Heparanase promotes radiation resistance of cervical cancer by upregulating hypoxia inducible factor 1.
Li Jianping,Meng Xin,Hu Jing,Zhang Ying,Dang Yunzhi,Wei Lichun,Shi Mei
American journal of cancer research
Heparanase (HPSE1) is elevated in various types of cancers including cervical cancer, and correlated with poor prognosis. Current study is to investigate the effects of HPSE1 on radiation response in cervical cancer. Colony formation assays after radiation were performed to compare the radiation response among control, HPSE1 knockdown and HPSE1 overexpression HeLa cells. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF1, bFGF and VEGF were measured as indicators for the activity of HIF1 pathway. Xenograft mouse model were used to study the HPSE1 radiation regulator effects . Microvessel densities (MVD) were measured in xenograft tumor samples. The survival fractions were significantly lower in HPSE1 knockdown cells and higher in HPSE1 overexpression cells compared with control cells. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF1, VEGF and bFGF are decreased in HPSE1 knockdown cells and increased in HPSE1 overexpression cells. HIF1 inhibition eliminated the radiation protection effects by HPSE1 overexpression. Our results demonstrate HPSE1 is an important regulator of radiation response both and . Further studies are warranted to determine the underlie mechanism of how HPSE1 regulate HIF1 activity and the clinical effects of HPSE1 inhibitors in cervical cancer.
Heparan sulfate mimetic PG545-mediated antilymphoma effects require TLR9-dependent NK cell activation.
Brennan Todd V,Lin Liwen,Brandstadter Joshua D,Rendell Victoria R,Dredge Keith,Huang Xiaopei,Yang Yiping
The Journal of clinical investigation
Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell-based antitumor therapies.
Heparan sulfate signaling in cancer.
Knelson Erik H,Nee Jasmine C,Blobe Gerard C
Trends in biochemical sciences
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a biopolymer consisting of variably sulfated repeating disaccharide units. The anticoagulant heparin is a highly sulfated intracellular variant of HS. HS has demonstrated roles in embryonic development, homeostasis, and human disease via non-covalent interactions with numerous cellular proteins, including growth factors and their receptors. HS can function as a co-receptor by enhancing receptor-complex formation. In other contexts, HS disrupts signaling complexes or serves as a ligand sink. The effects of HS on growth factor signaling are tightly regulated by the actions of sulfyltransferases, sulfatases, and heparanases. HS has important emerging roles in oncogenesis, and heparin derivatives represent potential therapeutic strategies for human cancers. Here we review recent insights into HS signaling in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and differentiation. A cancer-specific understanding of HS signaling could uncover potential therapeutic targets in this highly actionable signaling network.
Heparanase promotes tumor infiltration and antitumor activity of CAR-redirected T lymphocytes.
Caruana Ignazio,Savoldo Barbara,Hoyos Valentina,Weber Gerrit,Liu Hao,Kim Eugene S,Ittmann Michael M,Marchetti Dario,Dotti Gianpietro
Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T lymphocytes (CAR-T cells) has had less striking therapeutic effects in solid tumors than in lymphoid malignancies. Although active tumor-mediated immunosuppression may have a role in limiting the efficacy of CAR-T cells, functional changes in T lymphocytes after their ex vivo manipulation may also account for the reduced ability of cultured CAR-T cells to penetrate stroma-rich solid tumors compared with lymphoid tissues. We therefore studied the capacity of human in vitro-cultured CAR-T cells to degrade components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast to freshly isolated T lymphocytes, we found that in vitro-cultured T lymphocytes lack expression of the enzyme heparanase (HPSE), which degrades heparan sulfate proteoglycans, the main components of ECM. We found that HPSE mRNA is downregulated in in vitro-expanded T cells, which may be a consequence of p53 (officially known as TP53, encoding tumor protein 53) binding to the HPSE gene promoter. We therefore engineered CAR-T cells to express HPSE and showed their improved capacity to degrade the ECM, which promoted tumor T cell infiltration and antitumor activity. The use of this strategy may enhance the activity of CAR-T cells in individuals with stroma-rich solid tumors.
Heparanase-enhanced shedding of syndecan-1 by myeloma cells promotes endothelial invasion and angiogenesis.
Purushothaman Anurag,Uyama Toru,Kobayashi Fumi,Yamada Shuhei,Sugahara Kazuyuki,Rapraeger Alan C,Sanderson Ralph D
Heparanase enhances shedding of syndecan-1 (CD138), and high levels of heparanase and shed syndecan-1 in the tumor microenvironment are associated with elevated angiogenesis and poor prognosis in myeloma and other cancers. To explore how the heparanase/syndecan-1 axis regulates angiogenesis, we used myeloma cells expressing either high or low levels of heparanase and examined their impact on endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis. Medium conditioned by heparanase-high cells significantly stimulated endothelial invasion in vitro compared with medium from heparanase-low cells. The stimulatory activity was traced to elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and syndecan-1 in the medium. We discovered that the heparan sulfate chains of syndecan-1 captured VEGF and also attached the syndecan-1/VEGF complex to the extracellular matrix where it then stimulated endothelial invasion. In addition to its heparan sulfate chains, the core protein of syndecan-1 was also required because endothelial invasion was blocked by addition of synstatin, a peptide mimic of the integrin activating region present on the syndecan-1 core protein. These results reveal a novel mechanistic pathway driven by heparanase expression in myeloma cells whereby elevated levels of VEGF and shed syndecan-1 form matrix-anchored complexes that together activate integrin and VEGF receptors on adjacent endothelial cells thereby stimulating tumor angiogenesis.
Heparanase: busy at the cell surface.
Fux Liat,Ilan Neta,Sanderson Ralph D,Vlodavsky Israel
Trends in biochemical sciences
Heparanase activity is strongly implicated in structural remodeling of the extracellular matrix, a process which can lead to invasion by tumor cells. In addition, heparanase augments signaling cascades leading to enhanced phosphorylation of selected protein kinases and increased gene transcription associated with aggressive tumor progression. This function is apparently independent of heparan sulfate and enzyme activity, and is mediated by a novel protein domain localized at the heparanase C-terminus. Moreover, the functional repertoire of heparanase is expanded by its regulation of syndecan clustering, shedding, and mitogen binding. Recent reports indicate that modified glycol-split heparin, which inhibits heparanase activity, can profoundly inhibit the progression of tumor xenografts produced by myeloma and carcinoma cells, thus moving anti-heparanase therapy closer to reality.
Heparanase powers a chronic inflammatory circuit that promotes colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice.
Lerner Immanuel,Hermano Esther,Zcharia Eyal,Rodkin Dina,Bulvik Raanan,Doviner Victoria,Rubinstein Ariel M,Ishai-Michaeli Rivka,Atzmon Ruth,Sherman Yoav,Meirovitz Amichay,Peretz Tamar,Vlodavsky Israel,Elkin Michael
The Journal of clinical investigation
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is closely associated with colon cancer. Expression of the enzyme heparanase is clearly linked to colon carcinoma progression, but its role in UC is unknown. Here we demonstrate for what we believe to be the first time the importance of heparanase in sustaining the immune-epithelial crosstalk underlying colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Using histological specimens from UC patients and a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, we found that heparanase was constantly overexpressed and activated throughout the disease. We demonstrate, using heparanase-overexpressing transgenic mice, that heparanase overexpression markedly increased the incidence and severity of colitis-associated colonic tumors. We found that highly coordinated interactions between the epithelial compartment (contributing heparanase) and mucosal macrophages preserved chronic inflammatory conditions and created a tumor-promoting microenvironment characterized by enhanced NF-κB signaling and induction of STAT3. Our results indicate that heparanase generates a vicious cycle that powers colitis and the associated tumorigenesis: heparanase, acting synergistically with the intestinal flora, stimulates macrophage activation, while macrophages induce production (via TNF-α-dependent mechanisms) and activation (via secretion of cathepsin L) of heparanase contributed by the colon epithelium. Thus, disruption of the heparanase-driven chronic inflammatory circuit is highly relevant to the design of therapeutic interventions in colitis and the associated cancer.
Functional and structural characterization of a heparanase.
Bohlmann Lisa,Tredwell Gregory D,Yu Xing,Chang Chih-Wei,Haselhorst Thomas,Winger Moritz,Dyason Jeffrey C,Thomson Robin J,Tiralongo Joe,Beacham Ifor R,Blanchard Helen,von Itzstein Mark
Nature chemical biology
We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel heparanase (BpHep) from the invasive pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), showing ∼24% sequence identity with human heparanase (hHep). Site-directed mutagenesis studies confirmed the active site resi-dues essential for activity, and we found that BpHep has specificity for heparan sulfate. Finally, we describe the first heparanase X-ray crystal structure, which provides new insight into both substrate recognition and inhibitor design.
NK cell heparanase controls tumor invasion and immune surveillance.
Putz Eva M,Mayfosh Alyce J,Kos Kevin,Barkauskas Deborah S,Nakamura Kyohei,Town Liam,Goodall Katharine J,Yee Dean Y,Poon Ivan Kh,Baschuk Nikola,Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes Fernando,Hulett Mark D,Smyth Mark J
The Journal of clinical investigation
NK cells are highly efficient at preventing cancer metastasis but are infrequently found in the core of primary tumors. Here, have we demonstrated that freshly isolated mouse and human NK cells express low levels of the endo-β-D-glucuronidase heparanase that increase upon NK cell activation. Heparanase deficiency did not affect development, differentiation, or tissue localization of NK cells under steady-state conditions. However, mice lacking heparanase specifically in NK cells (Hpsefl/fl NKp46-iCre mice) were highly tumor prone when challenged with the carcinogen methylcholanthrene (MCA). Hpsefl/fl NKp46-iCre mice were also more susceptible to tumor growth than were their littermate controls when challenged with the established mouse lymphoma cell line RMA-S-RAE-1β, which overexpresses the NK cell group 2D (NKG2D) ligand RAE-1β, or when inoculated with metastatic melanoma, prostate carcinoma, or mammary carcinoma cell lines. NK cell invasion of primary tumors and recruitment to the site of metastasis were strictly dependent on the presence of heparanase. Cytokine and immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy for metastases was compromised when NK cells lacked heparanase. Our data suggest that heparanase plays a critical role in NK cell invasion into tumors and thereby tumor progression and metastases. This should be considered when systemically treating cancer patients with heparanase inhibitors, since the potential adverse effect on NK cell infiltration might limit the antitumor activity of the inhibitors.
Heparanase activates the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX exosome pathway.
Roucourt Bart,Meeussen Sofie,Bao Jie,Zimmermann Pascale,David Guido
Exosomes are secreted vesicles of endosomal origin involved in signaling processes. We recently showed that the syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans control the biogenesis of exosomes through their interaction with syntenin-1 and the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport accessory component ALIX. Here we investigated the role of heparanase, the only mammalian enzyme able to cleave heparan sulfate internally, in the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX exosome biogenesis pathway. We show that heparanase stimulates the exosomal secretion of syntenin-1, syndecan and certain other exosomal cargo, such as CD63, in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, exosomal CD9, CD81 and flotillin-1 are not affected. Conversely, reduction of endogenous heparanase reduces the secretion of syntenin-1-containing exosomes. The ability of heparanase to stimulate exosome production depends on syntenin-1 and ALIX. Syndecans, but not glypicans, support exosome biogenesis in heparanase-exposed cells. Finally, heparanase stimulates intraluminal budding of syndecan and syntenin-1 in endosomes, depending on the syntenin-ALIX interaction. Taken together, our findings identify heparanase as a modulator of the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX pathway, fostering endosomal membrane budding and the biogenesis of exosomes by trimming the heparan sulfate chains on syndecans. In addition, our data suggest that this mechanism controls the selection of specific cargo to exosomes.
Opposing Functions of Heparanase-1 and Heparanase-2 in Cancer Progression.
Vlodavsky Israel,Gross-Cohen Miriam,Weissmann Marina,Ilan Neta,Sanderson Ralph D
Trends in biochemical sciences
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate (HS)-degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Heparanase accomplishes this by degrading HS and thereby regulating the bioavailability of heparin-binding proteins; priming the tumor microenvironment; mediating tumor-host crosstalk; and inducing gene transcription, signaling pathways, exosome formation, and autophagy that together promote tumor cell performance and chemoresistance. By contrast, heparanase-2, a close homolog of heparanase, lacks enzymatic activity, inhibits heparanase activity, and regulates selected genes that promote normal differentiation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, tumor fibrosis, and apoptosis, together resulting in tumor suppression. The emerging premise is that heparanase is a master regulator of the aggressive phenotype of cancer, while heparanase-2 functions as a tumor suppressor.
Heparanase: From basic research to therapeutic applications in cancer and inflammation.
Vlodavsky Israel,Singh Preeti,Boyango Ilanit,Gutter-Kapon Lilach,Elkin Michael,Sanderson Ralph D,Ilan Neta
Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer. Heparanase neutralizing monoclonal antibodies block myeloma and lymphoma tumor growth and dissemination; this is attributable to a combined effect on the tumor cells and/or cells of the tumor microenvironment. In fact, much of the impact of heparanase on tumor progression is related to its function in mediating tumor-host crosstalk, priming the tumor microenvironment to better support tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance. The repertoire of the physio-pathological activities of heparanase is expanding. Specifically, heparanase regulates gene expression, activates cells of the innate immune system, promotes the formation of exosomes and autophagosomes, and stimulates signal transduction pathways via enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities. These effects dynamically impact multiple regulatory pathways that together drive inflammatory responses, tumor survival, growth, dissemination and drug resistance; but in the same time, may fulfill some normal functions associated, for example, with vesicular traffic, lysosomal-based secretion, stress response, and heparan sulfate turnover. Heparanase is upregulated in response to chemotherapy in cancer patients and the surviving cells acquire chemoresistance, attributed, at least in part, to autophagy. Consequently, heparanase inhibitors used in tandem with chemotherapeutic drugs overcome initial chemoresistance, providing a strong rationale for applying anti-heparanase therapy in combination with conventional anti-cancer drugs. Heparin-like compounds that inhibit heparanase activity are being evaluated in clinical trials for various types of cancer. Heparanase neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are being evaluated in pre-clinical studies, and heparanase-inhibiting small molecules are being developed based on the recently resolved crystal structure of the heparanase protein. Collectively, the emerging premise is that heparanase expressed by tumor cells, innate immune cells, activated endothelial cells as well as other cells of the tumor microenvironment is a master regulator of the aggressive phenotype of cancer, an important contributor to the poor outcome of cancer patients and a prime target for therapy.
Role of heparanase in tumor progression: Molecular aspects and therapeutic options.
Masola Valentina,Zaza Gianluigi,Gambaro Giovanni,Franchi Marco,Onisto Maurizio
Seminars in cancer biology
Heparanase (HPSE) is an endoglycosidase that catalyses the cutting of the side chains of heparan-sulphate proteoglycans (HS), thus determining the remodelling of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, as well as promoting the release of different HS-related molecules as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. Ever since the HPSE was identified in the late 1980s, several experimental studies have shown that its overexpression was instrumental in increasing tumor growth, metastatic dissemination, angiogenesis and inflammation. More recently, HPSE involvment has also been demonstrated in mediating tumor-host crosstalk, in inducing gene transcription, in the activation of signaling pathways and in the formation of exosomes and in autophagy. All of these activities (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) together make heparanase a multifunctional molecule that increases the aggressiveness and chemo-resistance of tumor cells. Conversely, heparanase gene-silencing or tumor treatment with compounds that inhibit heparanase activity have been shown to significantly attenuate tumor progression in different animal models of tumorigenesis, further emphasizing the therapeutic potential of anti-heparanase therapy for several types of neoplasms. This review focuses on present knowledge and recent development in the study of heparanase in cancer progression as well as on novel mechanisms by which heparanase regulates tumor metastasis and chemo-resistance. Moreover, recent advances in strategies for its inhibition as a potential therapeutic option will be discussed.
Inhibition of Heparanase Expression Results in Suppression of Invasion, Migration and Adhesion Abilities of Bladder Cancer Cells.
Tatsumi Yoshihiro,Miyake Makito,Shimada Keiji,Fujii Tomomi,Hori Shunta,Morizawa Yosuke,Nakai Yasushi,Anai Satoshi,Tanaka Nobumichi,Konishi Noboru,Fujimoto Kiyohide
International journal of molecular sciences
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1, CD138, is known to be associated with cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration in malignancies. We previously reported that syndecan-1 (CD138) may contribute to urothelial carcinoma cell survival and progression. We investigated the role of heparanase, an enzyme activated by syndecan-1 in human urothelial carcinoma. Using human urothelial cancer cell lines, MGH-U3 and T24, heparanase expression was reduced with siRNA and RK-682, a heparanase inhibitor, to examine changes in cell proliferation activity, induction of apoptosis, invasion ability of cells, and its relationship to autophagy. A bladder cancer development mouse model was treated with RK-682 and the bladder tissues were examined using immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, E-cadherin, LC3, and CD31 expressions. Heparanase inhibition suppressed cellular growth by approximately 40% and induced apoptosis. The heparanase inhibitor decreased cell activity in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed invasion ability by 40%. Inhibition of heparanase was found to suppress autophagy. In N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer mice, treatment with heparanase inhibitor suppressed the progression of cancer by 40%, compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that heparanase inhibitor suppressed cell growth, and autophagy. In conclusion, heparanase suppresses apoptosis and promotes invasion and autophagy in urothelial cancer.
Syndecan-1-Dependent Regulation of Heparanase Affects Invasiveness, Stem Cell Properties, and Therapeutic Resistance of Caco2 Colon Cancer Cells.
Katakam Sampath Kumar,Pelucchi Paride,Cocola Cinzia,Reinbold Rolland,Vlodavsky Israel,Greve Burkhard,Götte Martin
Frontiers in oncology
The heparan sulfate proteoglycan Syndecan-1 binds cytokines, morphogens and extracellular matrix components, regulating cancer stem cell properties and invasiveness. Syndecan-1 is modulated by the heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme heparanase, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are only poorly understood. In colon cancer pathogenesis, complex changes occur in the expression pattern of Syndecan-1 and heparanase during progression from well-differentiated to undifferentiated tumors. Loss of Syndecan-1 and increased expression of heparanase are associated with a change in phenotypic plasticity and an increase in invasiveness, metastasis and dedifferentiation. Here we investigated the regulatory and functional interplay of Syndecan-1 and heparanase employing siRNA-mediated silencing and plasmid-based overexpression approaches in the human colon cancer cell line Caco2. Heparanase expression and activity were upregulated in Syndecan-1 depleted cells. This increase was linked to an upregulation of the transcription factor Egr1, which regulates heparanase at the promoter level. Inhibitor experiments demonstrated an impact of focal adhesion kinase, Wnt and ROCK-dependent signaling on this process. siRNA-depletion of Syndecan-1, and upregulation of heparanase increased the colon cancer stem cell phenotype based on sphere formation assays and phenotypic marker analysis (Side-population, NANOG, KLF4, NOTCH, Wnt, and TCF4 expression). Syndecan-1 depletion increased invasiveness of Caco2 cells in a heparanase-dependent manner. Finally, upregulated expression of heparanase resulted in increased resistance to radiotherapy, whereas high expression of enzymatically inactive heparanase promoted chemoresistance to paclitaxel and cisplatin. Our findings provide a new avenue to target a stemness-associated signaling axis as a therapeutic strategy to reduce metastatic spread and cancer recurrence.
Significance of host heparanase in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.
Zhang Gan-Lin,Gutter-Kapon Lilach,Ilan Neta,Batool Tahira,Singh Kailash,Digre Andreas,Luo Zhengkang,Sandler Stellan,Shaked Yuval,Sanderson Ralph D,Wang Xiao-Min,Li Jin-Ping,Vlodavsky Israel
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Much of the impact of heparanase on tumor progression is related to its function in mediating tumor-host crosstalk, priming the tumor microenvironment to better support tumor growth and metastasis. We have utilized mice over-expressing (Hpa-tg) heparanase to reveal the role of host heparanase in tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. While in wild type mice tumor development in response to DMBA carcinogenesis was restricted to the mammary gland, Hpa-tg mice developed tumors also in their lungs and liver, associating with reduced survival of the tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, xenograft tumors (lymphoma, melanoma, lung carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma) transplanted in Hpa-tg mice exhibited accelerated tumor growth and shorter survival of the tumor-bearing mice compared with wild type mice. Hpa-tg mice were also more prone to the development of metastases following intravenous or subcutaneous injection of tumor cells. In some models, the growth advantage was associated with infiltration of heparanase-high host cells into the tumors. However, in other models, heparanase-high host cells were not detected in the primary tumor, implying that the growth advantage in Hpa-tg mice is due to systemic factors. Indeed, we found that plasma from Hpa-tg mice enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion attributed to increased levels of pro-tumorigenic factors (i.e., RANKL, SPARC, MIP-2) in the plasma of Hpa-Tg vs. wild type mice. Furthermore, tumor aggressiveness and short survival time were demonstrated in wild type mice transplanted with bone marrow derived from Hpa-tg but not wild type mice. These results were attributed, among other factors, to upregulation of pro-tumorigenic (i.e., IL35) and downregulation of anti-tumorigenic (i.e., IFN-γ) T-cell subpopulations in the spleen, lymph nodes and blood of Hpa-tg vs. wild type mice and their increased infiltration into the primary tumor. Collectively, our results emphasize the significance of host heparanase in mediating the pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic interactions between the tumor cells and the host tumor microenvironment, immune cells and systemic factors.
Heparanase promotes myeloma stemness and in vivo tumorigenesis.
Tripathi Kaushlendra,Ramani Vishnu C,Bandari Shyam K,Amin Rada,Brown Elizabeth E,Ritchie Joseph P,Stewart Mark D,Sanderson Ralph D
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Heparanase is known to enhance the progression of many cancer types and is associated with poor patient prognosis. We recently reported that after patients with multiple myeloma were treated with high dose chemotherapy, the tumor cells that emerged upon relapse expressed a much higher level of heparanase than was present prior to therapy. Because tumor cells having stemness properties are thought to seed tumor relapse, we investigated whether heparanase had a role in promoting myeloma stemness. When plated at low density and grown in serum-free conditions that support survival and expansion of stem-like cells, myeloma cells expressing a low level of heparanase formed tumor spheroids poorly. In contrast, cells expressing a high level of heparanase formed significantly more and larger spheroids than did the heparanase low cells. Importantly, heparanase-low expressing cells exhibited plasticity and were induced to exhibit stemness properties when exposed to recombinant heparanase or to exosomes that contained a high level of heparanase cargo. The spheroid-forming heparanase-high cells had elevated expression of GLI1, SOX2 and ALDH1A1, three genes known to be associated with myeloma stemness. Inhibitors that block the heparan sulfate degrading activity of heparanase significantly diminished spheroid formation and expression of stemness genes implying a direct role of the enzyme in regulating stemness. Blocking the NF-κB pathway inhibited spheroid formation and expression of stemness genes demonstrating a role for NF-κB in heparanase-mediated stemness. Myeloma cells made deficient in heparanase exhibited decreased stemness properties in vitro and when injected into mice they formed tumors poorly compared to the robust tumorigenic capacity of cells expressing higher levels of heparanase. These studies reveal for the first time a role for heparanase in promoting cancer stemness and provide new insight into its function in driving tumor progression and its association with poor prognosis in cancer patients.
CTC clusters induced by heparanase enhance breast cancer metastasis.
Wei Rong-Rui,Sun Dan-Ni,Yang Hong,Yan Juan,Zhang Xiong,Zheng Xing-Ling,Fu Xu-Hong,Geng Mei-Yu,Huang Xun,Ding Jian
Acta pharmacologica Sinica
Aggregated metastatic cancer cells, referred to as circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters, are present in the blood of cancer patients and contribute to cancer metastasis. However, the origin of CTC clusters, especially intravascular aggregates, remains unknown. Here, we employ suspension culture methods to mimic CTC cluster formation in the circulation of breast cancer patients. CTC clusters generated using these methods exhibited an increased metastatic potential that was defined by the overexpression of heparanase (HPSE). Heparanase induced FAK- and ICAM-1-dependent cell adhesion, which promoted intravascular cell aggregation. Moreover, knockdown of heparanase or inhibition of its activity with JG6, a heparanase inhibitor, was sufficient to block the formation of cell clusters and suppress breast cancer metastasis. Our data reveal that heparanase-mediated cell adhesion is critical for metastasis mediated by intravascular CTC clusters. We also suggest that targeting the function of heparanase in cancer cell dissemination might limit metastatic progression.
Heparanase Accelerates Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer Progression.
Hermano Esther,Goldberg Rachel,Rubinstein Ariel M,Sonnenblick Amir,Maly Bella,Nahmias Daniela,Li Jin-Ping,Bakker Marinka A H,van der Vlag Johan,Vlodavsky Israel,Peretz Tamar,Elkin Michael
Obese women have higher risk of bearing breast tumors that are highly aggressive and resistant to therapies. Tumor-promoting effects of obesity occur locally via adipose inflammation and related alterations to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as systemically via circulating metabolic mediators (e.g., free fatty acids, FFA) associated with excess adiposity and implicated in toll-like receptor-mediated activation of macrophages-key cellular players in obesity-related cancer progression. Although the contribution of macrophages to proneoplastic effects of obesity is well documented, the role of ECM components and their enzymatic degradation is less appreciated. We show that heparanase, the sole mammalian endoglucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate in ECM, is preferentially expressed in clinical/experimental obesity-associated breast tumors. Heparanase deficiency abolished obesity-accelerated tumor progression . Heparanase orchestrated a complex molecular program that occurred concurrently in adipose and tumor tissue and sustained the cancer-promoting action of obesity. Heparanase was required for adipose tissue macrophages to produce inflammatory mediators responsible for local induction of aromatase, a rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. Estrogen upregulated heparanase in hormone-responsive breast tumors. In subsequent stages, elevated levels of heparanase induced acquisition of procancerous phenotype by tumor-associated macrophages, resulting in activation of tumor-promoting signaling and acceleration of breast tumor growth under obese conditions. As techniques to screen for heparanase expression in tumors become available, these findings provide rational and a mechanistic basis for designing antiheparanase approaches to uncouple obesity and breast cancer in a rapidly growing population of obese patients. SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals the role of heparanase in promoting obesity-associated breast cancer and provides a mechanistically informed approach to uncouple obesity and breast cancer in a rapidly growing population of obese patients.
Heparanase and Chemotherapy Synergize to Drive Macrophage Activation and Enhance Tumor Growth.
Bhattacharya Udayan,Gutter-Kapon Lilach,Kan Tal,Boyango Ilanit,Barash Uri,Yang Shi-Ming,Liu JingJing,Gross-Cohen Miriam,Sanderson Ralph D,Shaked Yuval,Ilan Neta,Vlodavsky Israel
The emerging role of heparanase in tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance is well recognized, encouraging the development of heparanase inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Unlike the function of heparanase in cancer cells, little attention has been given to heparanase contributed by cells composing the tumor microenvironment. Here, we focused on the cross-talk between macrophages, chemotherapy, and heparanase and the combined effect on tumor progression. Macrophages were markedly activated by chemotherapeutics paclitaxel and cisplatin, evidenced by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, supporting recent studies indicating that chemotherapy may promote rather than suppress tumor regrowth and spread. Strikingly, cytokine induction by chemotherapy was not observed in macrophages isolated from heparanase-knockout mice, suggesting macrophage activation by chemotherapy is heparanase dependent. paclitaxel-treated macrophages enhanced the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma tumors that was attenuated by a CXCR2 inhibitor. Mechanistically, paclitaxel and cisplatin activated methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4) in wild-type but not in heparanase-knockout macrophages. Furthermore, the H3K4 presenter WDR5 functioned as a molecular determinant that mediated cytokine induction by paclitaxel. This epigenetic, heparanase-dependent host-response mechanism adds a new perspective to the tumor-promoting functions of chemotherapy, and offers new treatment modalities to optimize chemotherapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE: Chemotherapy-treated macrophages are activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines, which are blunted in the absence of heparanase.
The heparanase inhibitor PG545 is a potent anti-lymphoma drug: Mode of action.
Weissmann Marina,Bhattacharya Udayan,Feld Sari,Hammond Edward,Ilan Neta,Vlodavsky Israel
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
It is now well recognized that heparanase, an endo-β-D-glucuronidase capable of cleaving heparan sulfate (HS) side chains at a limited number of sites, promotes tumorigenesis by diverse mechanisms. Compelling evidence strongly implies that heparanase is a viable target for cancer therapy, thus encouraging the development of heparanase inhibitors as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we examined the efficacy and mode of action of PG545, an HS-mimetic heparanase inhibitor, in human lymphoma. We found that PG545 exhibits a strong anti-lymphoma effect, eliciting lymphoma cell apoptosis. Notably, this anti-lymphoma effect involves ER stress response that was accompanied by increased autophagy. The persistent ER stress evoked by PG545 is held responsible for cell apoptosis because apoptotic cell death was attenuated by an inhibitor of PERK, a molecular effector of ER stress. Importantly, PG545 had no such apoptotic effect on naïve splenocytes, further encouraging the development of this compound as anti-lymphoma drug. Surprisingly, we found that PG545 also elicits apoptosis in lymphoma cells that are devoid of heparanase activity (i.e., Raji), indicating that the drug also exerts heparanase-independent function(s) that together underlie the high potency of PG545 in preclinical cancer models.
Heparanase protects the heart against chemical or ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Wang Fulong,Pulinilkunnil Thomas,Flibotte Stephane,Nislow Corey,Vlodavsky Israel,Hussein Bahira,Rodrigues Brian
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
Although cancer cells use heparanase for tumor metastasis, favourable effects of heparanase have been reported in the management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. Indeed, we previously established a protective function for heparanase in the acutely diabetic heart, where it conferred cardiomyocyte resistance to oxidative stress and apoptosis by provoking changes in gene expression. In this study, we tested if overexpression of heparanase can protect the heart against chemically induced or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Transcriptomic analysis of Hep-tg hearts reveal that 240 genes related to the stress response, immune response, cell death, and development were altered in a pro-survival direction encompassing genes promoting the unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, as well as those protecting against oxidative stress. The observed UPR activation was adaptive and not apoptotic, was mediated by activation of ATF6α, and when combined with mTOR inhibition, induced autophagy. Subjecting wild type (WT) mice to increasing concentrations of the ER stress inducer thapsigargin evoked a transition from adaptive to apoptotic UPR, an effect that was attenuated in Hep-tg mouse hearts. Consistent with these observations, when exposed to I/R, the infarct size and markers of apoptosis were significantly lower in the Hep-tg heart compared to WT. Finally, UPR and autophagy inhibitors reduced the protective effects of heparanase overexpression during I/R. Our data suggest that the mechanisms that underlie the role of heparanase in promoting cell survival could be uniquely beneficial to the heart by providing protection against cellular stresses, and could be useful for exploitation as a therapeutic target for the treatment of heart disease.