7 promoter was observed in two of the cell lines exhibiting loss of gene/protein expression. In vitro functional assays revealed an alteration of the EOC cell migration capacity. Protein expression analysis of HGSC samples revealed that the large majority of tumour cores (72.6%) showed low or absence of IGFBP7 staining and revealed a significant correlation between IGFBP7 protein expression and a prolonged overall survival (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION:The low levels of IGFPB7 in HGSC relative to normal tissues, and association with survival are consistent with a purported role in tumour suppressor pathways. 10.1186/s12885-015-1138-8
    Impact of lymph node ratio on survival in stage III ovarian high-grade serous cancer: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Ayhan Ali,Ozkan Nazlı Topfedaisi,Sarı Mustafa Erkan,Celik Husnu,Dede Murat,Akbayır Özgür,Güngördük Kemal,Şahin Hanifi,Haberal Ali,Güngör Tayfun,Arvas Macit,Meydanlı Mehmet Mutlu Journal of gynecologic oncology OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with stage III ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). METHODS:A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with ovarian HGSC at 6 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. A total of 229 node-positive women with stage III ovarian HGSC who had undergone maximal or optimal cytoreductive surgery plus systematic lymphadenectomy followed by paclitaxel plus carboplatin combination chemotherapy were included. LNR, defined as the percentage of positive lymph nodes (LNs) to total nodes recovered, was stratified into 3 groups: LNR1 (<10%), LNR2 (10%≤LNR<50%), and LNR3 (≥50%). Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:Thirty-one women (13.6%) were classified as stage IIIA1, 15 (6.6%) as stage IIIB, and 183 (79.9%) as stage IIIC. The median age at diagnosis was 56 (range, 18-87), and the median duration of follow-up was 36 months (range, 1-120 months). For the entire cohort, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 52.8%. An increased LNR was associated with a decrease in 5-year OS from 65.1% for LNR1, 42.5% for LNR2, and 25.6% for LNR3, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, women with LNR≥0.50 were 2.7 times more likely to die of their tumors (hazard ratio [HR]=2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.42-5.18; p<0.001). CONCLUSION:LNR seems to be an independent prognostic factor for decreased OS in stage III ovarian HGSC patients. 10.3802/jgo.2018.29.e12
    External validation of chemotherapy response score system for histopathological assessment of tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Lee Jung Yun,Chung Young Shin,Na Kiyong,Kim Hye Min,Park Cheol Keun,Nam Eun Ji,Kim Sunghoon,Kim Sang Wun,Kim Young Tae,Kim Hyun Soo Journal of gynecologic oncology OBJECTIVE:The chemotherapy response score (CRS) system based on histopathological examination has been recently proposed for tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) to assess response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). This study was aimed at validating the CRS system in an external cohort of tubo-ovarian HGSC patients. METHODS:This study included 110 tubo-ovarian HGSC patients who underwent NAC followed by interval debulking surgery. The 3-tiered CRS of the omental and adnexal tissue sections was determined by 3 independent pathologists. Differences in patient outcomes according to CRS were analyzed. RESULTS:The CRS system was highly reproducible among the 3 pathologists. Fleiss' kappa value and Kendall's coefficient of concordance for the omental CRS were 0.656 and 0.669, respectively. The omental CRS significantly predicted progression-free survival (PFS). The median PFS of patients whose tumors exhibited the omental CRS 1-2 (15 months) was significantly shorter than that of patients with an omental CRS of 3 (19 months; p=0.016). In addition, after adjusting for age, stage, and debulking status, the omental CRS was an independent prognostic factor for PFS of tubo-ovarian HGSC patients who were treated with NAC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-2.87). CONCLUSION:The CRS system for assessing NAC response was a reproducible prognostic tool in our cohort. The application of the CRS system after NAC can improve survival estimation in HGSC patients. 10.3802/jgo.2017.28.e73
    Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients Is Independent of the Presence of DC and T Cell Subsets in Ascites. Wefers Christina,Duiveman-de Boer Tjitske,Yigit Refika,Zusterzeel Petra L M,van Altena Anne M,Massuger Leon F A G,De Vries I Jolanda M Frontiers in immunology Ascites is a prominent feature of ovarian cancer and could serve as liquid biopsy to assess the immune status of patients. Tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes are correlated with improved survival in ovarian cancer. To investigate whether immune cells in ascites are associated with patient outcome, we analyzed the amount of dendritic cell (DC) and T cell subsets in ascites from ovarian cancer patients diagnosed with high-grade serous cancer (HGSC). Ascites was collected from 62 HGSC patients prior to chemotherapy. Clinicopathological, histological and follow-up data from patients were collected. Ascites-derived immune cells were isolated using density-gradient centrifugation. The presence of myeloid DCs (BDCA-1, BDCA-3, CD16), pDCs (CD123BDCA-2), and T cells (CD4, CD8) was analyzed using flow cytometry. Complete cytoreduction, response to primary treatment and chemosensitivity were associated with improved patient outcome. In contrast, immune cells in ascites did not significantly correlate with patient survival. However, we observed a trend toward improved outcome for patients having low percentages of CD4 T cells. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules on T cells and non-immune cells in 10 ascites samples. PD-1 was expressed by 30% of ascites-derived T cells and PD-L1 by 50% of non-immune cells. However, the percentage of DC and T cell subsets in ascites was not directly correlated to the survival of HGSC patients. 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03156
    Mutant p53 expression in fallopian tube epithelium drives cell migration. Quartuccio Suzanne M,Karthikeyan Subbulakshmi,Eddie Sharon L,Lantvit Daniel D,Ó hAinmhire Eoghainín,Modi Dimple A,Wei Jian-Jun,Burdette Joanna E International journal of cancer Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US women. Evidence supports the hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) may originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Although a heterogeneous disease, 96% of HGSC contain mutations in p53. In addition, the "p53 signature," or overexpression of p53 protein (usually associated with mutation), is a potential precursor lesion of fallopian tube derived HGSC suggesting an essential role for p53 mutation in early serous tumorigenesis. To further clarify p53-mutation dependent effects on cells, murine oviductal epithelial cells (MOE) were stably transfected with a construct encoding for the R273H DNA binding domain mutation in p53, the most common mutation in HGSC. Mutation in p53 was not sufficient to transform MOE cells but did significantly increase cell migration. A similar p53 mutation in murine ovarian surface epithelium (MOSE), another potential progenitor cell for serous cancer, was not sufficient to transform the cells nor change migration suggesting tissue specific effects of p53 mutation. Microarray data confirmed expression changes of pro-migratory genes in p53(R273H) MOE compared to parental cells, which could be reversed by suppressing Slug expression. Combining p53(R273H) with KRAS(G12V) activation caused transformation of MOE into high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma when xenografted into nude mice. Elucidating the specific role of p53(R273H) in the fallopian tube will improve understanding of changes at the earliest stage of transformation. This information can help develop chemopreventative strategies to prevent the accumulation of additional mutations and reverse progression of the "p53 signature" thereby, improving survival rates. 10.1002/ijc.29528
    Elevated GALNT10 expression identifies immunosuppressive microenvironment and dismal prognosis of patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer. Zhang Guodong,Lu Jiaqi,Yang Moran,Wang Yiying,Liu Haiou,Xu Congjian Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII High grade ovarian serous cancer (HGSC) is a malignant disease with high mortality. Glycosylation plays important roles in tumor invasion and immune evasion, but its effect on the immune microenvironment of HGSC remains unclear. This study examined the association of glycosyltransferase expression with HGSC prognosis and explored the underlying mechanism using clinical specimens and integrated bioinformatic analyses. We identified a cluster of 15 glycogenes associated with reduced overall survival, and GALNT10 was found to be an independent predictor of HGSC prognosis. The high GALNT10 expression was associated with increased regulatory CD4+ T cells infiltration and decreased granzyme B expression in CD8+ T cells. The expression of GALNT10 and its product, Tn antigen, in HGSC specimens was associated with the increased infiltration of M2 macrophages and neutrophils, and the decreased infiltration of CD3+ T cells, NK cells, and B cells. Taken collectively, high GALNT10 expression confers with immunosuppressive microenvironment to promote tumor progression and predicts poor clinical outcomes in HGSC patients. 10.1007/s00262-019-02454-1
    GATA3 as a master regulator and therapeutic target in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma stem cells. Chen Hsiang-Ju,Huang Rui-Lan,Liew Phui-Ly,Su Po-Hsuan,Chen Lin-Yu,Weng Yu-Chun,Chang Cheng-Chang,Wang Yu-Chi,Chan Michael Wing-Yan,Lai Hung-Cheng International journal of cancer Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Prevailing evidences suggest that drug resistance and recurrence of ovarian HGSC are caused by the presence of cancer stem cells. Therefore, targeting cancer stems is appealing, however, all attempts to date, have failed. To circumvent this limit, we analyzed differential transcriptomes at early differentiation of ovarian HGSC stem cells and identified the developmental transcription factor GATA3 as highly expressed in stem, compared to progenitor cells. GATA3 expression associates with poor prognosis of ovarian HGSC patients, and was found to recruit the histone H3, lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase, UTX, activate stemness markers, and promote stem-like phenotypes in ovarian HGSC cell lines. Targeting UTX by its inhibitor, GSKJ4, impeded GATA3-driven stemness phenotypes, and enhanced apoptosis of GATA3-expressing cancer cells. Combinations of gemcitabine or paclitaxel with GSKJ4, resulted in a synergistic cytotoxic effect. Our findings provide evidence for a new role for GATA3 in ovarian HGSC stemness, and demonstrate that GATA3 may serve as a biomarker for precision epigenetic therapy in the future. 10.1002/ijc.31750
    Invasion Patterns of Metastatic Extrauterine High-grade Serous Carcinoma With BRCA Germline Mutation and Correlation With Clinical Outcomes. Hussein Yaser R,Ducie Jennifer A,Arnold Angela G,Kauff Noah D,Vargas-Alvarez Hebert A,Sala Evis,Levine Douglas A,Soslow Robert A The American journal of surgical pathology Characteristic histopathologic features have been described in high-grade serous carcinoma associated with BRCA abnormalities (HGSC-BRCA), which are known to have relatively favorable clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of invasion patterns in metastatic HGSC-BRCA cases. Of the 37 cases of advanced-stage HGSC with known BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation retrieved from our institutional files, 23 patients had a germline mutation of BRCA1 and 14 had a BRCA2 mutation. The pattern of invasion at metastatic sites was recorded and classified as a pushing pattern (either predominantly or exclusively), an exclusively micropapillary infiltrative pattern, or an infiltrative pattern composed of papillae, micropapillae, glands, and nests (mixed infiltrative pattern). Histologic evaluation of metastases was performed without knowledge of genotype or clinical outcome. Clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Median age was 56 years (range, 31 to 73 y). All patients presented at stage IIIC or IV and underwent complete surgical staging followed by chemotherapy. All 37 HGSC-BRCA cases showed either pushing pattern metastases (30; 81%) or infiltrative micropapillary metastases (7; 19%). No HGSC-BRCA case exhibited metastases composed solely of mixed infiltrative patterns. Among the 7 infiltrative micropapillary cases, 6 had a BRCA1 germline mutation versus 1 with a BRCA2 mutation. The median time of follow-up was 26 months (range, 13 to 49 mo). All 7 patients with infiltrative micropapillary metastases either experienced recurrence or died of disease (5 recurrences and 2 deaths), which was significantly worse than what was seen in patients with predominantly pushing pattern metastases, of whom 16 of 30 (53%) experienced recurrence (n=14) or died of disease (n=2) (P=0.03). In conclusion, the recognition of different invasion patterns of metastatic extrauterine HGSC-BRCA has prognostic implications. The infiltrative micropapillary pattern is associated with poor outcomes and is more frequently seen in BRCA1-associated HGSC than in BRCA2 cases. 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000556
    PAX8 activates a p53-p21-dependent pro-proliferative effect in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Ghannam-Shahbari Dima,Jacob Eyal,Kakun Reli Rachel,Wasserman Tanya,Korsensky Lina,Sternfeld Ofir,Kagan Juliana,Bublik Debora Rosa,Aviel-Ronen Sarit,Levanon Keren,Sabo Edmond,Larisch Sarit,Oren Moshe,Hershkovitz Dov,Perets Ruth Oncogene High grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer and it is now widely accepted that this disease often originates from the fallopian tube epithelium. PAX8 is a fallopian tube lineage marker with an essential role in embryonal female genital tract development. In the adult fallopian tube, PAX8 is expressed in the fallopian tube secretory epithelial cell (FTSEC) and its expression is maintained through the process of FTSEC transformation to HGSC. We now report that PAX8 has a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic role in HGSC. The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in close to 100% of HGSC; in the majority of cases, these are missense mutations that endow the mutant p53 protein with potential gain of function (GOF) oncogenic activities. We show that PAX8 positively regulates the expression of TP53 in HGSC and the pro-proliferative role of PAX8 is mediated by the GOF activity of mutant p53. Surprisingly, mutant p53 transcriptionally activates the expression of p21, which localizes to the cytoplasm of HGSC cells where it plays a non-canonical, pro-proliferative role. Together, our findings illustrate how TP53 mutations in HGSC subvert a normal regulatory pathway into a driver of tumor progression. 10.1038/s41388-017-0040-z
    Analysis of Telomere Lengths in p53 Signatures and Incidental Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinomas Without Concurrent Ovarian Cancer. Asaka Shiho,Davis Christine,Lin Shiou-Fu,Wang Tian-Li,Heaphy Christopher M,Shih Ie-Ming The American journal of surgical pathology Telomere alterations represent one of the major molecular changes in the development of human cancer. We have previously reported that telomere lengths in most serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) are shorter than they are in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) or in normal-appearing fallopian tube epithelium from the same patients. However, it remains critical to determine if similar telomere alterations occur in TP53-mutated but histologically unremarkable "p53 signature" lesions, as well as incidental STICs without concurrent HGSC. In this study, we quantitatively measured telomere lengths by performing telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization in conjunction with p53 immunolabeling in 15 p53 signatures and 30 incidental STICs without concurrent HGSC. We compared these new results with our previous data in paired STICs and concurrent HGSCs. We found that most p53 signatures (80%) and incidental STICs without HGSC (77%) exhibited significant telomere shortening compared with adjacent normal-appearing fallopian tube epithelium (P<0.01). Interestingly, however, p53 signatures and incidental STICs without HGSC displayed longer telomeres and less cell-to-cell telomere length heterogeneity than STICs associated with HGSC (P<0.001). These findings indicate that telomere shortening occurs in p53 signatures, the earliest precancer lesion. Moreover, incidental STICs without concurrent HGSC are indeed similar to p53 signatures as they have less telomere shortening and less cell-to-cell telomere length heterogeneity than STICs associated with HGSC. 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001283
    CD105 Is Expressed in Ovarian Cancer Precursor Lesions and Is Required for Metastasis to the Ovary. Bai Shoumei,Zhu Wanhong,Coffman Lan,Vlad Anda,Schwartz Lauren E,Elishaev Esther,Drapkin Ronny,Buckanovich Ronald J Cancers Most high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) initiate from the fallopian tube epithelium and then metastasize to the ovary and throughout the abdomen. Genomic analyses suggest that most HGSCs seed the ovary prior to abdominal dissemination. Similarly, animal models support a critical role for the ovary in driving abdominal dissemination. Thus, HGSC cell recruitment to the ovary appears to be a critical component of HGSC cell metastasis. We sought to identify factors driving HGSC recruitment to the ovary. We identified CD105 (endoglin, or ENG, a TGF- receptor family member) as a mediator of HGSC cell ovarian recruitment. We found that CD105 was expressed on both serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) cells (STICs-HGSC precursors in the fallopian tube epithelium) and HGSC cells. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), we showed that high CD105 expression by HGSC cells correlated with a metastatic signature. Furthermore, intravenous injection of CD105 HGSC tumor cells, but not CD105, resulted in ovarian-specific metastasis and abdominal dissemination of disease. CD105 knockdown or blockade with a clinically relevant CD105-neutralizing mAb (TRC105), inhibited HGSC metastasis, reduced ascites, and impeded growth of abdominal tumor nodules, thereby improving overall survival in animal models of ovarian cancer. CD105 knockdown was associated with a reduction in TGF-signaling. Together, our data support CD105 as a critical mediator of ovarian cancer spread to the ovary and implicate it as a potential therapeutic target. 10.3390/cancers11111710
    Cell Origins of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer. Kim Jaeyeon,Park Eun Young,Kim Olga,Schilder Jeanne M,Coffey Donna M,Cho Chi-Heum,Bast Robert C Cancers High-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), is the most common and deadliest type of ovarian cancer. HGSC appears to arise from the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum. As most HGSC cases present with widespread peritoneal metastases, it is often not clear where HGSC truly originates. Traditionally, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) was long believed to be the origin of HGSC. Since the late 1990s, the fallopian tube epithelium has emerged as a potential primary origin of HGSC. Particularly, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a noninvasive tumor lesion formed preferentially in the distal fallopian tube epithelium, was proposed as a precursor for HGSC. It was hypothesized that STIC lesions would progress, over time, to malignant and metastatic HGSC, arising from the fallopian tube or after implanting on the ovary or peritoneum. Many clinical studies and several mouse models support the fallopian tube STIC origin of HGSC. Current evidence indicates that STIC may serve as a precursor for HGSC in high-risk women carrying germline or mutations. Yet not all STIC lesions appear to progress to clinical HGSCs, nor would all HGSCs arise from STIC lesions, even in high-risk women. Moreover, the clinical importance of STIC remains less clear in women in the general population, in which 85⁻90% of all HGSCs arise. Recently, increasing attention has been brought to the possibility that many potential precursor or premalignant lesions, though composed of microscopically-and genetically-cancerous cells, do not advance to malignant tumors or lethal malignancies. Hence, rigorous causal evidence would be crucial to establish that STIC is a bona fide premalignant lesion for metastatic HGSC. While not all STICs may transform into malignant tumors, these lesions are clearly associated with increased risk for HGSC. Identification of the molecular characteristics of STICs that predict their malignant potential and clinical behavior would bolster the clinical importance of STIC. Also, as STIC lesions alone cannot account for all HGSCs, other potential cellular origins of HGSC need to be investigated. The fallopian tube stroma in mice, for instance, has been shown to be capable of giving rise to metastatic HGSC, which faithfully recapitulates the clinical behavior and molecular aspect of human HGSC. Elucidating the precise cell(s) of origin of HGSC will be critical for improving the early detection and prevention of ovarian cancer, ultimately reducing ovarian cancer mortality. 10.3390/cancers10110433
    Discrete molecular classes of ovarian cancer suggestive of unique mechanisms of transformation and metastases. Gardi Nilesh L,Deshpande Tejaswini U,Kamble Swapnil C,Budhe Sagar R,Bapat Sharmila A Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Tumor heterogeneity and subsistence of high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinoma (HGSC) classes can be speculated from clinical incidences suggesting passive tumor dissemination versus active invasion and metastases. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We explored this theme toward tumor classification through two approaches of gene expression pattern clustering: (i) derivation of a core set of metastases-associated genes and (ii) resolution of independent weighted correlation networks. Further identification of appropriate cell and xenograft models was carried out for resolution of class-specific biologic functions. RESULTS:Both clustering approaches achieved resolution of three distinct tumor classes, two of which validated in other datasets. Networks of enriched gene modules defined biologic functions of quiescence, cell division-differentiation-lineage commitment, immune evasion, and cross-talk with niche factors. Although deviant from normal homeostatic mechanisms, these class-specific profiles are not totally random. Preliminary validation of these suggests that Class 1 tumors survive, metastasize in an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-independent manner, and are associated with a p53 signature, aberrant differentiation, DNA damage, and genetic instability. These features supported by association of cell-specific markers, including PAX8, PEG3, and TCF21, led to the speculation of their origin being the fimbrial fallopian tube epithelium. On the other hand, Class 2 tumors activate extracellular matrix-EMT-driven invasion programs (Slug, SPARC, FN1, THBS2 expression), IFN signaling, and immune evasion, which are prospectively suggestive of ovarian surface epithelium associated wound healing mechanisms. Further validation of these etiologies could define a new therapeutic framework for disease management. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-2063
    Mevalonate Pathway Antagonist Suppresses Formation of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Ovarian Carcinoma in Mouse Models. Kobayashi Yusuke,Kashima Hiroyasu,Wu Ren-Chin,Jung Jin-Gyoung,Kuan Jen-Chun,Gu Jinghua,Xuan Jianhua,Sokoll Lori,Visvanathan Kala,Shih Ie-Ming,Wang Tian-Li Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Statins are among the most frequently prescribed drugs because of their efficacy and low toxicity in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recently, statins have been reported to inhibit the proliferative activity of cancer cells, especially those with TP53 mutations. Because TP53 mutations occur in almost all ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), we determined whether statins suppressed tumor growth in animal models of ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Two ovarian cancer mouse models were used. The first one was a genetically engineered model, mogp-TAg, in which the promoter of oviduct glycoprotein-1 was used to drive the expression of SV40 T-antigen in gynecologic tissues. These mice spontaneously developed serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), which are known as ovarian cancer precursor lesions. The second model was a xenograft tumor model in which human ovarian cancer cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice. Mice in both models were treated with lovastatin, and effects on tumor growth were monitored. The molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effects of lovastatin were also investigated. RESULTS:Lovastatin significantly reduced the development of STICs in mogp-TAg mice and inhibited ovarian tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of prenylation enzymes in the mevalonate pathway recapitulated the lovastatin-induced antiproliferative phenotype. Transcriptome analysis indicated that lovastatin affected the expression of genes associated with DNA replication, Rho/PLC signaling, glycolysis, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that statins have pleiotropic effects on tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS:The above results suggest that repurposing statin drugs for ovarian cancer may provide a promising strategy to prevent and manage this devastating disease. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-3368
    Genomic classification of serous ovarian cancer with adjacent borderline differentiates RAS pathway and TP53-mutant tumors and identifies NRAS as an oncogenic driver. Emmanuel Catherine,Chiew Yoke-Eng,George Joshy,Etemadmoghadam Dariush,Anglesio Michael S,Sharma Raghwa,Russell Peter,Kennedy Catherine,Fereday Sian,Hung Jillian,Galletta Laura,Hogg Russell,Wain Gerard V,Brand Alison,Balleine Rosemary,MacConaill Laura,Palescandolo Emanuele,Hunter Sally M,Campbell Ian,Dobrovic Alexander,Wong Stephen Q,Do Hongdo,Clarke Christine L,Harnett Paul R,Bowtell David D L,deFazio Anna, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSC) are Ras pathway-mutated, TP53 wild-type, and frequently associated with borderline tumors. Patients with LGSCs respond poorly to platinum-based chemotherapy and may benefit from pathway-targeted agents. High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) are TP53-mutated and are thought to be rarely associated with borderline tumors. We sought to determine whether borderline histology associated with grade 2 or 3 carcinoma was an indicator of Ras mutation, and we explored the molecular relationship between coexisting invasive and borderline histologies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We reviewed >1,200 patients and identified 102 serous carcinomas with adjacent borderline regions for analyses, including candidate mutation screening, copy number, and gene expression profiling. RESULTS:We found a similar frequency of low, moderate, and high-grade carcinomas with coexisting borderline histology. BRAF/KRAS alterations were common in LGSC; however, we also found recurrent NRAS mutations. Whereas borderline tumors harbored BRAF/KRAS mutations, NRAS mutations were restricted to carcinomas, representing the first example of a Ras oncogene with an obligatory association with invasive serous cancer. Coexisting borderline and invasive components showed nearly identical genomic profiles. Grade 2 cases with coexisting borderline included tumors with molecular features of LGSC, whereas others were typical of HGSC. However, all grade 3 carcinomas with coexisting borderline histology were molecularly indistinguishable from typical HGSC. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that NRAS is an oncogenic driver in serous ovarian tumors. We demonstrate that borderline histology is an unreliable predictor of Ras pathway aberration and underscore an important role for molecular classification in identifying patients that may benefit from targeted agents. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1292
    Functionally Null Missense Mutation Associates Strongly with Ovarian Carcinoma. Rivera Barbara,Di Iorio Massimo,Frankum Jessica,Nadaf Javad,Fahiminiya Somayyeh,Arcand Suzanna L,Burk David L,Grapton Damien,Tomiak Eva,Hastings Valerie,Hamel Nancy,Wagener Rabea,Aleynikova Olga,Giroux Sylvie,Hamdan Fadi F,Dionne-Laporte Alexandre,Zogopoulos George,Rousseau Francois,Berghuis Albert M,Provencher Diane,Rouleau Guy A,Michaud Jacques L,Mes-Masson Anne-Marie,Majewski Jacek,Bens Susanne,Siebert Reiner,Narod Steven A,Akbari Mohammad R,Lord Christopher J,Tonin Patricia N,Orthwein Alexandre,Foulkes William D Cancer research RAD51D is a key player in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR), and truncating variant carriers have an increased risk for ovarian cancer. However, the contribution of nontruncating variants to cancer predisposition remains uncertain. Using deep sequencing and case-control genotyping studies, we show that in French Canadians, the missense variant c.620C>T;p.S207L is highly prevalent and is associated with a significantly increased risk for ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC; 3.8% cases vs. 0.2% controls). The frequency of the p.S207L variant did not significantly differ from that of controls in breast, endometrial, pancreas, or colorectal adenocarcinomas. Functionally, we show that this mutation impairs HR by disrupting the RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction and confers PARP inhibitor sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of a functional RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction to promote HR and prevent the development of HGSC. This study identifies c.620C>T;p.S207L as the first bona fide pathogenic missense cancer susceptibility allele and supports the use of targeted PARP-inhibitor therapies in ovarian cancer patients carrying deleterious missense variants. . 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-0190
    Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Modulates the Immune Microenvironment in Metastases of Tubo-Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma. Böhm Steffen,Montfort Anne,Pearce Oliver M T,Topping Joanne,Chakravarty Probir,Everitt Gemma L A,Clear Andrew,McDermott Jackie R,Ennis Darren,Dowe Thomas,Fitzpatrick Amanda,Brockbank Elly C,Lawrence Alexandra C,Jeyarajah Arjun,Faruqi Asma Z,McNeish Iain A,Singh Naveena,Lockley Michelle,Balkwill Frances R Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) on immune activation in stage IIIC/IV tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), and its relationship to treatment response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We obtained pre- and posttreatment omental biopsies and blood samples from a total of 54 patients undergoing platinum-based NACT and 6 patients undergoing primary debulking surgery. We measured T-cell density and phenotype, immune activation, and markers of cancer-related inflammation using IHC, flow cytometry, electrochemiluminescence assays, and RNA sequencing and related our findings to the histopathologic treatment response. RESULTS:There was evidence of T-cell activation in omental biopsies after NACT: CD4(+) T cells showed enhanced IFNγ production and antitumor Th1 gene signatures were increased. T-cell activation was more pronounced with good response to NACT. The CD8(+) T-cell and CD45RO(+) memory cell density in the tumor microenvironment was unchanged after NACT but biopsies showing a good therapeutic response had significantly fewer FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells. This finding was supported by a reduction in a Treg cell gene signature in post- versus pre-NACT samples that was more pronounced in good responders. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines decreased in all patients after NACT. However, a high proportion of T cells in biopsies expressed immune checkpoint molecules PD-1 and CTLA4, and PD-L1 levels were significantly increased after NACT. CONCLUSIONS:NACT may enhance host immune response but this effect is tempered by high/increased levels of PD-1, CTLA4, and PD-L1. Sequential chemoimmunotherapy may improve disease control in advanced HGSC. Clin Cancer Res; 22(12); 3025-36. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2657
    Advanced High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Frequency and Timing of Thoracic Metastases and the Implications for Chest Imaging Follow-up. Shinagare Atul B,O'Neill Ailbhe C,Cheng SuChun,Somarouthu Bhanusupriya,Tirumani Sree H,Nishino Mizuki,Van den Abbeele Annick D,Ramaiya Nikhil H Radiology PURPOSE:To study the frequency, timing, and associations of thoracic metastases in advanced (stage III and IV) high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) to help optimize the use of cross-sectional chest imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This institutional review board-approved retrospective study with waived informed consent included 186 consecutive patients with pathologically proven advanced HGSC after primary cytoreduction (mean age ± standard deviation, 60 years ± 9.7) who underwent imaging at our tertiary cancer institution from January 2012 to December 2012 with at least 1 year of follow-up, unless there was thoracic metastasis or death. Electronic medical records and all available imaging studies were reviewed to record patient and tumor characteristics, frequency and timing of abdominal and thoracic metastases, and visibility of the first thoracoabdominal metastasis on abdominal images. Patient and tumor characteristics associated with thoracic metastases were studied by using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analysis. RESULTS:After median follow-up of 57 months (interquartile range [IQR], 38-93), 175 patients (94%) developed metastatic disease; each had abdominal disease, and 76 (41%) had thoracic metastases. The first thoracoabdominal metastasis was visible on abdominal images in all 175 patients. The thoracic metastasis-free interval was longer than the abdominal disease-free interval (median, 85 months [IQR, 28-131] vs 14 months [IQR, 7-27], respectively; P < .0001). Presence of disease on abdominal images (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.35, 4.76) was the only factor independently associated with thoracic metastases. CONCLUSION:Thoracic metastases in advanced HGSC rarely occur before abdominal disease, and first thoracoabdominal metastases are invariably visible on abdominal images. Therefore, cross-sectional chest imaging may be deferred until development of abdominal disease, with minimal risk of missing thoracic metastases. 10.1148/radiol.2015142467
    Murine Oviductal High-Grade Serous Carcinomas Mirror the Genomic Alterations, Gene Expression Profiles, and Immune Microenvironment of Their Human Counterparts. McCool Kevin W,Freeman Zachary T,Zhai Yali,Wu Rong,Hu Kevin,Liu Chia-Jen,Tomlins Scott A,Fearon Eric R,Magnuson Brian,Kuick Rork,Cho Kathleen R Cancer research Robust preclinical models of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) are needed to advance our understanding of HGSC pathogenesis and to test novel strategies aimed at improving clinical outcomes for women with the disease. Genetically engineered mouse models of HGSC recapitulating the likely cell of origin (fallopian tube), underlying genetic defects, histology, and biologic behavior of human HGSCs have been developed. However, the degree to which the mouse tumors acquire the somatic genomic changes, gene expression profiles, and immune microenvironment that characterize human HGSCs remains unclear. We used integrated molecular characterization of oviductal HGSCs arising in the context of , and () inactivation to determine whether the mouse tumors recapitulate human HGSCs across multiple domains of molecular features. Targeted DNA sequencing showed the mouse tumors, but not endometrioid carcinoma-like tumors based on different genetic defects (e.g., and ), acquire somatic mutations and widespread copy number alterations similar to those observed in human HGSCs. RNA sequencing showed the mouse HGSCs most closely resemble the so-called immunoreactive and mesenchymal subsets of human HGSCs. A combined immuno-genomic analysis demonstrated the immune microenvironment of tumors models key aspects of tumor-immune dynamics in the immunoreactive and mesenchymal subtypes of human HGSC, with enrichment of immunosuppressive cell subsets such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. The findings further validate the model as a robust preclinical experimental platform to address current barriers to improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this often lethal cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The acquired gene mutations, broad genomic alterations, and gene expression and immune cell-tumor axis changes in a mouse model of oviductal serous carcinoma closely mirror those of human tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2558
    CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Trp53 and Brca2 Knockout to Generate Improved Murine Models of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma. Walton Josephine,Blagih Julianna,Ennis Darren,Leung Elaine,Dowson Suzanne,Farquharson Malcolm,Tookman Laura A,Orange Clare,Athineos Dimitris,Mason Susan,Stevenson David,Blyth Karen,Strathdee Douglas,Balkwill Frances R,Vousden Karen,Lockley Michelle,McNeish Iain A Cancer research There is a need for transplantable murine models of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) with regard to mutations in the human disease to assist investigations of the relationships between tumor genotype, chemotherapy response, and immune microenvironment. In addressing this need, we performed whole-exome sequencing of ID8, the most widely used transplantable model of ovarian cancer, covering 194,000 exomes at a mean depth of 400× with 90% exons sequenced >50×. We found no functional mutations in genes characteristic of HGSC (Trp53, Brca1, Brca2, Nf1, and Rb1), and p53 remained transcriptionally active. Homologous recombination in ID8 remained intact in functional assays. Further, we found no mutations typical of clear cell carcinoma (Arid1a, Pik3ca), low-grade serous carcinoma (Braf), endometrioid (Ctnnb1), or mucinous (Kras) carcinomas. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, we modeled HGSC by generating novel ID8 derivatives that harbored single (Trp53) or double (Trp53;Brca2) suppressor gene deletions. In these mutants, loss of p53 alone was sufficient to increase the growth rate of orthotopic tumors with significant effects observed on the immune microenvironment. Specifically, p53 loss increased expression of the myeloid attractant CCL2 and promoted the infiltration of immunosuppressive myeloid cell populations into primary tumors and their ascites. In Trp53;Brca2 mutant cells, we documented a relative increase in sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib and slower orthotopic tumor growth compared with Trp53 cells, with an appearance of intratumoral tertiary lymphoid structures rich in CD3 T cells. This work validates new CRISPR-generated models of HGSC to investigate its biology and promote mechanism-based therapeutics discovery. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6118-29. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1272
    N-Glycoproteomics of Patient-Derived Xenografts: A Strategy to Discover Tumor-Associated Proteins in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer. Sinha Ankit,Hussain Ali,Ignatchenko Vladimir,Ignatchenko Alexandr,Tang Kwan Ho,Ho Victor W H,Neel Benjamin G,Clarke Blaise,Bernardini Marcus Q,Ailles Laurie,Kislinger Thomas Cell systems High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and lethal subtype of gynecologic malignancy in women. The current standard of treatment combines cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Despite the efficacy of initial treatment, most patients develop cancer recurrence, and 70% of patients die within 5 years of initial diagnosis. CA125 is the current FDA-approved biomarker used in the clinic to monitor response to treatment and recurrence, but its impact on patient survival is limited. New strategies for the discovery of HGSC biomarkers are urgently needed. Here, we describe a proteomics strategy to detect tumor-associated proteins in serum of HGSC patient-derived xenograft models. We demonstrate proof-of-concept applicability using two independent, longitudinal serum cohorts from HGSC patients. 10.1016/j.cels.2019.03.011
    Metabolic Markers and Statistical Prediction of Serous Ovarian Cancer Aggressiveness by Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging. Sans Marta,Gharpure Kshipra,Tibshirani Robert,Zhang Jialing,Liang Li,Liu Jinsong,Young Jonathan H,Dood Robert L,Sood Anil K,Eberlin Livia S Cancer research Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) results in the highest mortality among gynecological cancers, developing rapidly and aggressively. Dissimilarly, serous borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) can progress into low-grade serous carcinomas and have relatively indolent clinical behavior. The underlying biological differences between HGSC and BOT call for accurate diagnostic methodologies and tailored treatment options, and identification of molecular markers of aggressiveness could provide valuable biochemical insights and improve disease management. Here, we used desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) to image and chemically characterize the metabolic profiles of HGSC, BOT, and normal ovarian tissue samples. DESI-MS imaging enabled clear visualization of fine papillary branches in serous BOT and allowed for characterization of spatial features of tumor heterogeneity such as adjacent necrosis and stroma in HGSC. Predictive markers of cancer aggressiveness were identified, including various free fatty acids, metabolites, and complex lipids such as ceramides, glycerophosphoglycerols, cardiolipins, and glycerophosphocholines. Classification models built from a total of 89,826 individual pixels, acquired in positive and negative ion modes from 78 different tissue samples, enabled diagnosis and prediction of HGSC and all tumor samples in comparison with normal tissues, with overall agreements of 96.4% and 96.2%, respectively. HGSC and BOT discrimination was achieved with an overall accuracy of 93.0%. Interestingly, our classification model allowed identification of three BOT samples presenting unusual histologic features that could be associated with the development of low-grade carcinomas. Our results suggest DESI-MS as a powerful approach for rapid serous ovarian cancer diagnosis based on altered metabolic signatures. . 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-3044
    Adult body mass index and risk of ovarian cancer by subtype: a Mendelian randomization study. Dixon Suzanne C,Nagle Christina M,Thrift Aaron P,Pharoah Paul Dp,Pearce Celeste Leigh,Zheng Wei,Painter Jodie N, ,Chenevix-Trench Georgia,Fasching Peter A,Beckmann Matthias W,Lambrechts Diether,Vergote Ignace,Lambrechts Sandrina,Van Nieuwenhuysen Els,Rossing Mary Anne,Doherty Jennifer A,Wicklund Kristine G,Chang-Claude Jenny,Rudolph Anja,Moysich Kirsten B,Odunsi Kunle,Goodman Marc T,Wilkens Lynne R,Thompson Pamela J,Shvetsov Yurii B,Dörk Thilo,Park-Simon Tjoung-Won,Hillemanns Peter,Bogdanova Natalia,Butzow Ralf,Nevanlinna Heli,Pelttari Liisa M,Leminen Arto,Modugno Francesmary,Ness Roberta B,Edwards Robert P,Kelley Joseph L,Heitz Florian,Karlan Beth Y,Kjær Susanne K,Høgdall Estrid,Jensen Allan,Goode Ellen L,Fridley Brooke L,Cunningham Julie M,Winham Stacey J,Giles Graham G,Bruinsma Fiona,Milne Roger L,Southey Melissa C,Hildebrandt Michelle A T,Wu Xifeng,Lu Karen H,Liang Dong,Levine Douglas A,Bisogna Maria,Schildkraut Joellen M,Berchuck Andrew,Cramer Daniel W,Terry Kathryn L,Bandera Elisa V,Olson Sara H,Salvesen Helga B,Thomsen Liv Cecilie,Kopperud Reidun K,Bjorge Line,Kiemeney Lambertus A,Massuger Leon F A G,Pejovic Tanja,Cook Linda S,Le Nhu D,Swenerton Kenneth D,Brooks-Wilson Angela,Kelemen Linda E,Lubiński Jan,Huzarski Tomasz,Gronwald Jacek,Menkiszak Janusz,Wentzensen Nicolas,Brinton Louise,Yang Hannah,Lissowska Jolanta,Høgdall Claus K,Lundvall Lene,Song Honglin,Tyrer Jonathan P,Campbell Ian,Eccles Diana,Paul James,Glasspool Rosalind,Siddiqui Nadeem,Whittemore Alice S,Sieh Weiva,McGuire Valerie,Rothstein Joseph H,Narod Steven A,Phelan Catherine,Risch Harvey A,McLaughlin John R,Anton-Culver Hoda,Ziogas Argyrios,Menon Usha,Gayther Simon A,Ramus Susan J,Gentry-Maharaj Aleksandra,Wu Anna H,Pike Malcolm C,Tseng Chiu-Chen,Kupryjanczyk Jolanta,Dansonka-Mieszkowska Agnieszka,Budzilowska Agnieszka,Spiewankiewicz Beata,Webb Penelope M, International journal of epidemiology BACKGROUND:Observational studies have reported a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and ovarian cancer risk. However, questions remain as to whether this represents a causal effect, or holds for all histological subtypes. The lack of association observed for serous cancers may, for instance, be due to disease-associated weight loss. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic markers as proxies for risk factors to overcome limitations of observational studies. We used MR to elucidate the relationship between BMI and ovarian cancer, hypothesizing that genetically predicted BMI would be associated with increased risk of non-high grade serous ovarian cancers (non-HGSC) but not HGSC. METHODS:We pooled data from 39 studies (14 047 cases, 23 003 controls) in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We constructed a weighted genetic risk score (GRS, partial F-statistic = 172), summing alleles at 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with BMI, weighting by their published strength of association with BMI. Applying two-stage predictor-substitution MR, we used logistic regression to estimate study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted BMI and risk, and pooled these using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS:Higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with increased risk of non-HGSC (pooled OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.61 per 5 units BMI) but not HGSC (pooled OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.27). Secondary analyses stratified by behaviour/subtype suggested that, consistent with observational data, the association was strongest for low-grade/borderline serous cancers (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.33-2.81). CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that higher BMI increases risk of non-HGSC, but not the more common and aggressive HGSC subtype, confirming the observational evidence. 10.1093/ije/dyw158
    Histologic and molecular analysis of patient derived xenografts of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Dong Ruifen,Qiang Wenan,Guo Haiyang,Xu Xiaofei,Kim J Julie,Mazar Andrew,Kong Beihua,Wei Jian-Jun Journal of hematology & oncology BACKGROUND:Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are generated by transplanting the original patient's tumor tissue into immune-deficient mice. Unlike xenograft models derived from cell lines, PDX models can better preserve the histopathology from the original patient and molecular pathways. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is a deadly form of ovarian/fallopian tube cancer whose response to current chemotherapies varies widely due to patient variability. Therefore, a PDX model can provide a valuable tool to study and test treatment options for each individual patient. METHODS:In this study, over 200 PDX tumors from nine HGSC were analyzed to investigate the nature and behavior of PDX tumors originating from HGSC. PDX tumors were serially passaged (from P0 to P4) and tumors were grafted orthotopically under the ovarian bursa or subcutaneously. RESULTS:Comparative analysis of the histology and molecular markers of tumors from over 200 PDX tumor-bearing mice, revealed that the tumors maintained similar histologies, stem cell populations, and expression for the majority of the tested oncogenic markers, compared to the primary tumors. However, a significant loss of steroid hormone receptors and altered expression of immunoresponsive genes in PDX tumors were also noted. CONCLUSION:Our findings provide substantial new information about PDX tumor characteristics from HGSC which will be valuable towards the development of personalized therapy and new drug development for HGSC. 10.1186/s13045-016-0318-6
    Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Eleje George U,Eke Ahizechukwu C,Ezebialu Ifeanyichukwu U,Ikechebelu Joseph I,Ugwu Emmanuel O,Okonkwo Onyinye O The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:The presence of deleterious mutations in breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2) significantly increases the risk of developing some cancers, such as breast and high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) of ovarian, tubal and peritoneal origin. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is usually recommended to BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers after completion of childbearing. Despite prior systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the role of RRSO in reducing the mortality and incidence of breast, HGSC and other cancers, RRSO is still an area of debate and it is unclear whether RRSO differs in effectiveness by type of mutation carried. OBJECTIVES:To assess the benefits and harms of RRSO in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 7) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid and trial registries, with no language restrictions up to July 2017. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included non-randomised trials (NRS), prospective and retrospective cohort studies, and case series that used statistical adjustment for baseline case mix using multivariable analyses comparing RRSO versus no RRSO in women without a previous or coexisting breast, ovarian or fallopian tube malignancy, in women with or without hysterectomy, and in women with a risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) before, with or after RRSO. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We extracted data and performed meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HR) for time-to-event variables and risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). To assess bias in the studies, we used the ROBINS-I 'Risk of bias' assessment tool. We quantified inconsistency between studies by estimating the I statistic. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled effect estimates. MAIN RESULTS:We included 10 cohort studies, comprising 8087 participants (2936 (36%) surgical participants and 5151 (64%) control participants who were BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. All the studies compared RRSO with or without RRM versus no RRSO (surveillance). The certainty of evidence by GRADE assessment was very low due to serious risk of bias. Nine studies, including 7927 women, were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period ranged from 0.5 to 27.4 years. MAIN OUTCOMES:overall survival was longer with RRSO compared with no RRSO (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.54; P < 0.001; 3 studies, 2548 women; very low-certainty evidence). HGSC cancer mortality (HR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17; I² = 69%; P < 0.0001; 3 studies, 2534 women; very low-certainty evidence) and breast cancer mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.88; I² = 65%; P = 0.009; 7 studies, 7198 women; very low-certainty evidence) were lower with RRSO compared with no RRSO. None of the studies reported bone fracture incidence. There was a difference in favour of RRSO compared with no RRSO in terms of ovarian cancer risk perception quality of life (MD 15.40, 95% CI 8.76 to 22.04; P < 0.00001; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported adverse events.Subgroup analyses for main outcomes: meta-analysis showed an increase in overall survival among women who had RRSO versus women without RRSO who were BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.52; P < 0001; I² = 23%; 3 studies; very low-certainty evidence) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85; P = 0.01; I² = 0%; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). The meta-analysis showed a decrease in HGSC cancer mortality among women with RRSO versus no RRSO who were BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.41; I² = 54%; P = 0.001; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence), but uncertain for BRCA2 mutation carriers due to low frequency of HGSC cancer deaths in BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality among women with RRSO versus no RRSO who were BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.67; I² = 0%; P < 0.0001; 4 studies; very low-certainty evidence), but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.87; I² = 63%; P = 0.75; 3 studies; very low-certainty evidence). One study showed a difference in favour of RRSO versus no RRSO in improving quality of life for ovarian cancer risk perception in women who were BRCA1 mutation carriers (MD 10.70, 95% CI 2.45 to 18.95; P = 0.01; 98 women; very low-certainty evidence) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (MD 13.00, 95% CI 3.59 to 22.41; P = 0.007; very low-certainty evidence). Data from one study showed a difference in favour of RRSO and RRM versus no RRSO in increasing overall survival (HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.98; P = 0.0001; I² = 0%; low-certainty evidence), but no difference for breast cancer mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.19; P = 0.25; very low-certainty evidence). The risk estimates for breast cancer mortality according to age at RRSO (50 years of age or less versus more than 50 years) was not protective and did not differ for BRCA1 (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.11; I² = 16%; P = 0.23; very low-certainty evidence) and BRCA2 carriers (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.87; I² = 63%; P = 0.75; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:There is very low-certainty evidence that RRSO may increase overall survival and lower HGSC and breast cancer mortality for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Very low-certainty evidence suggests that RRSO reduces the risk of death from HGSC and breast cancer in women with BRCA1 mutations. Evidence for the effect of RRSO on HGSC and breast cancer in BRCA2 carriers was very uncertain due to low numbers. These results should be interpreted with caution due to questionable study designs, risk of bias profiles, and very low-certainty evidence. We cannot draw any conclusions regarding bone fracture incidence, quality of life, or severe adverse events for RRSO, or for effects of RRSO based on type and age at risk-reducing surgery. Further research on these outcomes is warranted to explore differential effects for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. 10.1002/14651858.CD012464.pub2
    Molecular Classification of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Based on Methylation Profiling: Evidence for Survival Heterogeneity. Bodelon Clara,Killian J Keith,Sampson Joshua N,Anderson William F,Matsuno Rayna,Brinton Louise A,Lissowska Jolanta,Anglesio Michael S,Bowtell David D L,Doherty Jennifer A,Ramus Susan J,Talhouk Aline,Sherman Mark E,Wentzensen Nicolas Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided into multiple subtypes with variable etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis. We analyzed DNA methylation profiling data to identify biologic subgroups of ovarian cancer and study their relationship with histologic subtypes, copy number variation, RNA expression data, and outcomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:A total of 162 paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial tumor tissues, including the five major epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes (high- and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell) and tumors of low malignant potential were selected from two different sources: The Polish Ovarian Cancer study, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Residual Tissue Repository (SEER RTR). Analyses were restricted to Caucasian women. Methylation profiling was conducted using the Illumina 450K methylation array. For 45 tumors array copy number data were available. NanoString gene expression data for 39 genes were available for 61 high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). RESULTS:Consensus nonnegative matrix factorization clustering of the 1,000 most variable CpG sites showed four major clusters among all epithelial ovarian cancers. We observed statistically significant differences in survival (log-rank test, = 9.1 × 10) and genomic instability across these clusters. Within HGSC, clustering showed three subgroups with survival differences (log-rank test, = 0.002). Comparing models with and without methylation subgroups in addition to previously identified gene expression subtypes suggested that the methylation subgroups added significant survival information ( = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS:DNA methylation profiling of ovarian cancer identified novel molecular subgroups that had significant survival difference and provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of ovarian cancer.. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3720
    Recurrent BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene leads to a constitutively activated AKT2 fusion kinase in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Kannan Kalpana,Coarfa Cristian,Chao Pei-Wen,Luo Liming,Wang Yan,Brinegar Amy E,Hawkins Shannon M,Milosavljevic Aleksandar,Matzuk Martin M,Yen Laising Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is among the most lethal forms of cancer in women. Excessive genomic rearrangements, which are expected to create fusion oncogenes, are the hallmark of this cancer. Here we report a cancer-specific gene fusion between BCAM, a membrane adhesion molecule, and AKT2, a key kinase in the PI3K signaling pathway. This fusion is present in 7% of the 60 patient cancers tested, a significant frequency considering the highly heterogeneous nature of this malignancy. Further, we provide direct evidence that BCAM-AKT2 is translated into an in-frame fusion protein in the patient's tumor. The resulting AKT2 fusion kinase is membrane-associated, constitutively phosphorylated, and activated as a functional kinase in cells. Unlike endogenous AKT2, whose activity is tightly regulated by external stimuli, BCAM-AKT2 escapes the regulation from external stimuli. Moreover, a BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene generated via chromosomal translocation using the CRISPR/Cas9 system leads to focus formation in both OVCAR8 and HEK-293T cell lines, suggesting that BCAM-AKT2 is oncogenic. Together, the results indicate that BCAM-AKT2 expression is a new mechanism of AKT2 kinase activation in HGSC. BCAM-AKT2 is the only fusion gene in HGSC that is proven to translate an aberrant yet functional kinase fusion protein with oncogenic properties. This recurrent genomic alteration is a potential therapeutic target and marker of a clinically relevant subtype for tailored therapy of HGSC. 10.1073/pnas.1501735112
    TIM-3 Dictates Functional Orientation of the Immune Infiltrate in Ovarian Cancer. Fucikova Jitka,Rakova Jana,Hensler Michal,Kasikova Lenka,Belicova Lucie,Hladikova Kamila,Truxova Iva,Skapa Petr,Laco Jan,Pecen Ladislav,Praznovec Ivan,Halaska Michael J,Brtnicky Tomas,Kodet Roman,Fialova Anna,Pineau Josephine,Gey Alain,Tartour Eric,Ryska Ales,Galluzzi Lorenzo,Spisek Radek Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:In multiple oncological settings, expression of the coinhibitory ligand PD-L1 by malignant cells and tumor infiltration by immune cells expressing coinhibitory receptors such as PD-1, CTLA4, LAG-3, or TIM-3 conveys prognostic or predictive information. Conversely, the impact of these features of the tumor microenvironment on disease outcome among high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) patients remains controversial. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We harnessed a retrospective cohort of 80 chemotherapy-naïve HGSC patients to investigate PD-L1 expression and tumor infiltration by CD8 T cells, CD20 B cells, DC-LAMP dendritic cells as well as by PD-1, CTLA4, LAG-3, and TIM-3 cells in relation with prognosis and function orientation of the tumor microenvironment. IHC data were complemented with transcriptomic and functional studies on a second prospective cohort of freshly resected HGSC samples. analysis of publicly available RNA expression data from 308 HGSC samples was used as a confirmatory approach. RESULTS:High levels of PD-L1 and high densities of PD-1 cells in the microenvironment of HGSCs were strongly associated with an immune contexture characterized by a robust T1 polarization and cytotoxic orientation that enabled superior clinical benefits. Moreover, PD-1TIM-3CD8 T cells presented all features of functional exhaustion and correlated with poor disease outcome. However, although PD-L1 levels and tumor infiltration by TIM-3 cells improved patient stratification based on the intratumoral abundance of CD8 T cells, the amount of PD-1 cells failed to do so. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that PD-L1 and TIM-3 constitute prognostically relevant biomarkers of active and suppressed immune responses against HGSC, respectively. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-4175
    Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Pathway Disruption and Retinoblastoma Protein Loss Are Associated with Exceptional Survival in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer. Garsed Dale W,Alsop Kathryn,Fereday Sian,Emmanuel Catherine,Kennedy Catherine J,Etemadmoghadam Dariush,Gao Bo,Gebski Val,Garès Valérie,Christie Elizabeth L,Wouters Maartje C A,Milne Katy,George Joshy,Patch Ann-Marie,Li Jason,Arnau Gisela Mir,Semple Timothy,Gadipally Sreeja R,Chiew Yoke-Eng,Hendley Joy,Mikeska Thomas,Zapparoli Giada V,Amarasinghe Kaushalya,Grimmond Sean M,Pearson John V,Waddell Nicola,Hung Jillian,Stewart Colin J R,Sharma Raghwa,Allan Prue E,Rambau Peter F,McNally Orla,Mileshkin Linda,Hamilton Anne,Ananda Sumitra,Grossi Marisa,Cohen Paul A,Leung Yee C,Rome Robert M,Beale Philip,Blomfield Penny,Friedlander Michael,Brand Alison,Dobrovic Alexander,Köbel Martin,Harnett Paul,Nelson Brad H,Bowtell David D L,deFazio Anna, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Women with epithelial ovarian cancer generally have a poor prognosis; however, a subset of patients has an unexpected dramatic and durable response to treatment. We sought to identify clinical, pathological, and molecular determinants of exceptional survival in women with high-grade serous cancer (HGSC), a disease associated with the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. We evaluated the histories of 2,283 ovarian cancer patients and, after applying stringent clinical and pathological selection criteria, identified 96 with HGSC that represented significant outliers in terms of treatment response and overall survival. Patient samples were characterized immunohistochemically and by genome sequencing. Different patterns of clinical response were seen: long progression-free survival (Long-PFS), multiple objective responses to chemotherapy (Multiple Responder), and/or greater than 10-year overall survival (Long-Term Survivors). Pathogenic germline and somatic mutations in genes involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair were enriched in all three groups relative to a population-based series. However, 29% of 10-year survivors lacked an identifiable HR pathway alteration, and tumors from these patients had increased Ki-67 staining. CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were more commonly present in Long-Term Survivors. RB1 loss was associated with long progression-free and overall survival. HR deficiency and RB1 loss were correlated, and co-occurrence was significantly associated with prolonged survival. There was diversity in the clinical trajectory of exceptional survivors associated with multiple molecular determinants of exceptional outcome in HGSC patients. Concurrent HR deficiency and RB1 loss were associated with favorable outcomes, suggesting that co-occurrence of specific mutations might mediate durable responses in such patients. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1621
    Interrogation of Functional Cell-Surface Markers Identifies CD151 Dependency in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer. Medrano Mauricio,Communal Laudine,Brown Kevin R,Iwanicki Marcin,Normand Josee,Paterson Joshua,Sircoulomb Fabrice,Krzyzanowski Paul,Novak Marian,Doodnauth Sasha A,Saiz Fernando Suarez,Cullis Jane,Al-Awar Rima,Neel Benjamin G,McPherson John,Drapkin Ronny,Ailles Laurie,Mes-Massons Anne-Marie,Rottapel Robert Cell reports The degree of genetic aberrations characteristic of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) makes identification of the molecular features that drive tumor progression difficult. Here, we perform genome-wide RNAi screens and comprehensive expression analysis of cell-surface markers in a panel of HGSC cell lines to identify genes that are critical to their survival. We report that the tetraspanin CD151 contributes to survival of a subset of HGSC cell lines associated with a ZEB transcriptional program and supports the growth of HGSC tumors. Moreover, we show that high CD151 expression is prognostic of poor clinical outcome. This study reveals cell-surface vulnerabilities associated with HGSC, provides a framework for identifying therapeutic targets, and reports a role for CD151 in HGSC. 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.02.028
    Levels Serve as "Early Signature" Genes in the Development of High-Grade Serous Carcinoma from the Fallopian Tube. Saini Uksha,Suarez Adrian A,Naidu Shan,Wallbillich John J,Bixel Kristin,Wanner Ross A,Bice Jason,Kladney Raleigh D,Lester Jenny,Karlan Beth Y,Goodfellow Paul J,Cohn David E,Selvendiran Karuppaiyah Cancer research The initial molecular events that lead to malignant transformation of the fimbria of the fallopian tube (FT) through high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that increased expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 () and suppression or loss of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 () in FT likely drive HGSC. We evaluated human tissues-benign normal FT, tubal-peritoneal junction (TPJ), p53 signature FT tissue, tubal intraepithelial lesion in transition (TILT), serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) without ovarian cancer, and HGSC for expression of (compared with their known signature) and their target proliferation genes. We observed constitutive activation of and low levels or loss of in the TPJ, p53 signature, TILT, and STIC through advanced stage IV (HGSC) tissues. Elevated expression of and decreased levels of appeared as early as TPJ and the trend continued until very advanced stage HGSC (compared with high and low expression in normal benign FT). Exogenous expression of in FT cells mediated translocation of and into the nucleus. experiments demonstrated that overexpression of in FT secretory epithelial cells promoted tumor progression and metastasis, mimicking the clinical disease observed in patients with HGSC. Thus, we conclude that the pathway plays a role in the development and progression of HGSC from its earliest premalignant states. Concomitant gain of pSTAT3 Tyr705 and loss of PIAS3 appear critical for initiation and development of high-grade serous carcinoma. . 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-1671
    Proteomics-Derived Biomarker Panel Improves Diagnostic Precision to Classify Endometrioid and High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma. Dieters-Castator Dylan Z,Rambau Peter F,Kelemen Linda E,Siegers Gabrielle M,Lajoie Gilles A,Postovit Lynne-Marie,Köbel Martin Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Ovarian carcinomas are a group of distinct diseases classified by histotypes. As histotype-specific treatment evolves, accurate classification will become critical for optimal precision medicine approaches. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:To uncover differences between the two most common histotypes, high-grade serous (HGSC) and endometrioid carcinoma, we performed label-free quantitative proteomics on freshly frozen tumor tissues (HGSC, = 10; endometrioid carcinoma, = 10). Eight candidate protein biomarkers specific to endometrioid carcinoma were validated by IHC using tissue microarrays representing 361 cases of either endometrioid carcinoma or HGSC. RESULTS:More than 500 proteins were differentially expressed ( < 0.05) between endometrioid carcinoma and HGSC tumor proteomes. A ranked set of 106 proteins was sufficient to correctly discriminate 90% of samples. IHC validated KIAA1324 as the most discriminatory novel biomarker for endometrioid carcinoma. An 8-marker panel was found to exhibit superior performance for discriminating endometrioid carcinoma from HGSC compared with the current standard of WT1 plus TP53 alone, improving the classification rate for HGSC from 90.7% to 99.2%. Endometrioid carcinoma-specific diagnostic markers such as PLCB1, KIAA1324, and SCGB2A1 were also significantly associated with favorable prognosis within endometrioid carcinoma suggesting biological heterogeneity within this histotype. Pathway analysis of proteomic data revealed differences between endometrioid carcinoma and HGSC pertaining to estrogen and interferon signalling. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, these findings support the use of multi-marker panels for the differential diagnosis of difficult cases resembling endometrioid carcinoma and HGSC. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3818
    Calreticulin exposure correlates with robust adaptive antitumor immunity and favorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma patients. Kasikova Lenka,Hensler Michal,Truxova Iva,Skapa Petr,Laco Jan,Belicova Lucie,Praznovec Ivan,Vosahlikova Sarka,Halaska Michael J,Brtnicky Tomas,Rob Lukas,Presl Jiri,Kostun Jan,Cremer Isabelle,Ryska Ales,Kroemer Guido,Galluzzi Lorenzo,Spisek Radek,Fucikova Jitka Journal for immunotherapy of cancer BACKGROUND:Adjuvanticity, which is the ability of neoplastic cells to deliver danger signals, is critical for the host immune system to mount spontaneous and therapy-driven anticancer immune responses. One of such signals, i.e., the exposure of calreticulin (CALR) on the membrane of malignant cells experiencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is well known for its role in the activation of immune responses to dying cancer cells. However, the potential impact of CALR on the immune contexture of primary and metastatic high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) and its prognostic value for patients with HGSC remains unclear. METHOD:We harnessed a retrospective cohort of primary (no = 152) and metastatic (no = 74) tumor samples from HGSC patients to investigate the CALR expression in relation with prognosis and function orientation of the tumor microenvironment. IHC data were complemented with transcriptomic and functional studies on second prospective cohort of freshly resected HGSC samples. In silico analysis of publicly available RNA expression data from 302 HGSC samples was used as a confirmatory approach. RESULTS:We demonstrate that CALR exposure on the surface of primary and metastatic HGSC cells is driven by a chemotherapy-independent ER stress response and culminates with the establishment of a local immune contexture characterized by T1 polarization and cytotoxic activity that enables superior clinical benefits. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that CALR levels in primary and metastatic HGSC samples have robust prognostic value linked to the activation of clinically-relevant innate and adaptive anticancer immune responses. 10.1186/s40425-019-0781-z
    Selective Targeting of Cyclin E1-Amplified High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 and AKT Inhibition. Au-Yeung George,Lang Franziska,Azar Walid J,Mitchell Chris,Jarman Kate E,Lackovic Kurt,Aziz Diar,Cullinane Carleen,Pearson Richard B,Mileshkin Linda,Rischin Danny,Karst Alison M,Drapkin Ronny,Etemadmoghadam Dariush,Bowtell David D L Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Cyclin E1 () amplification is associated with primary treatment resistance and poor outcome in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Here, we explore approaches to target -amplified cancers and potential strategies to overcome resistance to targeted agents. To examine dependency on in -amplified HGSC, we utilized siRNA and conditional shRNA gene suppression, and chemical inhibition using dinaciclib, a small-molecule CDK2 inhibitor. High-throughput compound screening was used to identify selective synergistic drug combinations, as well as combinations that may overcome drug resistance. An observed relationship between and the AKT pathway was further explored in genomic data from primary tumors, and functional studies in fallopian tube secretory cells. We validate as a therapeutic target by demonstrating selective sensitivity to gene suppression. However, we found that dinaciclib did not trigger amplicon-dependent sensitivity in a panel of HGSC cell lines. A high-throughput compound screen identified synergistic combinations in -amplified HGSC, including dinaciclib and AKT inhibitors. Analysis of genomic data from TCGA demonstrated coamplification of and Overexpression of Cyclin E1 and AKT isoforms, in addition to mutant , imparted malignant characteristics in untransformed fallopian tube secretory cells, the dominant site of origin of HGSC. These findings suggest a specific dependency of -amplified tumors for AKT activity, and point to a novel combination of dinaciclib and AKT inhibitors that may selectively target patients with -amplified HGSC. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0620
    Mature dendritic cells correlate with favorable immune infiltrate and improved prognosis in ovarian carcinoma patients. Truxova Iva,Kasikova Lenka,Hensler Michal,Skapa Petr,Laco Jan,Pecen Ladislav,Belicova Lucie,Praznovec Ivan,Halaska Michael J,Brtnicky Tomas,Salkova Eva,Rob Lukas,Kodet Roman,Goc Jeremy,Sautes-Fridman Catherine,Fridman Wolf Herman,Ryska Ales,Galluzzi Lorenzo,Spisek Radek,Fucikova Jitka Journal for immunotherapy of cancer A high density of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells and CD20 B cells correlates with prolonged survival in patients with a wide variety of human cancers, including high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC). However, the potential impact of mature dendritic cells (DCs) in shaping the immune contexture of HGSC, their role in the establishment of T cell-dependent antitumor immunity, and their potential prognostic value for HGSC patients remain unclear. We harnessed immunohistochemical tests and biomolecular analyses to demonstrate that a high density of tumor-infiltrating DC-LAMP DCs is robustly associated with an immune contexture characterized by T1 polarization and cytotoxic activity. We showed that both mature DCs and CD20 B cells play a critical role in the generation of a clinically-favorable cytotoxic immune response in HGSC microenvironment. In line with this notion, robust tumor infiltration by both DC-LAMP DCs and CD20 B cells was associated with most favorable overall survival in two independent cohorts of chemotherapy-naïve HGSC patients. Our findings suggest that the presence of mature, DC-LAMP DCs in the tumor microenvironment may represent a novel, powerful prognostic biomarker for HGSC patients that reflects the activation of clinically-relevant anticancer immunity. 10.1186/s40425-018-0446-3
    Dual-platform affinity proteomics identifies links between the recurrence of ovarian carcinoma and proteins released into the tumor microenvironment. Finkernagel Florian,Reinartz Silke,Schuldner Maximiliane,Malz Alexandra,Jansen Julia M,Wagner Uwe,Worzfeld Thomas,Graumann Johannes,von Strandmann Elke Pogge,Müller Rolf Theranostics The peritoneal fluid (ascites), replete with abundant tumor-promoting factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs) reflecting the tumor secretome, plays an essential role in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) metastasis and immune suppression. A comprehensive picture of mediators impacting HGSC progression is, however, not available. Proteins in ascites from HGSC patients were quantified by the aptamer-based SOMAscan affinity proteomic platform. SOMAscan data were analyzed by bioinformatic methods to reveal clinically relevant links and functional connections, and were validated using the antibody-based proximity extension assay (PEA) Olink platform. Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins in extracellular microvesicles released by HGSC cells. Consistent with the clinical features of HGSC, 779 proteins in ascites identified by SOMAscan clustered into groups associated either with metastasis and a short relapse-free survival (RFS), or with immune regulation and a favorable RFS. In total, 346 proteins were linked to OC recurrence in either direction. Reanalysis of 214 of these proteins by PEA revealed an excellent median Spearman inter-platform correlation of ρ=0.82 for the 46 positively RFS-associated proteins in both datasets. Intriguingly, many proteins strongly associated with clinical outcome were constituents of extracellular vesicles. These include proteins either linked to a poor RFS, such as HSPA1A, BCAM and DKK1, or associated with a favorable outcome, such as the protein kinase LCK. Finally, based on these data we defined two protein signatures that clearly classify short-term and long-term relapse-free survivors. The ascites secretome points to metastasis-promoting events and an anti-tumor response as the major determinants of the clinical outcome of HGSC. Relevant proteins include both bone fide secreted and vesicle-encapsulated polypeptides, many of which have previously not been linked to HGSC recurrence. Besides a deeper understanding of the HGSC microenvironment our data provide novel potential tools for HGSC patient stratification. Furthermore, the first large-scale inter-platform validation of SOMAscan and PEA will be invaluable for other studies using these affinity proteomics platforms. 10.7150/thno.37549
    Single-nuclei RNA-seq on human retinal tissue provides improved transcriptome profiling. Liang Qingnan,Dharmat Rachayata,Owen Leah,Shakoor Akbar,Li Yumei,Kim Sangbae,Vitale Albert,Kim Ivana,Morgan Denise,Liang Shaoheng,Wu Nathaniel,Chen Ken,DeAngelis Margaret M,Chen Rui Nature communications Single-cell RNA-seq is a powerful tool in decoding the heterogeneity in complex tissues by generating transcriptomic profiles of the individual cell. Here, we report a single-nuclei RNA-seq (snRNA-seq) transcriptomic study on human retinal tissue, which is composed of multiple cell types with distinct functions. Six samples from three healthy donors are profiled and high-quality RNA-seq data is obtained for 5873 single nuclei. All major retinal cell types are observed and marker genes for each cell type are identified. The gene expression of the macular and peripheral retina is compared to each other at cell-type level. Furthermore, our dataset shows an improved power for prioritizing genes associated with human retinal diseases compared to both mouse single-cell RNA-seq and human bulk RNA-seq results. In conclusion, we demonstrate that obtaining single cell transcriptomes from human frozen tissues can provide insight missed by either human bulk RNA-seq or animal models. 10.1038/s41467-019-12917-9
    Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer. Patch Ann-Marie,Christie Elizabeth L,Etemadmoghadam Dariush,Garsed Dale W,George Joshy,Fereday Sian,Nones Katia,Cowin Prue,Alsop Kathryn,Bailey Peter J,Kassahn Karin S,Newell Felicity,Quinn Michael C J,Kazakoff Stephen,Quek Kelly,Wilhelm-Benartzi Charlotte,Curry Ed,Leong Huei San, ,Hamilton Anne,Mileshkin Linda,Au-Yeung George,Kennedy Catherine,Hung Jillian,Chiew Yoke-Eng,Harnett Paul,Friedlander Michael,Quinn Michael,Pyman Jan,Cordner Stephen,O'Brien Patricia,Leditschke Jodie,Young Greg,Strachan Kate,Waring Paul,Azar Walid,Mitchell Chris,Traficante Nadia,Hendley Joy,Thorne Heather,Shackleton Mark,Miller David K,Arnau Gisela Mir,Tothill Richard W,Holloway Timothy P,Semple Timothy,Harliwong Ivon,Nourse Craig,Nourbakhsh Ehsan,Manning Suzanne,Idrisoglu Senel,Bruxner Timothy J C,Christ Angelika N,Poudel Barsha,Holmes Oliver,Anderson Matthew,Leonard Conrad,Lonie Andrew,Hall Nathan,Wood Scott,Taylor Darrin F,Xu Qinying,Fink J Lynn,Waddell Nick,Drapkin Ronny,Stronach Euan,Gabra Hani,Brown Robert,Jewell Andrea,Nagaraj Shivashankar H,Markham Emma,Wilson Peter J,Ellul Jason,McNally Orla,Doyle Maria A,Vedururu Ravikiran,Stewart Collin,Lengyel Ernst,Pearson John V,Waddell Nicola,deFazio Anna,Grimmond Sean M,Bowtell David D L Nature Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with primary refractory, resistant, sensitive and matched acquired resistant disease. We show that gene breakage commonly inactivates the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN in HGSC, and contributes to acquired chemotherapy resistance. CCNE1 amplification was common in primary resistant and refractory disease. We observed several molecular events associated with acquired resistance, including multiple independent reversions of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in individual patients, loss of BRCA1 promoter methylation, an alteration in molecular subtype, and recurrent promoter fusion associated with overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1. 10.1038/nature14410
    Integrated Proteogenomic Characterization of Human High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer. Zhang Hui,Liu Tao,Zhang Zhen,Payne Samuel H,Zhang Bai,McDermott Jason E,Zhou Jian-Ying,Petyuk Vladislav A,Chen Li,Ray Debjit,Sun Shisheng,Yang Feng,Chen Lijun,Wang Jing,Shah Punit,Cha Seong Won,Aiyetan Paul,Woo Sunghee,Tian Yuan,Gritsenko Marina A,Clauss Therese R,Choi Caitlin,Monroe Matthew E,Thomas Stefani,Nie Song,Wu Chaochao,Moore Ronald J,Yu Kun-Hsing,Tabb David L,Fenyö David,Bafna Vineet,Wang Yue,Rodriguez Henry,Boja Emily S,Hiltke Tara,Rivers Robert C,Sokoll Lori,Zhu Heng,Shih Ie-Ming,Cope Leslie,Pandey Akhilesh,Zhang Bing,Snyder Michael P,Levine Douglas A,Smith Richard D,Chan Daniel W,Rodland Karin D, Cell To provide a detailed analysis of the molecular components and underlying mechanisms associated with ovarian cancer, we performed a comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based proteomic characterization of 174 ovarian tumors previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), of which 169 were high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). Integrating our proteomic measurements with the genomic data yielded a number of insights into disease, such as how different copy-number alternations influence the proteome, the proteins associated with chromosomal instability, the sets of signaling pathways that diverse genome rearrangements converge on, and the ones most associated with short overall survival. Specific protein acetylations associated with homologous recombination deficiency suggest a potential means for stratifying patients for therapy. In addition to providing a valuable resource, these findings provide a view of how the somatic genome drives the cancer proteome and associations between protein and post-translational modification levels and clinical outcomes in HGSC. VIDEO ABSTRACT. 10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.069
    Molecular analysis of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma with and without associated serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinoma. Ducie Jennifer,Dao Fanny,Considine Michael,Olvera Narciso,Shaw Patricia A,Kurman Robert J,Shih Ie-Ming,Soslow Robert A,Cope Leslie,Levine Douglas A Nature communications Many high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) of the pelvis are thought to originate in the distal portion of the fallopian tube. Serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions are the putative precursor to HGSC and identifiable in ~ 50% of advanced stage cases. To better understand the molecular etiology of HGSCs, we report a multi-center integrated genomic analysis of advanced stage tumors with and without STIC lesions and normal tissues. The most significant focal DNA SCNAs were shared between cases with and without STIC lesions. The RNA sequence and the miRNA data did not identify any clear separation between cases with and without STIC lesions. HGSCs had molecular profiles more similar to normal fallopian tube epithelium than ovarian surface epithelium or peritoneum. The data suggest that the molecular features of HGSCs with and without associated STIC lesions are mostly shared, indicating a common biologic origin, likely to be the distal fallopian tube among all cases.High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) are associated with precursor lesions (STICs) in the fallopian epithelium in only half of the cases. Here the authors report the molecular analysis of HGSCs with and without associated STICs and show similar profiles supporting a common origin for all HGSCs. 10.1038/s41467-017-01217-9
    An apoptosis-enhancing drug overcomes platinum resistance in a tumour-initiating subpopulation of ovarian cancer. Janzen D M,Tiourin E,Salehi J A,Paik D Y,Lu J,Pellegrini M,Memarzadeh S Nature communications High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) are deadly malignancies that relapse despite carboplatin chemotherapy. Here we show that 16 independent primary HGSC samples contain a CA125-negative population enriched for carboplatin-resistant cancer initiating cells. Transcriptome analysis reveals upregulation of homologous recombination DNA repair and anti-apoptotic signals in this population. While treatment with carboplatin enriches for CA125-negative cells, co-treatment with carboplatin and birinapant eliminates these cells in HGSCs expressing high levels of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein cIAP in the CA125-negative population. Birinapant sensitizes CA125-negative cells to carboplatin by mediating degradation of cIAP causing cleavage of caspase 8 and restoration of apoptosis. This co-therapy significantly improves disease-free survival in vivo compared with either therapy alone in tumour-bearing mice. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies that target CA125-negative cells may be useful in the treatment of HGSC. 10.1038/ncomms8956
    MAP3K8/TPL-2/COT is a potential predictive marker for MEK inhibitor treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Gruosso Tina,Garnier Camille,Abelanet Sophie,Kieffer Yann,Lemesre Vincent,Bellanger Dorine,Bieche Ivan,Marangoni Elisabetta,Sastre-Garau Xavier,Mieulet Virginie,Mechta-Grigoriou Fatima Nature communications Ovarian cancer is a silent disease with a poor prognosis that urgently requires new therapeutic strategies. In low-grade ovarian tumours, mutations in the MAP3K BRAF gene constitutively activate the downstream kinase MEK. Here we demonstrate that an additional MAP3K, MAP3K8 (TPL-2/COT), accumulates in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSCs) and is a potential prognostic marker for these tumours. By combining analyses on HGSC patient cohorts, ovarian cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that MAP3K8 controls cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating key players in G1/S transition and adhesion dynamics. In addition, we show that the MEK pathway is the main pathway involved in mediating MAP3K8 function, and that MAP3K8 exhibits a reliable predictive value for the effectiveness of MEK inhibitor treatment. Our data highlight key roles for MAP3K8 in HGSC and indicate that MEK inhibitors could be a useful treatment strategy, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, for this disease. 10.1038/ncomms9583
    Acquired chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer. Christie E L,Bowtell D D L Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology Most women diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) develop recurrent disease and chemotherapy resistance, despite initially responding to treatment. The genomic characteristics of HGSC samples collected at initial surgery have been extensively studied. However, due to challenges of sample collection following treatment, much less is known about the molecular features of recurrent disease. Our recent studies have identified mechanisms of acquired resistance and biomarkers in recurrent HGSCs that could lead to improved treatment approaches. 10.1093/annonc/mdx446
    Genomic consequences of aberrant DNA repair mechanisms stratify ovarian cancer histotypes. Wang Yi Kan,Bashashati Ali,Anglesio Michael S,Cochrane Dawn R,Grewal Diljot S,Ha Gavin,McPherson Andrew,Horlings Hugo M,Senz Janine,Prentice Leah M,Karnezis Anthony N,Lai Daniel,Aniba Mohamed R,Zhang Allen W,Shumansky Karey,Siu Celia,Wan Adrian,McConechy Melissa K,Li-Chang Hector,Tone Alicia,Provencher Diane,de Ladurantaye Manon,Fleury Hubert,Okamoto Aikou,Yanagida Satoshi,Yanaihara Nozomu,Saito Misato,Mungall Andrew J,Moore Richard,Marra Marco A,Gilks C Blake,Mes-Masson Anne-Marie,McAlpine Jessica N,Aparicio Samuel,Huntsman David G,Shah Sohrab P Nature genetics We studied the whole-genome point mutation and structural variation patterns of 133 tumors (59 high-grade serous (HGSC), 35 clear cell (CCOC), 29 endometrioid (ENOC), and 10 adult granulosa cell (GCT)) as a substrate for class discovery in ovarian cancer. Ab initio clustering of integrated point mutation and structural variation signatures identified seven subgroups both between and within histotypes. Prevalence of foldback inversions identified a prognostically significant HGSC group associated with inferior survival. This finding was recapitulated in two independent cohorts (n = 576 cases), transcending BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation and gene expression features of HGSC. CCOC cancers grouped according to APOBEC deamination (26%) and age-related mutational signatures (40%). ENOCs were divided by cases with microsatellite instability (28%), with a distinct mismatch-repair mutation signature. Taken together, our work establishes the potency of the somatic genome, reflective of diverse DNA repair deficiencies, to stratify ovarian cancers into distinct biological strata within the major histotypes. 10.1038/ng.3849
    Ovarian cancer. Matulonis Ursula A,Sood Anil K,Fallowfield Lesley,Howitt Brooke E,Sehouli Jalid,Karlan Beth Y Nature reviews. Disease primers Ovarian cancer is not a single disease and can be subdivided into at least five different histological subtypes that have different identifiable risk factors, cells of origin, molecular compositions, clinical features and treatments. Ovarian cancer is a global problem, is typically diagnosed at a late stage and has no effective screening strategy. Standard treatments for newly diagnosed cancer consist of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. In recurrent cancer, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are used, and immunological therapies are currently being tested. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most commonly diagnosed form of ovarian cancer and at diagnosis is typically very responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, in addition to the other histologies, HGSCs frequently relapse and become increasingly resistant to chemotherapy. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms underlying platinum resistance and finding ways to overcome them are active areas of study in ovarian cancer. Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), as well as a precursor lesion of HGSC called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, which holds promise for identifying individuals at high risk of developing the disease and for developing prevention strategies. 10.1038/nrdp.2016.61
    Interfaces of Malignant and Immunologic Clonal Dynamics in Ovarian Cancer. Zhang Allen W,McPherson Andrew,Milne Katy,Kroeger David R,Hamilton Phineas T,Miranda Alex,Funnell Tyler,Little Nicole,de Souza Camila P E,Laan Sonya,LeDoux Stacey,Cochrane Dawn R,Lim Jamie L P,Yang Winnie,Roth Andrew,Smith Maia A,Ho Julie,Tse Kane,Zeng Thomas,Shlafman Inna,Mayo Michael R,Moore Richard,Failmezger Henrik,Heindl Andreas,Wang Yi Kan,Bashashati Ali,Grewal Diljot S,Brown Scott D,Lai Daniel,Wan Adrian N C,Nielsen Cydney B,Huebner Curtis,Tessier-Cloutier Basile,Anglesio Michael S,Bouchard-Côté Alexandre,Yuan Yinyin,Wasserman Wyeth W,Gilks C Blake,Karnezis Anthony N,Aparicio Samuel,McAlpine Jessica N,Huntsman David G,Holt Robert A,Nelson Brad H,Shah Sohrab P Cell High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) exhibits extensive malignant clonal diversity with widespread but non-random patterns of disease dissemination. We investigated whether local immune microenvironment factors shape tumor progression properties at the interface of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cancer cells. Through multi-region study of 212 samples from 38 patients with whole-genome sequencing, immunohistochemistry, histologic image analysis, gene expression profiling, and T and B cell receptor sequencing, we identified three immunologic subtypes across samples and extensive within-patient diversity. Epithelial CD8+ TILs negatively associated with malignant diversity, reflecting immunological pruning of tumor clones inferred by neoantigen depletion, HLA I loss of heterozygosity, and spatial tracking between T cell and tumor clones. In addition, combinatorial prognostic effects of mutational processes and immune properties were observed, illuminating how specific genomic aberration types associate with immune response and impact survival. We conclude that within-patient spatial immune microenvironment variation shapes intraperitoneal malignant spread, provoking new evolutionary perspectives on HGSC clonal dispersion. 10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.073
    Noninvasive ovarian cancer biomarker detection via an optical nanosensor implant. Williams Ryan M,Lee Christopher,Galassi Thomas V,Harvey Jackson D,Leicher Rachel,Sirenko Maria,Dorso Madeline A,Shah Janki,Olvera Narciso,Dao Fanny,Levine Douglas A,Heller Daniel A Science advances Patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) exhibit poor 5-year survival rates, which may be significantly improved by early-stage detection. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved biomarkers for HGSC-CA-125 (cancer antigen 125) and HE4 (human epididymis protein 4)-do not generally appear at detectable levels in the serum until advanced stages of the disease. An implantable device placed proximal to disease sites, such as in or near the fallopian tube, ovary, uterine cavity, or peritoneal cavity, may constitute a feasible strategy to improve detection of HGSC. We engineered a prototype optical sensor composed of an antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube complex, which responds quantitatively to HE4 via modulation of the nanotube optical bandgap. The complexes measured HE4 with nanomolar sensitivity to differentiate disease from benign patient biofluids. The sensors were implanted into four models of ovarian cancer, within a semipermeable membrane, enabling the optical detection of HE4 within the live animals. We present the first in vivo optical nanosensor capable of noninvasive cancer biomarker detection in orthotopic models of disease. 10.1126/sciadv.aaq1090
    Next-Generation Sequencing of Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinomas. McDaniel Andrew S,Stall Jennifer N,Hovelson Daniel H,Cani Andi K,Liu Chia-Jen,Tomlins Scott A,Cho Kathleen R JAMA oncology IMPORTANCE:High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most prevalent and lethal form of ovarian cancer. HGSCs frequently arise in the distal fallopian tubes rather than the ovary, developing from small precursor lesions called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (TICs, or more specifically, STICs). While STICs have been reported to harbor TP53 mutations, detailed molecular characterizations of these lesions are lacking. OBSERVATIONS:We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 4 women, 2 with HGSC and 2 with uterine endometrioid carcinoma (UEC) who were diagnosed as having synchronous STICs. We detected concordant mutations in both HGSCs with synchronous STICs, including TP53 mutations as well as assumed germline BRCA1/2 alterations, confirming a clonal association between these lesions. Next-generation sequencing confirmed the presence of a STIC clonally unrelated to 1 case of UEC, and NGS of the other tubal lesion diagnosed as a STIC unexpectedly supported the lesion as a micrometastasis from the associated UEC. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:We demonstrate that targeted NGS can identify genetic alterations in minute lesions, such as TICs, and confirm TP53 mutations as early driving events for HGSC. Next-generation sequencing also demonstrated unexpected associations between presumed STICs and synchronous carcinomas, providing evidence that some TICs are actually metastases rather than HGSC precursors. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.1618
    Prediction of DNA Repair Inhibitor Response in Short-Term Patient-Derived Ovarian Cancer Organoids. Hill Sarah J,Decker Brennan,Roberts Emma A,Horowitz Neil S,Muto Michael G,Worley Michael J,Feltmate Colleen M,Nucci Marisa R,Swisher Elizabeth M,Nguyen Huy,Yang Chunyu,Morizane Ryuji,Kochupurakkal Bose S,Do Khanh T,Konstantinopoulos Panagiotis A,Liu Joyce F,Bonventre Joseph V,Matulonis Ursula A,Shapiro Geoffrey I,Berkowitz Ross S,Crum Christopher P,D'Andrea Alan D Cancer discovery Based on genomic analysis, 50% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) are predicted to have DNA repair defects. Whether this substantial subset of HGSCs actually have functional repair defects remains unknown. Here, we devise a platform for functional profiling of DNA repair in short-term patient-derived HGSC organoids. We tested 33 organoid cultures derived from 22 patients with HGSC for defects in homologous recombination (HR) and replication fork protection. Regardless of DNA repair gene mutational status, a functional defect in HR in the organoids correlated with PARP inhibitor sensitivity. A functional defect in replication fork protection correlated with carboplatin and CHK1 and ATR inhibitor sensitivity. Our results indicate that a combination of genomic analysis and functional testing of organoids allows for the identification of targetable DNA damage repair defects. Larger numbers of patient-derived organoids must be analyzed to determine whether these assays can reproducibly predict patient response in the clinic. Patient-derived ovarian tumor organoids grow rapidly and match the tumors from which they are derived, both genetically and functionally. These organoids can be used for DNA repair profiling and therapeutic sensitivity testing and provide a rapid means of assessing targetable defects in the parent tumor, offering more suitable treatment options. . 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0474
    Reversion of BRCA1/2 Germline Mutations Detected in Circulating Tumor DNA From Patients With High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer. Christie Elizabeth L,Fereday Sian,Doig Ken,Pattnaik Swetansu,Dawson Sarah-Jane,Bowtell David D L Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose Germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) are associated with favorable responses to chemotherapy. However, secondary intragenic (reversion) mutations that restore protein function lead to clinically significant rates of acquired resistance. The goal of this study was to determine whether reversion mutations could be found in an unbiased manner in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to predict treatment response in HGSC. Patients and Methods Plasma and tumor samples were obtained from 30 patients with HGSC with either BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation. Two cohorts were ascertained: patients with a malignancy before undergoing primary HGSC debulking surgery (n = 14) or patients at disease recurrence (n = 16). Paired tumor and plasma samples were available for most patients (24 of 30). Targeted amplicon, next-generation sequencing was performed using primers that flanked germline mutations, whose design did not rely on prior knowledge of reversion sequences. Results Five patients were identified with intragenic mutations predicted to restore BRCA1/2 open reading frames, including two patients with multiple independent reversion alleles. Reversion mutations were only detected in tumor samples from patients with recurrent disease (five of 16) and only in cfDNA from patients with a tumor-detected reversion (three of five). Findings from a rapid autopsy of a patient with multiple independent reversions indicated that reversion-allele frequency in metastatic sites is an important determinant of assay sensitivity. Abundance of tumor-derived DNA in total cell-free DNA, as measured by TP53 mutant allele frequency, also affected assay sensitivity. All patients with reversions detected in tumor-derived DNA were resistant to platin- or poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor-based chemotherapy. Conclusion Reversion mutations can be detected in an unbiased analysis of cfDNA, suggesting clinical utility for predicting chemotherapy response in recurrent HGSC. 10.1200/JCO.2016.70.4627