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    LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting. Terpinc Petra,Cigić Blaž,Polak Tomaž,Hribar Janez,Požrl Tomaž Food chemistry The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.030
    Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of standard ethanol extract of Bombax ceiba leaves in high-fat-diet- and streptozotocin-induced Type 2 diabetic rats. Xu Guang-Kai,Qin Xiao-Ying,Wang Guo-Kai,Xie Guo-Yong,Li Xu-Sen,Sun Chen-Yu,Liu Bao-Lin,Qin Min-Jian Chinese journal of natural medicines The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of standard extract of Bombax ceiba L. leaves (BCE) in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Oral administration of BCE at doses of 70, 140, and 280 mg·kg, to the normal rats and the high-fat-diet- and streptozotocin-induced T2DM rats were carried out. Effects of BCE on blood glucose, body weight, and a range of serum biochemical parameters were tested, and histopathological observation of pancreatic tissues was also performed. HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS/MS analysis indicated that the chemical composition of BCE mainly contained mangiferin, isoorientin, vitexin, isomangiferin, isovitexin, quercetin hexoside, 2'-trans-O-cumaroyl mangiferin, and nigricanside. BCE caused a significant decrease in the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, serum insulin, and malondialdehyde, and increases in oral glucose tolerance, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase in the T2DM model rats. Moreover, considerable pancreatic β-cells protection effect and stimulation of insulin secretion from the remaining pancreatic β-cells could be observed after BCE treatment. The results indicated that BCE exhibited an excellent hypoglycemic activity, and alleviated dyslipidemia which is associated with T2DM. Antioxidant activity and protecting pancreatic β-cells are the possible mechanisms involved in anti-diabetic activity of BCE. 10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30033-X
    Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages. Nam Tae Gyu,Lim Tae-Gyu,Lee Bong Han,Lim Sol,Kang Hee,Eom Seok Hyun,Yoo Miyoung,Jang Hae Won,Kim Dae-Ok Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS) and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be -glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin), quercetin-3--robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders. 10.1155/2017/9658030
    Effects of light sources on major flavonoids and antioxidant activity in common buckwheat sprouts. Nam Tae Gyu,Kim Dae-Ok,Eom Seok Hyun Food science and biotechnology It is known that flavonoids in sprouts were accumulated more under light irradiation than under dark. Light source affecting flavonoid accumulation in sprouts is still investigating. We evaluated the effects of light sources, including red, blue and fluorescent lights, on the flavonoid accumulation and antioxidant activity in common buckwheat sprouts. Experimental results showed that blue light significantly enhanced the contents of -glycosylflavones, including orientin, vitexin and their isomers, and rutin and a rutin isomer. Sprouts grown under blue light exhibit also the highest total phenolics and total flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activities. It was found that isoorientin is the highest antioxidant flavonoid whereas numerous former studies suggested that rutin is a typical antioxidant compound in common buckwheat. These results indicated that blue light could be applied for enhancing not only the content of flavonoids but also antioxidant activity in common buckwheat sprouts. 10.1007/s10068-017-0204-1
    Rhealba® oat plantlet extract: evidence of protein-free content and assessment of regulatory activity on immune inflammatory mediators. Mandeau Anne,Aries Marie-Françoise,Boé Jean-François,Brenk Manuela,Crebassa-Trigueros Véronique,Vaissière Clémence,Teysseyre Valérie,Bieber Thomas Planta medica Owing to their high content of flavonoids and saponins, plantlets of Avena sativa L. (Poaceae) are likely to possess anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties of value in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). With a view to its potential use in atopic subjects at risk of developing sensitisation to dietary proteins, we prepared a plantlet extract without proteins and isolated 2 flavonoids, isoorientin-2''- O-arabinoside (1) and isovitexin-2''- O-arabinoside (2), and two saponins, avenacosides A (3) and B (4). The absence of protein in this extract was evidenced by electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. Furthermore, Western immunoblotting demonstrated the absence of cross-reaction between grain and plantlet proteins. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the plantlet extract and its compounds IN VITRO in a model of keratinocyte inflammation: 6-keto prostaglandin F1 α production was inhibited by the plantlet extract (- 35 % and - 57 % at 10 and 30 µg/mL, respectively; p < 0.001) and isoorientin-2''- O-arabinoside (- 31 %, - 51 %, and - 56 % at 3, 10, and 30 µg/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). Intracellular interleukin-2 production in activated T lymphocytes was also inhibited by 16 %, 27 %, and 31 % with 3, 10, and 30 µg/mL plantlet extract, respectively, and by 23 % and 32 % with 3 and 10 µg/mL avenacoside A, respectively, (p < 0.001), demonstrating their immunoregulatory activity IN VITRO. The plantlet extract was also effective on the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DC) differentiated from monocytes. It decreased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on DC and significantly impaired their stimulatory activity on autologous T-cell proliferation (-25 %, p < 0.05). In conclusion, this protein-free oat plantlet extract exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities in vitro. 10.1055/s-0030-1250649
    Apoptosis Caused by Triterpenes and Phytosterols and Antioxidant Activity of an Enriched Flavonoid Extract from Passiflora mucronata. da Silva Isabel C V,Kaluđerović Goran N,de Oliveira Pollyana F,Guimarães Denise O,Quaresma Carla H,Porzel Andrea,Muzitano Michelle F,Wessjohann Ludger A,Leal Ivana C R Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry BACKGROUND:P. mucronata (Pm) comes from South America, Brazil and is characterized as "Maracujá de Restinga". It is used in folk medicine for its soothing properties and in treating insomnia. OBJECTIVE:The present study for the first time analyzed the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract and fractions from Pm. METHOD:The cytotoxicity test will be evaluated by different assays (MTT and CV) against human prostate cancer (PC3) and mouse malignant melanoma (B16F10) cell lines, and the antioxidant test by DPPH method. RESULTS:β-Amyrin, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated of the most active, hexane fraction. These substances were tested against the tumor cell lines: β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed the most relevant activity to PC3 in CV assay and, oleanolic acid to B16F10 by the MTT assay. In addition, it was possible to indicate that the mode of cell death for stigmasterol, presumably is apoptosis. In terms of antioxidant activity, the hydroalcoholic leaves extract presented higher activity (EC50 133.3 µg/mL) compared to the flower (EC50 152.3 µg/mL) and fruit (EC50 207.9 µg/mL) extracts. By the HPLC-MS, it was possible to identify the presence of flavones in the leaf extract (isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isovitexin, vitexin, isoorientin, orientin). CONCLUSIONS:P. mucronata hexane fraction showed promising cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines, and stigmasterol contributes to this activity, inducing apoptosis of these cells. Furthermore, as other Passiflora species, Pm extract showed antioxidant activity and flavones are its major phenolic compounds. 10.2174/1871520618666180315090949
    New flavonol glycoside from Scabiosa prolifera L. aerial parts with in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Al-Qudah Mahmoud A,Otoom Noor K,Al-Jaber Hala I,Saleh Ayman M,Abu Zarga Musa H,Afifi Fatma U,Abu Orabi Sultan T Natural product research Phytochemical investigation of the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Scabiosa prolifera L. led to the isolation of one new flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-(4″,6″-di-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), along with ten other known compounds including luteolin-7-O-(2″-O-ethyl-β-glucopyranoside), β-sitosterol, β-sitosterylglucoside, ursolic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid 3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, apigenin, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside and isoorientin. The structures of all isolated compounds were established using chemical methods and spectroscopic methods including IR, UV, NMR (1D and 2D) and HRESIMS. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated. 10.1080/14786419.2017.1305377
    H/K-ATPase Inhibition, Antiradical Effects of a Flavonoid-rich Fraction of , and PASS Prediction of its Isolated Compounds. Adinortey Michael Buenor,Ansah Charles,Adinortey Cynthia Ayefoumi,McGiboney Justine,Nyarko Alexander Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine BACKGROUND:, commonly referred to as pink lady, has several medicinal uses including peptic ulcer. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of extract on H/K-ATPase and also assessed its antiradical activity. study of some isolated compounds of this plant was also carried out to affirm the suspected binding properties of extract to H/K-ATPase enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: whole plant extract was obtained after extraction process and then assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals in four test models. Its ability to inhibit the activity of H/K-ATPase enzyme was also evaluated. Molecular docking was carried out on phytoconstituents, namely, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin reported to be present in the whole plant extract. RESULTS:Data obtained indicated that extract (DRE) exhibits strong antioxidant activity. DRE also showed inhibitory effects on H/K-ATPase enzyme activity. Docking studies affirmed the binding effect of the extract to H/K-ATPase. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the plant extract possess antioxidant and antipeptic ulcer activity. 10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM_104_17
    L. Phenolic Content Clarifies Its Antioxidant Activity. Rahmouni Naima,Pinto Diana C G A,Beghidja Noureddine,Benayache Samir,Silva Artur M S Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) The phenolic profile of L., a species used in Moroccan traditional medicine, is disclosed. To obtain that profile the species extract was analyzed by ultra-high-performance chromatography coupled to photodiode-array detection and electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). Twenty-five phenolic compounds were identified from which isoorientin and 4--caffeoylquinic acid can be highlighted because they are the major ones. The antioxidant activity was significantly controlled by the fraction type, with the -butanol fraction showing the highest antioxidant activity (FRS = 64.46 µg/mL in the DPPH assay, FRS = 27.87 µg/mL in the ABTS assay and EC = 161.11 µg/mL in the reducing power assay). A phytochemical study of the -butanol fraction was performed, and some important flavone glycosides were isolated. Among them the tamarixetin derivatives-the less common ones-can be emphasized. This phytochemical study and polyphenolic profile can be correlated with extracts in vitro antioxidant activity. Moreover, it can be regarded as an evidence of its medicinal use and can incentivize its consumption. 10.3390/molecules23061285
    Phenolics and antioxidant activity of bamboo leaves soup as affected by in vitro digestion. Ma Yilong,Yang Yang,Gao Jie,Feng Jun,Shang Yafang,Wei Zhaojun Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Bamboo leaves soups were subjected to in vitro digestion (including separated oral, gastric and small intestinal digestions, and complete digestion containing above three stages), and their phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined. Compared to control groups, total phenolic content (TPC) in treated groups (including undigested and digested groups) increased at gastric digestion stage but decreased at other digestion stages, and the decrease in small intestinal digestion stage (19.97%) was nearly the same with that in complete digestion stage (19.39%). The antioxidant activity in digested groups almost changed accordingly to their TPC but with no significant difference (p > 0.05) as compared with undigested groups; similar results were found in four main individual phenolics including cryptochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and isoorientin, and their contents were negatively correlated to the pH value of digestion buffers (-0.68 < r < -0.80, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the change of phenolic content and antioxidant activity in digested bamboo leaves soups mainly resulted from the pH of digestion buffers rather than digestive enzymes. In addition, the decrease of phenolics may mainly occur at small intestinal digestion stage where the pH value is the highest in the digestive system. 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110941
    Antiviral activity of ethanol extract of Lophatherum gracile against respiratory syncytial virus infection. Chen Li-Feng,Zhong Yuan-Lin,Luo Ding,Liu Zhong,Tang Wei,Cheng Wen,Xiong Si,Li Yao-Lan,Li Man-Mei Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Lophatherum gracile, an important medicinal plant, is used traditionally in the treatment of cough associated with lung heat and inflammation. In this study, an ethanol extract of L. gracile (DZY) was shown to inhibit respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and RSV-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide a strong and powerful support for the traditional use of L. gracile in the treatment of RSV-related diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY:To determine the anti-RSV activities of DZY and its ingredients, and explore the relationship between RSV infection and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:DZY was extracted from L. gracile and its major ingredients were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RSV-infected HEp-2 and RAW264.7 cell models were established to assess the inhibitory effect of DZY on RSV replication and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro. Three-week-old BALB/c mice challenged intranasally with RSV were used to establish RSV-infected animal mode. The mice were respectively administered DZY at high-, middle-, and low-dose in different groups. The anti-RSV activity of DZY was evaluated by detecting viral load, lung lesion, CD4 and CD8 T cell population, and interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ expression in the lung tissue. RESULTS:In HEp-2 cell line, DZY effectively inhibited RSV infection in a dose-dependent manner with IC values of 20 μg/mL against RSV (Long strain) and IC values of 25 μg/mL against RSV (A2 strain). The anti-RSV activity of DZY was mainly determined by isoorientin, swertiajaponin, 3, 5-di-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3, 4-di-caffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, DZY suppressed NO production induced by RSV in vitro. In vivo, oral administration of DZY significantly reduced the viral load and ameliorated lesions in the lung tissue. A probable antiviral mechanism was mediated by slightly improving the ratio of CD4/CD8 T cells and inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSIONS:(1) DZY exhibits anti-RSV activities both in vitro and in vivo. (2) RSV infection can trigger a series of inflammatory reactions; thus, ameliorating inflammation is helpful to control the course of disease caused by RSV. These findings provide the rationale and scientific evidence behind the extensive use of L. gracile in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases potentially caused by RSV. 10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.036
    Model development for predicting in vitro bio-capacity of green rooibos extract based on composition for application as screening tool in quality control. Viraragavan Amsha,Hlengwa Nokulunga,de Beer Dalene,Riedel Sylvia,Miller Neil,Bowles Sandra,Walczak Beata,Muller Christo,Joubert Elizabeth Food & function Mounting evidence of the ability of aspalathin to target underlying metabolic dysfunction relevant to the development or progression of obesity and type 2 diabetes created a market for green rooibos extract as a functional food ingredient. Aspalathin is the obvious choice as a chemical marker for extract standardisation and quality control, however, often the concentration of a single constituent of a complex mixture such as a plant extract is not directly related to its bio-capacity, i.e. the level of in vitro bioactivity effected in a cell system at a fixed concentration. Three solvents (hot water and two EtOH-water mixtures), previously shown to produce bioactive green rooibos extracts, were selected for extraction of different batches of rooibos plant material (n = 10). Bio-capacity of the extracts, tested at 10 μg ml, was evaluated in terms of glucose uptake by C2C12 and C3A cells and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The different solvents and inter-batch plant variation delivered extracts ranging in aspalathin content from 54.1 to 213.8 g kg. The extracts were further characterised in terms of other major flavonoids (n = 10) and an enolic phenylpyruvic acid glucoside, using HPLC-DAD. The 80% EtOH-water extracts, with the highest mean aspalathin content (170.9 g kg), had the highest mean bio-capacity in the respective assays. Despite this, no significant (P≥ 0.05) correlation existed between aspalathin content and bio-capacity, while the orientin, isoorientin and vitexin content correlated moderately (r≥ 0.487; P < 0.05) with increased glucose uptake by C2C12 cells. Various multivariate analysis methods were then applied with Evolution Program-Partial Least Squares (EP-PLS) resulting in models with the best predictive power. These EP-PLS models, based on all quantified compounds, predicted the bio-capacity of the extracts for the respective cell types with RMSECV values ≤ 11.5, confirming that a complement of compounds, and not aspalathin content alone, is needed to predict the in vitro bio-capacity of green rooibos extracts. Additionally, the composition of hot water infusions of different production batches of green rooibos (n = 29) at 'cup-of-tea' equivalence was determined to relate dietary supplementation with the extract to intake in the form of herbal tea. 10.1039/c9fo02480h
    Pathway-specific enzymes from bamboo and crop leaves biosynthesize anti-nociceptive C-glycosylated flavones. Sun Yuwei,Chen Zhuo,Yang Jingya,Mutanda Ishmael,Li Shiyi,Zhang Qian,Zhang Ying,Zhang Yulian,Wang Yong Communications biology C-glycosylated flavones (CGFs) are promising candidates as anti-nociceptive compounds. The leaves of bamboo and related crops in the grass family are a largely unexploited bioresource with a wide array of CGFs. We report here pathway-specific enzymes including C-glycosyltransferases (CGTs) and P450 hydroxylases from cereal crops and bamboo species accumulating abundant CGFs. Mining of CGTs and engineering of P450s that decorate the flavonoid skeleton allowed the production of desired CGFs (with yield of 20-40 mg/L) in an Escherichia coli cell factory. We further explored the antinociceptive activity of major CGFs in mice models and identified isoorientin as the most potent, with both neuroanalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects superior to clinical drugs such as rotundine and aspirin. Our discovery of the pain-alleviating flavonoids elicited from bamboo and crop leaves establishes this previously underutilized source, and sheds light on the pathway and pharmacological mechanisms of the compounds. 10.1038/s42003-020-0834-3
    Influence of fermentation on antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties of maifanite mineral water-cultured common buckwheat sprouts. Chen Tiejun,Piao Meizi,Ehsanur Rahman Syed Md,Zhang Lehong,Deng Yang Food chemistry Buckwheat sprouts (BS) becomes popular due to its' health-promoting properties as food product. The effects of fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum on antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities as well as functional composition in common BS cultivated in maifanite mineral water were investigated here. DPPH and ·OH results showed higher antioxidant potential in fermented BS compared to unfermented BS, due to the higher rutin, orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The S. cerevisiae-fermented BS also exhibited 113% and 110% higher DPPH and ·OH scavenging activities than the L. plantarum-fermented BS, respectively. In hyperlipidemic mice, blood lipid parameters were improved as dose-dependent manner when supplemented the food with S. cerevisiae-fermented BS. Fermented BS also restored liver antioxidant levels significantly. The fermented BS had greater effect on different parameters than those of unfermented BS. Therefore, fermentation is a valuable method to enhance the bioactive potential of BS. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126741
    Extracts and Flavonoids of Passiflora Species as Promising Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Substances. Ożarowski Marcin,Karpiński Tomasz M Current pharmaceutical design There is increasing interest in evaluating anti-inflammatory activities of plant substances such as extracts and flavonoid rich fractions. A promising source of new medicinal drugs may be species from the Passifloraceae family. The most interesting group of principal chemical substances in Passiflora species are polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, apigenin, luteolin, chrysin, and C-glycosylflavones i.e., vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin), due to their antioxidant activity demonstrated in various studies. However, each extract from Passiflora spp. as multi-component mixtures should be estimated for chemical composition (in the standardization process) and its activity using in vitro and in vivo tests. The current standard for drug discovery and development from plants indicates that only collective assessment allows estimating plant substances by definition of the origin of raw materials and their quality, methods of extractions, and metabolite profiles. Increasingly, due to complex phytochemical procedures to obtain extracts, individual flavonoid compounds are also tested for anti-inflammatory action. However, it should be emphasized that various sources of potential new drugs from plant origin are not mutually exclusive, but are complementary. A review of bibliographic data includes the following information about Passiflora species, such as distribution, classification, phytochemical compounds, the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids, and antioxidant potential. The review concluded that extracts and flavonoids (mainly quercetin, apigenin, and vitexin) from Passiflora spp. can be a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative medications for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, which occur with complex inflammatory processes. 10.2174/1381612826666200526150113
    Cecropia pachystachya: a species with expressive in vivo topical anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant effects. Pacheco Natália Ramos,Pinto Nícolas de Castro Campos,da Silva Josiane Mello,Mendes Renata de Freitas,da Costa Juliana de Carvalho,Aragão Danielle Maria de Oliveira,Castañon Maria Christina Marques Nogueira,Scio Elita BioMed research international Cecropia pachystachya is a species traditionally used in Brazil to treat inflammation. This work aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. pachystachya (CPM) and to perform its chemical fingerprint by HPLC-DAD. The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the mouse models of acute ear inflammation induced by croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, EPP, phenol, and chronic inflammation induced by multiple application of croton oil. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPM was investigated using DPPH, reducing power, β -carotene bleaching, and TBARS assays. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the antioxidant phenolics orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid previously identified in CPM. CPM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect in the acute models, in some cases comparable to the reference drugs. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate chronic skin anti-inflammatory effect with decrease in vasodilation, edema, cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperproliferation. It also showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The contents of orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid were 66.5 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 0.7, and 5.4 ± 0.2 µg/mg extract, respectively. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of CPM could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other effects are probably involved, including COX inhibition and other mechanisms. 10.1155/2014/301294
    Enriched Flavonoid Fraction from Cecropia pachystachya Trécul Leaves Exerts Antidepressant-like Behavior and Protects Brain Against Oxidative Stress in Rats Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress. Ortmann Caroline F,Réus Gislaine Z,Ignácio Zuleide M,Abelaira Helena M,Titus Stephanie E,de Carvalho Pâmela,Arent Camila O,Dos Santos Maria Augusta B,Matias Beatriz I,Martins Maryane M,de Campos Angela M,Petronilho Fabricia,Teixeira Leticia J,Morais Meline O S,Streck Emilio L,Quevedo João,Reginatto Flávio H Neurotoxicity research The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an enriched C-glycosyl flavonoids fraction (EFF-Cp) from Cecropia Pachystachya leaves on behavior, mitochondrial chain function, and oxidative balance in the brain of rats subjected to chronic mild stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups (saline/no stress, saline/stress, EFF-Cp/no stress, and EFF-Cp/stress). ECM groups were submitted to stress for 40 days. On the 35th ECM day, EFF-Cp (50 mg/kg) or saline was administrated and the treatments lasted until the 42nd day. On the 41st and 42nd days, the animals were submitted to the splash test and the forced swim test. After these behavioral tests, the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial chain complexes and oxidative stress were analyzed. EFF-Cp reversed the depressive-like behavior induced by ECM. It also reversed the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in some brain regions. The reduced activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase in some brain regions were also reversed by EFF-Cp. The most pronounced effect of EFF-Cp on mitochondrial complexes was an increase in complex IV activity in all studied regions. Thus, it is can be concluded that EFF-Cp exerts an antidepressant-like effect and that oxidative balance may be an important physiological process underlying these effects. 10.1007/s12640-016-9596-6
    Enzymatic synthesis of α-flavone glucoside via regioselective transglucosylation by amylosucrase from Deinococcus geothermalis. Jang Se-Won,Cho Chi Heung,Jung Young-Sung,Rha Chansu,Nam Tae-Gyu,Kim Dae-Ok,Lee Yeong-Geun,Baek Nam-In,Park Cheon-Seok,Lee Byung-Hoo,Lee So-Young,Shin Hee Soon,Seo Dong-Ho PloS one α-Flavone glycosides have beneficial properties for applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. However, their chemical syntheses are often limited by a low efficiency or scarcity of substrates. In this study, α-flavone glucosides were enzymatically synthesized by amylosucrase from Deinococcus geothermalis (DGAS) using sucrose and various flavones as a donor for glucosyl units and acceptors, respectively. Luteolin was the most effective acceptor in the transglucosylation reaction using DGAS among nine flavone materials (apigenin, chrysin, 6,7-dihydroxyflavone, homoorientin, 7-hydroxyflavone, isorhoifolin, luteolin, luteolin-3',7-diglucoside, and orientin). The highest production yield of luteolin glucoside was 86%, with a 7:1 molar ratio of donor to acceptor molecules, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7) at 37°C for 24 h using 2 U of DGAS. The synthesized luteolin glucoside was identified as luteolin-4'-O-α-D-glucopyranoside with a glucose molecule linked to the C-4' position on the B-ring of luteolin via an α-glucosidic bond, as determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. This result clearly confirmed that the glucosylated luteolin was successfully synthesized by DGAS and it can be applied as a functional ingredient. Furthermore, this approach using DGAS has the potential to be utilized for the synthesis of various glucosylated products using different types of polyphenols to enhance their functionalities. 10.1371/journal.pone.0207466
    Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Glochidion hypoleucum. Anantachoke Natthinee,Kitphati Worawan,Mangmool Supachoke,Bunyapraphatsara Nuntavan Natural product communications Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Glochidion hypoleucum (Miq.) Boerl leaves led to the isolation of five polyphenolic compounds, methyl gallate, gallic acid, apigenin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), luteolin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (orientin), and luteolin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoorientin). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic (NMR, UV-Vis, IR) and mass spectrometric techniques. The antioxidative properties of the methanol extract and isolated polyphenols were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for radical scavenging activity and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) to measure the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). With the exception of vitexin, the crude methanol extract and the polyphenolic compounds inhibited DPPH radicals with IC50 values ranging from 2.46 ± 0.05 to 40.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL. In addition, the crude methanol extract attenuated H202-induced intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in HEK-293 cells. Gallic acid and isoorientin significantly reduced the ROS level in HEK-293 cells at a concentration of 20 μM.
    Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata) extracts on stimulated neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity assays. Zeraik Maria Luiza,Serteyn Didier,Deby-Dupont Ginette,Wauters Jean-Nöel,Tits Monique,Yariwake Janete H,Angenot Luc,Franck Thierry Food chemistry The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata pulp, and P. edulis rinds, healthy or infected with the passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV), was investigated using the oxidant activities of the neutrophil and the neutrophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), both playing key roles in inflammation. The reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated neutrophils were evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and the activity of purified MPO was measured by SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection), a technique for studying the direct interaction of a compound with the enzyme. The rind extracts of P. edulis possessed higher and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on CL response and on the peroxidase activity of MPO than total pulp extracts from both passion fruit species. The quantification of isoorientin in the extracts showed a correlation with their antioxidant activity, suggesting the potential of P. edulis rinds as functional food or as a possible source of natural flavonoids. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.001
    Structure elucidation and antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds from Rhynchosia suaveolens. Rammohan Aluru,Gunasekar Duvvuru,Reddy Netala Vasudeva,Vijaya Tartte,Devillee Alexandre,Bodo Bernard Natural product communications A new benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxybenzophenone (1), together with a known C-glycosylxanthone, mangiferin (2) and two known C-glycosylflavones, isovitexin (3) and isoorientin (4), were isolated from the flowers of Rhynchosia suaveolens DC. (Fabaceae). The structure of the new compound (1) and the known compounds (2-4) were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral studies. The plant extracts, as well as the isolated compounds, were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Among the isolated compounds, mangiferin (2) and isoorientin (4) showed significant radical scavenging activity comparable with that of ascorbic acid.
    Bitter Gentian Teas: Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles, Polysaccharide Characterisation and Bioactivity. Olennikov Daniil N,Kashchenko Nina I,Chirikova Nadezhda K,Koryakina Lena P,Vladimirov Leonid N Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) As a result of the wide distribution of herbal teas the data on nutritional characterisation, chemical profile and biological activity of these products are required. The decoctions of Gentiana algida, G. decumbens, G. macrophylla and G. triflora herb teas were nutritionally characterized with respect to their macronutrients, demonstrating the predominance of polysaccharides and low lipid content. Gentian decoctions were also submitted to a microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV analysis of phytochemicals demonstrating a high content of iridoids (177.18-641.04 μg/mL) and flavonoids (89.15-405.71 μg/mL). Additionally, mangiferin was detected in samples of G. triflora tea (19.89 μg/mL). Five free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, gentiobiose, gentianose) were identified in all gentian teas studied, as well as six organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, succinic, quinic). Pectic polysaccharides with a high content of rhamnogalacturonans and arabinogalactans were also identified and characterized in gentian decoctions for the first time. Gentian tea decoctions and their specific compounds (gentiopicroside, loganic acid-6'-O-β-d-glucoside, isoorientin, isoorientin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside, mangiferin, water-soluble polysaccharides) showed a promising antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Evidences obtained indicate the prospective use of gentian herb teas as food products and medicines. 10.3390/molecules201119674
    Phytochemical and Biological Evaluations of Boiss. (Araceae). Afifi Fatma U,Kasabri Violet,Litescu Simona,Abaza Ismail F,Tawaha Khalid Pharmacognosy magazine BACKGROUND: is a traditional medicinal plant indigenous to Jordan. The present study explores its phytochemistry, antioxidative, antidiabesity, and antiproliferative potentialities. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Column chromatography and HPLC-MS analysis were used for its phytochemical evaluation. Using leaf crude water and ethanol extracts, the antioxidative capacities, their modulation of pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and insulin secretion as well as glucose diffusion and enzymatic bioassays were evaluated. RESULTS:Three flavonoids (luteolin, isoorientin, and vitexin) and β-sitosterol have been isolated and their structures determined. HPLC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract further revealed the presence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic, and rosmarinic acids and quercetine-3-O-rhamnoside. The ethanol extract exhibited DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities. (1), vitexin (2), and rosmarinic acid (3) inhibited pancreatic lipase (PL) dose dependently with PL-IC (µg/mL) values in an ascending order: (3); 51.28 ± 7.55 < (2); 260.9 ± 21.1 < (1); 1720 ± 10. Comparable to GLP-1-enhanced β-cell proliferation in 2-day treatment wells, a dose-dependent augmentation of BrdU incorporation was obtained with the aqueous extract (AE) (0.5 and 1 mg/mL, with respective 1.33- and 1.41-folds, < 0.001). AE was identified as an inhibitor of α-amylase/α-glucosidase with IC value of 30.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL but lacked antiproliferative effects in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, and SW620) and insulinotropic effects in β-cell line MIN6. CONCLUSION: extracts inhibited gastrointestinal enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. SUMMARY:Phytochemical evaluation of recovered flavonoids (luteolin, isoorientin and vitexin) and β-sitosterolHPLC-MS analysis of its antioxidative ethanol extract further revealed the presence of caffeic-, ferulic-, gallic- and rosmarinic acids and quercetine-3-O-rhamnoside inhibited α-amylase/α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase dose-dependently augmented β-cell proliferation dose dependently, but it lacked antiproliferative effects in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, and SW620) and insulinotropic effects in β-cell line MIN6 ABTS: 2,2'-Azino-Bis-3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid, AE: Aqueous Extract, ANOVA: Analysis Of Variance, AUC: Area Under Curve, BrdU: 5-Bromo-2'-Deoxyuridine, DPPH: 2,2-Diphenyl -1-Pycriylhydrazyl, ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, GLP1: Glucagon Like Peptide 1, GSIS: Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion, HPLC-MS: High Performance Liquid Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry, IC50: 50% Inhibitory Concentration, KRH: Krebs/Ringer/Hepes, MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide, OGTT: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity, OSTT: Oral Starch Tolerance Test, PL: Pancreatic Lipase, SEM: Standard Error Of The Mean, SRB: Sulforhodamine B, TEAC: Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography. 10.4103/0973-1296.204551
    Infusion Activates Human Immune Cells and Scavenges Free Radicals . Tůmová Lenka,Dučaiová Zuzana,Cheel José,Vokřál Ivan,Sepúlveda Beatriz,Vokurková Doris Pharmacognosy magazine BACKGROUND: is traditionally used in the form of tea (infusion), in the Andean region of South America, to treat various chronic diseases. However, the health-promoting properties of this herbal tea have not yet been extensively explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The free radical scavenging activity of infusion (ACI) was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and superoxide anion radical assays. The activation of immune cells by ACI, as determined by cell surface cluster of differentiation 69 expression, was measured by flow cytometry. The qualitative polyphenolic composition of ACI was investigated by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS, (High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry) and the total content of polyphenols was estimated by spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS:Eight polyphenols including chlorogenic acid, 6,8-di--hexosyl apigenin, isoorientin, orientin, dicaffeoylquinic acid, biochanin A--glucoside, biochanin A--(malonyl)-glucoside, and licoisoflavone A were tentatively identified in ACI. The total contents of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins in lyophilized ACI were 5.40 mg/100 mg ACI, 1.79 mg/100 mg ACI, and 1.76 mg/100 mg ACI, respectively. ACI, within the range of 25-400 μg/mL, scavenged DPPH and O by 15-90% and 20-88%, respectively. The human natural killer (NK) cells were substantially activated by ACI, whereas T cells and granulocytes were slightly stimulated. CONCLUSION:Overall, the results demonstrate the free radical scavenging and immune-stimulating properties of ACI, and support, at least in part, its potential utilization as a functional herbal tea. for preventing chronic diseases and as a nonspecific immune stimulator during human immunosenescence. SUMMARY:The total contents of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins in infusion (ACI) were 5.40 mg/100 mg ACI, 1.79 mg/100 mg ACI, and 1.76 mg/100 mg ACI, respectively.Eight polyphenols including chlorogenic acid, 6,8-di-C-hexosyl apigenin, isoorientin, orientin, dicaffeoylquinic acid, biochanin A--glucoside, biochanin A--(malonyl)-glucoside, and licoisoflavone A were tentatively identified in ACI by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS.ACI, within the range of 25-400 μg/ml, scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and O. by 15-90% and 20-88%, respectively.The human natural killer (NK) cells were substantially activated by ACI, whereas T cells and granulocytes were slightly stimulated. ESI: electrospray ionization, HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography, PDA: photodiode array detector, MS: mass spectrometry, MS/MS: tandem mass spectrometry, MW: molecular weight, m/z: mass-to-charge ratio, FITC: fluorescent isothiocyanate, PE: phycoerythrin. 10.4103/0973-1296.204558
    Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of L. Extracts. Gou Kai-Jun,Zeng Rui,Dong Yan,Hu Qi-Qi,Hu Huang-Wan-Yin,Maffucci Katherine G,Dou Qi-Ling,Yang Qing-Bo,Qin Xu-Hua,Qu Yan Frontiers in pharmacology L. (family: Polygonaceae), named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of have been studied. Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of (POEa and POEe). Chemical compositions of them were analyzed by UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of POEa and POEe were evaluated using xylene induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, Freunds' complete adjuvant induced arthritis, and formaldehyde induced pain in rat. Their mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were also studied via assays of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in serum. UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS analysis showed that POEa and POEe mainly contained flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, luteolin, and quercetin. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of POEa and POEe were evident in xylene induced ear edema. The paw edema in Freund's complete adjuvant and carrageenan were significantly ( < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited by POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg). POEe (7.5 g/kg) was significantly ( < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited Freunds' complete adjuvant induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Similarly, POEe significantly ( < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited the pain sensation in acetic acid induced writhing test. POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg) significantly ( < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited formaldehyde induced pain in both phases. POEa (7.5 g/kg) markedly ( < 0.05) prolonged the latency period of hot plate test after 30 and 60 min. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 were significantly ( < 0.01) decreased by POEa (3.75, 5 g/kg). POEa and POEe have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, which was mainly relevant to the presence of flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, luteolin, and quercetin. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of POEa may be to decrease the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in serum. 10.3389/fphar.2017.00562
    Further isolation and identification of anti-diabetic principles from root bark of Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv.: The ethyl acetate fraction contains bioactive phenolic compounds that improve liver cell glucose homeostasis. Kasangana Pierre B,Eid Hoda M,Nachar Abir,Stevanovic Tatjana,Haddad Pierre S Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:We recently reported that ethanol extract of Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv. root bark demonstrated antidiabetic activity by modulating hepatocyte glucose homeostasis. This activity was associated significantly to the ethyl acetate (EAc) fraction. The current study sought to identify the active compounds responsible of the antidiabetic effect of M. arboreus in the EAc fraction using bioassay-directed sub-fractionation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:EAc fraction was sub-fractionated using Flash chromatography. Preparative HPLC was used to isolate the pure compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by analysis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Hepatic (H4IIE, HepG2) cells were treated with maximum non-toxic concentrations of ethanol extract, its EAc fraction and isolated compounds thereof. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was measured using the glucose oxidase method. To measure glycogen synthase (GS) activity, radioactive assays were used. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. RESULTS:Six sub-fractions were obtained, and the antidiabetic activity was found in two sub-fractions (SFE1 and SFE2). For the first time, two known C-glycosylflavone regio-isomers, isoorientin (1) and orientin (2) were detected and isolated from M. arboreus plant, especially from SFE2 as well as protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (4), and chlorogenic acid isolated from SFE1. The compounds 1, 2, 4 were determined to decrease the activity of G6Pase by increasing AMPK phosphorylation and to stimulate GS through GSK-3 phosphorylation. Isoorientin which is one of the main compounds of EAc fraction, expressed the strongest effect in all bioassays, similar to that of the EAc fraction. A significant and linear correlation was found between the phosphorylation of AMPK and the activity of G6Pase modulated by all samples (R = 0.54; p < 0.05). Similar to G6Pase assay, a correlation was determined between the capacity of M. arboreus extracts/fractions/compounds to stimulate GS activity and to phosphorylate GSK-3 (R = 0.57, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:Results demonstrate that 1, 2, 4 are responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of M. arboreus. These compounds can be used to ensure the quality and efficacy of M. arboreus antidiabetic preparations and standardize such preparations. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112167
    Phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of L. and their anti-inflammatory activities. Kırmızıbekmez Hasan,İnan Yiğit,Reis Rengin,Sipahi Hande,Gören Ahmet C,Yeşilada Erdem Natural product research Phytochemical investigations on the EtOH extract of led to the isolation of six flavonoid glycosides, isoorientin (), isoorientin 3'--methyl ether (), quercetin 7--α-L-rhamnopyranoside (), quercetin 3,7-di--α-L-rhamnopyranoside (), manghaslin () and chrysoeriol 7--β-D-glucopyranoside (), one phenylethanol derivative, hydroxytyrosol (), along with three phenolic acids, caffeic acid (), ()--coumaric acid () and -hydroxybenzoic acid (). The structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HR-MS data. All compounds were isolated from for the first time. Compounds and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity at 100 μM by reducing the release of NO in LPS-stimulated macrophages comparable to positive control indomethacin. Compounds and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity through lowering the levels of TNF-α while , and decreased the levels of neopterin better than the positive controls. 10.1080/14786419.2018.1448815
    Flavonoids Isolated from , an Underutilized Vegetable, Exert Monoamine A & B Inhibitory and Anti-inflammatory Effects and Their Structure-activity Relationship. Turkish journal of pharmaceutical sciences OBJECTIVES: belongs to family Lamiaceae; it consists of flowering plants and it is also called the mint family. The Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria called it "Oriri" or "Efo oriri". This plant is classified as an underutilized vegetable and little is known about its phytochemistry or its biological evaluations. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Methanol extracts of the dried leaves and stem of the plant were subjected to fractionation and isolation using vacuum layer and column chromatography methods. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR and by comparison with the data reported in the literature. They were evaluated for the inhibition of monoamine recombinant human MAO-A and -B and anti-inflammatory activities. RESULTS:Three known flavonoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of for the first time to the best of our knowledge, i.e. isoorientin , orientin , and isovitexin . Most of the isolated compounds showed selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase B, inhibition of MAO-B by isoorientin and orientin were 9-fold more potent (IC (μg/mL) of 11.08 and 11.04) compared to the inhibition of MAO-A (IC (μg/mL) of ˃100), while clorgyline and deprenyl were used as positive standards. The isolated flavonoids displayed good activity against the NF-ﭏb assay with IC (μg/mL) of 8.9, 12, and 18. This study establishes a link between the structure and the biological activities on the basis of the different patterns of substitution, particularly the C2=C3 double bond and the position of glucose moiety. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to establish the phytochemistry of the polar part of and the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role of these isolated compounds. 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2018.46036
    UPLC-Orbitrap HRMS metabolic profiling of Cymbopogon citratus cultivated in Egypt; neuroprotective effect against AlCl-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Madi Yasmine F,Choucry Mouchira A,El-Marasy Salma A,Meselhy Meselhy R,El-Kashoury El-Sayeda A Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is commonly used in teas, soups and treat inflammatory-based ailments, vascular and nervous disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY:The study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus leaves through scientific protocol. The effect of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts was evaluated against AlCl-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rats. Metabolic profiling of the plant, isolation of bioactive compounds and standardization of the active fraction were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:AE of Cymbopogon citratus leaves was prepared as per traditional method (infusion), EE was prepared by repeated maceration in 90% ethanol, bioactive fraction (BAEE) was obtained from EE and the active compounds thereof were obtained by column chromatography. Metabolic profiling of Cymbopogon citratus was performed by UPLC-Orbitrap HRMS and HPLC was used for standardization. AlCl-induced Alzheimer's rats were used to assess neuroprotective effect of the extracts. Neuroprotective mechanism(s) of Cymbopogon citratus extracts was clarified through histopathological examination of brain tissues, estimation of AD biochemical markers, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in brain homogenates. In addition, antioxidant (using DPPH assay) and anticholinesterase (using modified Ellman's method) activities were investigated. RESULTS:AlCl-treated rats (17 mg/kg/day) showed histopathological alteration in brain tissues together with elevated levels of Aβ, tau proteins, MDA, NF-kB and IL-6. However, treatment with AE and EE of Cymbopogon citratus leaves prevented the pathological changes and maintained the levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. In addition, BAEE significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme (2.11 ± 0.11 mg/ml) and exhibited a strong antioxidant activity (24.99 ± 0.00 μg/ml). UPLC-MS of Cymbopogon citratus leaves showed peaks for twenty-eight compounds, twenty-one of them were identified. Three flavonoids; isoorientin, isoschaftoside and luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside were isolated from BAEE as major constituents. The powdered leaves of Cymbopogon citratus was found to contain remarkable amounts of caffeic acid (3.49 mg/g dry wt.) and isoorientin (7.37 mg/g dry wt.) as determined by HPLC. CONCLUSION:Cymbopogon citratus ethanolic extract attenuates AlCl-induced neurotoxicity in rats through inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. This effect could possibly attributed, in part to its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Accordingly, we recommend Cymbopogon citratus leaves for protection against AD. 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112930
    In silico and in vitro studies of lupeol and iso-orientin as potential antidiabetic agents in a rat model. Malik Arif,Jamil Uzma,Butt Tariq Tahir,Waquar Sulayman,Gan Siew Hua,Shafique Hassan,Jafar Tassadaq Hussain Drug design, development and therapy In silico characterization can help to explain the interaction between molecules and predict three-dimensional structures. Various studies have confirmed the glucose-lowering effects of plant extracts, ie, lupeol and iso-orientin, which enable them to be used as antidiabetic agents. Aims of the present study were to evaluate the hypoglycemic activities of lupeol and iso-orientin in a rat model. The study proposed the effects of alloxan on blood glucose level, body weight, and oxidative stress. Thirty (n=30) Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups and were subjected to different combinations of the compounds. Levels of different stress markers, ie, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitric oxide, glutathione, glutathione peroxide, glutathione reductase, and blood glucose levels were estimated with their respective methods. Whereas, for their in silico analysis, identified target proteins, GPR40, glucose-6-phosphatase, UCP2, glycogen phosphorylase, aldose reductase, and glucose transporter-4 were docked with lupeol and iso-orientin. Three-dimensional structures were predicted by ERRAT, Rampage, Verify3D, threading and homology approaches. Blood glucose levels were significantly increased in rats receiving intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (208±6.94 mg/dL) as compared to controls (90±7.38 mg/dL). Infected rats were administered plant extracts; combined treatment of both extracts (lupeol+iso-orientin) significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose (129.06±6.29 mg/dL) and improved the antioxidant status. Fifteen structures of each selected protein were evaluated using various techniques. Consequently, satisfactory quality factors [GPR40 (96.41%), glucose-6-phosphatase (96.56%), UCP2 (72.56%), glycogen phosphorylase (87.24%), aldose reductase (82.46%), and glucose transporter-4 (94.29%)] were selected. Molecular docking revealed interacting residues, effective drug properties and their binding affinities (ie, -8.9 to -12.6 Kcal/mol). Results of the study affirmed the antidiabetic activities of lupeol and iso-orientin. Administration of these extracts (either individually or in combination) significantly reduced blood glucose levels and oxidative stress. Hence, it may be considered beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. 10.2147/DDDT.S176698
    Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. Deng Jun,Zhou Yujuan,Bai Mengmeng,Li Hongwei,Li Li Journal of ethnopharmacology AIM OF THE STUDY:Many plants in the genus Passiflora have long been used in traditional folk medicines as a remedy for many neurogenic diseases in many countries. A number of species of the genus was studied about their neuropharmacological activities, but the results were inconsistent. No literature reported neuropharmacological studies on Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa as yet. The present study was aimed at evaluating the anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Swiss albino mice were used as experimental animals in elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and spontaneous activity (SA) test to assay the behavioral effects of ethanolic extract (EE) of the aerial part of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa and its fractions, viz. petrol ether extract (PEE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), n-BuOH extract (BE) and aqueous extract (AE), together with subfractions of BE, viz. BEF-I, BEF-II, BEF-III, BEF-IV and isoorientin, a flavonoid component isolated from BEF-III. RESULTS:In the EPM test, single-dose oral administration of EE (300 mg/kg and 400mg/kg), BE (125 mg/kg and 200mg/kg), AE (200mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), BEF-I (200mg/kg), BEF-II (200mg/kg), BEF-III (100mg/kg), or isoorientin (20mg/kg) resulted in anxiolytic-like effects, but a sedative-like activity was produced at higher doses, such as 300 mg/kg of BE, 200mg/kg of BEF-III, or 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of isoorientin. The results of the SA test manifested that treatment with 400mg/kg of EE, 300 mg/kg of BE, or 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of isoorientin compromised motor activity in mice, which are in line with the results of the EPM test. CONCLUSIONS:The aerial part of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa was anxiolytic at low dose but sedative at high dose. Flavonoids are important active constituents. Since AE contained little flavonoids, it was conjectured that there were other components responsible for the anxiolytic effect of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa besides flavonoids. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.043
    LC/QTOF profile and preliminary stability studies of an enriched flavonoid fraction of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul leaves with potential antidepressant-like activity. Ortmann Caroline Flach,Abelaira Helena Mendes,Réus Gislaine Zilli,Ignácio Zuleide Maria,Chaves Vitor Clasen,Dos Santos Talitha Caldas,de Carvalho Pâmela,Carlessi Anelise Scussel,Bruchchen Livia,Danielski Lucineia G,Cardoso Simone Gonçalves,de Campos Angela Machado,Petronilho Fabricia,Rebelo Joyce,Dos Santos Morais Meline Oliveira,Vuolo Francieli,Dal-Pizzol Felipe,Streck Emilio Luiz,Quevedo João,Reginatto Flávio Henrique Biomedical chromatography : BMC There is increasing interest in natural antioxidants that are candidates for the prevention of brain damage occurring in major depressive disorders. Cecropia pachystachya is a tropical tree species of Central and South America and a rich source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. The aim of this study was to characterize the flavonoid profile of an enriched flavonoid fraction of C. pachystachya (EFF-Cp) and evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of its acute administration in behavior, cytokine levels, oxidative stress and energy metabolism parameters. The EFF-Cp chemical characterization was performed by HPLC/DAD and LC/QTOF. The antidepressant-like effects were performed by the forced swimming test, splash test and open field test. EFF-Cp revealed 15 flavonoids, including seven new glycosyl flavonoids for C. pachystachya. Quantitatively, EFF-Cp showed isoorientin (43.46 mg/g), orientin (23.42 mg/g) and isovitexin (17.45 mg/g) as major C-glycosyl flavonoids. In addition, EFF-Cp at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg reduced the immobility time in the forced swimming test, without changing the locomotor activity and grooming time. In addition, EFF-Cp was able to prevent the oxidative damage in some brain areas. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that EFF-Cp exerts antidepressant-like effects with its antioxidant properties. 10.1002/bmc.3982
    [Studies on the chemical constituents in seeds of Atriplex centralasiatica]. Zhang Yang,Zhao Yi-min Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica OBJECTIVE:To study the chemical constituents in seeds of Atriplex centralasiatica. METHOD:The chemical components were isolated by solvents extractions and column chromatography. The chemical structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical constants and spectral data. RESULT:Six compounds were isolated and identified as isorhamnetin(I), tricin(II), querecetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside(III), isoorientin(IV), beta-sitosterol(V), beta-daucosterlo(VI). CONCLUSION:Compound I, II, III, IV are isolated from genus Atriplex for the first time.
    Passiflora edulis Leaf Extract: Evidence of Antidiabetic and Antiplatelet Effects in Rats. Salles Bruno Cesar Correa,da Silva Marcelo Aparecido,Taniguthi Lara,Ferreira Juliane Naiara,da Rocha Claudia Quintino,Vilegas Wagner,Dias Pollyana Hammoud,Pennacchi Paula Comune,Duarte Stella Maris da Silveira,Rodrigues Maria Rita,Brigagão Maísa Ribeiro Pereira Lima,Paula Fernanda Borges de Araújo Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin Different Passiflora species have been appointed as a promising herbal medicine due to antioxidant properties; however, their effect on oxidative process induced by diabetes is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate effects of hydroethanolic extract 70% from P. edulis leaf on biochemical blood markers, collagen glycation, production of oxidant species and platelet aggregation in diabetic rats. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed by dereplication using LC coupled to the Photodiode Array Detector and Mass Spectrometer detector. Male Wistar rats were assigned to the control group and groups treated with alloxan (150 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, extract (200 mg/kg/d, for 90 d) and combination of alloxan and extract. The phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of flavonoids C-glycosides in the extract. The diabetic animals treated with the extract presented improvement in glycaemic control, reduced glycation collagen, levels of non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol and creatinine, production of oxidant species and aggregation in platelet in relation to diabetic animals non-treated. Our results showed that P. edulis leaf extract presents a health benefit to the diabetic state, preventing the appearance of its complications. Its effect can be associated with flavonoids, among which is the flavonoid C-glycoside isoorientin. 10.1248/bpb.b18-00952
    Antioxidant flavone glycosides from the leaves of Sasa borealis. Park Hae-Suk,Lim Ju Hee,Kim Hyun Jung,Choi Hyun Jin,Lee Ik-Soo Archives of pharmacal research Sasa borealis (Poaceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which is a major source of bamboo leaves in Korea. The n-BuOH extract of S. borealis leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation by column chromatography led to the isolation of two antioxidative flavonoid C-glycoside derivatives, isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) along with tricin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and apigenin 6-C-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage of all the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) showed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 9.5 and 34.5 microM, respectively, and strong cytoprotective effects against t-BOOH-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells, at very low concentrations of 1.1 microM isoorientin and 0.8 microM isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside. This is the first report of the isolation and antioxidant activity of compounds 2 and 4 from S. borealis.
    Protection against neurodegenerative diseases of Iris pseudopumila extracts and their constituents. Conforti Filomena,Rigano Daniela,Menichini Federica,Loizzo Monica Rosa,Senatore Felice Fitoterapia The present study describes for the first time the in vitro properties of Iris pseudopumila flowers and rhizomes extracts and their constituents. The methanolic extract of rhizomes showed significant anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production in the murine monocytic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Among the isolated compounds, those which most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production were irisolidone and 7-methyl-tectorigenin-4'-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], with IC(50) values of 23.6 microM and 29.4 microM respectively. Isoorientin and isovitexin exhibited the most promising activity against AChE with IC(50) of 26.8 microM and 36.4 microM, respectively. The same compounds exhibited also the higher activity against BChE. 10.1016/j.fitote.2008.10.005
    Metabolism of homoorientin by human intestinal bacteria. Hattori M,Shu Y Z,el-Sedawy A I,Namba T,Kobashi K,Tomimori T Journal of natural products As a part of our studies on the metabolism of bioactive compounds from oriental medicines by intestinal flora, homoorientin, a C-glycosylflavonoid, was anaerobically incubated with a human intestinal bacterial mixture. Homoorientin was transformed to 6-C-glucosyleriodictyol, (+/-)-eriodictyol, luteolin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and phloroglucinol. A novel cleavage of the C-glycosyl bond was discovered for the first time by using intestinal bacteria.
    Hypoglycaemic activity of Gentiana olivieri and isolation of the active constituent through bioassay-directed fractionation techniques. Sezik Ekrem,Aslan Mustafa,Yesilada Erdem,Ito Shigeru Life sciences Hypoglycemic effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on oral administration were studied using in vivo models in normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo bioassay-guided fractionation processes isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethylacetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography as the main active ingredient from the plant. Isoorientin exhibited significant hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects at 15 mg/kg b.w.dose. Isoorientin concentration of the extracts and fractions were determined by HPLC in order to establish a correlation between the hypoglycaemic activity. 10.1016/j.lfs.2004.07.024
    Polyphenolic characterisation and bioactivity of an Oxalis pes-caprae L. leaf extract. Gaspar Marisa C,Fonseca Diogo A,Antunes Manuel J,Frigerio Christian,Gomes Nelson G M,Vieira M,Santos Armanda E,Cruz Maria T,Cotrim Maria D,Campos Maria G Natural product research The present work is focused on the characterisation of the polyphenolic content of an Oxalis pes-caprae L. leaf extract and on the evaluation of its bioactivity with particular interest on its vascular activity and antioxidant potential. The polyphenolic content was characterised by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The vascular activity was evaluated according to the influence on the serotonergic and adrenergic systems of the human internal mammary artery (HIMA). Antioxidant and neuroprotective studies were also conducted. Several luteolin and apigenin derivatives were identified as main constituents of the extract, which did not present any contractile effect nor had any effect on the serotonergic system of HIMA. However, it showed antagonistic effect on the adrenergic system, inhibiting the contraction to noradrenaline (reduction of 58.44% of maximum contraction). The extract showed antioxidant activity and standardised luteolin and apigenin derivatives showed neuroprotective potential, particularly homoorientin. 10.1080/14786419.2017.1335728
    Protective effects of five compounds from R. Brown leaves against hypoxia/reoxygenation, HO, or adriamycin-induced injury in H9c2 cells. Li Shaoguang,Luo Shaohong,Chen Hao,Zheng Yanjie,Lin Liqing,Yao Hong,Lin Xinhua Drug design, development and therapy Discovering new antimyocardial ischemia drug candidates that are highly efficient, have low toxicity, and originate from natural products is a popular trend for new cardiovascular drug development at present. The ethanol extract of leaves showed a favorable antioxidant activity in our preliminary screening test. This study aims to screen out antioxidants from the herb leaves further and evaluate their efficacy in acute myocardial ischemia treatment at the cellular level. Guided with online 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) screening, antioxidants were first separated and isolated from the ethanol extract of leaves by preparative-HPLC. Subsequently, offline DPPH approach was used to validate the free radical scavenging activity of the components. Ultimately, the resulting antioxidants were evaluated against the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-, HO-, or adriamycin (ADM)-induced injury in H9c2 cells to verify their cardioprotective effects in vitro. Five antioxidant ingredients, namely, orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and tricin, were quickly distinguished and isolated from leaves. The IC values of these ingredients were further examined by offline DPPH assay, as follows: 15.51±0.22, 6.64±0.38, 11.86±0.24, 8.89±0.66, and 31.86±0.24 μg/mL, respectively. Out of these ingredients, isoorientin showed the strongest antioxidation, which was equivalent to that of the positive control drug (vitamin C, IC: 6.99±0.62 μg/mL). Using H/R-, HO-, and ADM-induced H9c2 cell injury models, the five ingredients had different extents of cardioprotective effects in vitro. In particular, isoorientin showed the strongest protection. All the five ingredients also showed insignificant cytotoxic effect to normal H9c2 cells. The ethanol extract of leaves contained five antioxidants with low cardiac cytotoxicity. Isoorientin possessed the strongest antioxidation, which can predominantly account for the myocardial protection effects within the extract. 10.2147/DDDT.S201816
    Chemical profile and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of (Sieb.) Makino leaves. PeerJ BACKGROUND: (Sieb.) Makino () is one species of bamboo distributed in China, Japan and Vietnam. The chemical profile of its leaves and its potential application was unknown yet. METHODS:The chemical profile of was studied by HPLC and UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS. The extract was prepared by extraction with 50% aqueous ethanol, followed by H103 macroporous resins adsorption and desorption processes. Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity was determined using -nitrophenyl palmitate as the substance, which was hydrolyzed by lipase to form coloured nitrophenol. RESULTS:Eighteen compounds were identified in . Most of them were the -glycosylated derivatives of luteolin and apigenin, such as isoorientin, isoorientin-2″--rhamnoside and isovitexin. Isoorientin-2″--rhamnoside was the most dominant flavonoid in the sample. extract was prepared through resin adsorption/desorption with yield of 1.12 ± 015% and total flavonoids content of 82 ± 2 mg/g (in term of isoorientin). The extract exhibited pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.93 mg/mL. CONCLUSION:The chemical profile of leaves was uncovered for the first time. -glycosyl flavonoids were the main constituents in the plant. The extract exhibited pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and may have potential for use as a food supplement for controlling obesity. 10.7717/peerj.7765
    Passiflora manicata (Juss.) aqueous leaf extract protects against reactive oxygen species and protein glycation in vitro and ex vivo models. da Silva Morrone Maurilio,de Assis Adriano Martimbianco,da Rocha Ricardo Fagundes,Gasparotto Juciano,Gazola Andressa Córneo,Costa Geison Modesti,Zucolotto Silvana Maria,Castellanos Leonardo H,Ramos Freddy A,Schenkel Eloir Paulo,Reginatto Flávio Henrique,Gelain Daniel Pens,Moreira José C F Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association The leaf extracts of many species of genus Passiflora have been extensively investigated for their biological activities on several rat tissues, but mainly in the central nervous system and liver. They posses anxiolytic-like, sedative effects and antioxidant properties. Evidences suggest a key role of C-glycosylflavonoids in the biological activities of Passiflora extracts. Some species (such as P. manicata) of the genus are still poorly investigated for their chemical and biological activity. In this work, we aim to investigate both antioxidant and antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of P. manicata leaves (PMLE) in vitro and ex vivo models. Crude extract showed the C-glycosylflavonoid isovitexin as the major compound. Isoorientin and vitexin were also identified. In TRAP/TAR assay, PMLE showed a significant antioxidant activity. PMLE at concentrations of 10 and 100 μg mL⁻¹ significantly decreasing LDH leakage in rat liver slices. Antioxidant effect also was observed by decreased in oxidative damage markers in slices hence hydrogen peroxide was added as oxidative stress inductor. PMLE inhibited protein glycation at all concentrations tested. In summary, P. manicata aqueous leaf extract possess protective properties against reactive oxygen species and also protein glycation, and could be considered a new source of natural antioxidants. 10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.028
    Four flavonoid compounds from Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract retard the digestion of starch and its working mechanisms. Yang Jun-Peng,He Hao,Lu Yan-Hua Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Bamboo leaf extract as a food additive has been used for preventing the oxidation of food. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract on starch digestion. Orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin were determined as its α-amylase inhibitory constituents. An inhibitory kinetics experiment demonstrated that they competitively inhibit α-amylase with Ki values of respectively 152.6, 11.5, 569.6, and 75.8 μg/mL. Molecular docking showed the four flavones can interact with the active site of α-amylase, and their inhibitory activity was greatly influenced by the glucoside linking position and 3'-hydroxyl. Moreover, the results of starch-iodine complex spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that P. edulis flavonoids retard the digestion of starch not only through interaction with digestive enzymes, but also through interaction with starch. Thus, P. edulis leaf extract can be potentially used as a starch-based food additive for adjusting postprandial hyperglycemia. 10.1021/jf501931m
    Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the Lagenaria siceraria fruit in NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Mali Vishal R,Mohan V,Bodhankar Subhash L Pharmaceutical biology CONTEXT:Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. (Cucurbitacae) (LS) has been reported to possess cardioprotective, antihyperlipidemic, and diuretic activities. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertension in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups. Control 2% gum acacia p.o., L-NAME (40 mg/kg p.o.), LS (500 mg/kg p.o.) + L-NAME (40 mg/kg p.o.), L-arginine (100 mg/kg p.o.) + L-NAME (40 mg/kg p.o.). Treatment period was 4 weeks. On day 29 serum marker enzymes, cholesterol and heamodynamic parameters were measured. Histology of heart was performed. LS powder was characterized by HPLC. RESULT:Systolic blood pressures were increased by L-NAME (p < 0.001). In both drug treated groups systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced significantly (p < 0.001) compared to L-NAME. In L-NAME group significantly (p < 0.01) elevated cholesterol which was reduced (p < 0.05) by LS treatment. In L-NAME group inflammation and necrosis (0-35%) was present in heart whereas there was no change in myocardium of LS and L-arginine treated rats. Vitexin, orientin and isoorientin were detected in methanol extract of LS powder. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:L-NAME induced hypertension in rats was reduced by treatment with LS. The absence of necrosis, inflammation in the heart and significant reduction in serum cholesterol in LS and L-arginine treated rats indicated cardioprotective activity. Antioxidant activity of orientin and isoorientin appears to reduce the L-NAME induced damage. It is concluded that LS fruit possess antihypertensive and cardioprotective activity. 10.3109/13880209.2012.684064
    [Chemical Constituents of Lowering LDL-C in Effective Part of Oroxylum indicum]. Zhao Xian-min,Li Nan,Du Cai-xia Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents of effective part of Oroxylum indicum which related to lowering LDLC action. Methods:The compounds were isolated with chromatography methods such as silica gel,polyamide and Sephadex LH-20. The structures were identified by physiochemical properties and spectral analysis. Results:14 compounds were isolated from 95% alcohol extract and elucidated as β-sitosterol( 1), hexadecanoic acid( 2), oroxin A( 3), oroxin B( 4), chrysin( 5), quercetin( 6),quercetin-3-Orutinoside( 7),5,4’-dihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxyflavone( 8), diosmetin( 9), geniposide( 10),isoorientin( 11), quercitroside( 12), apigenin( 13) and gallicacid( 14). Conclusion:Compounds 2,7 ~ 12 and 14 are reported from this plants for the first time.
    C-Glycosylflavones Alleviate Tau Phosphorylation and Amyloid Neurotoxicity through GSK3β Inhibition. Liang Zhibin,Zhang Bei,Su Wei Wen,Williams Philip G,Li Qing X ACS chemical neuroscience Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common brain disorder worldwide. Aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation and accumulation play critical roles in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles highly associated with neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment in AD pathogenesis. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a key kinase responsible for tau hyperphosphorylation. Selective inhibition of GSK3β is a promising strategy in AD therapy. Corn silks (CS, Zea mays L.) have been traditionally used as a medicinal herb and recently noted for their potentially cognitive benefits. However, the neuroprotective components of CS and their molecular mechanism have received little attention to date. As part of our effort screening phytochemicals against a broad panel of kinases targeting AD tauopathy, we found inhibition of GSK3β by CS extracts. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two 6-C-glycosylflavones, isoorientin (1) and 3'-methoxymaysin (2), with selective inhibition against GSK3β in vitro. Enzyme kinetics and molecular docking studies demonstrated that 1 specifically inhibited GSK3β via an ATP noncompetitive mechanism, acting as a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK3β. Further in vitro cellular studies demonstrated that 1 effectively attenuated tau phosphorylation mediated by GSK3β and was neuroprotective against β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The C-glycosylflavones represent new lead candidates with a novel mechanism of action for the development of AD phytopharmaceuticals. 10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00059
    A systematic review on phenolic compounds in Passiflora plants: Exploring biodiversity for food, nutrition, and popular medicine. Gadioli Izabel Lucena,da Cunha Marcela de Sá Barreto,de Carvalho Mariana Veras Oliveira,Costa Ana Maria,Pineli Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Passiflora plants are strategic in the context of biodiversity for food and nutrition. We applied the procedures of a systematic review protocol to study the state of the art on identification of phenolic compounds from Passiflora plants. An automated literature search was conducted using six databases and a combination of seven keywords. All the analytical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods were included. The studies were classified according to their method of identification, phenolic classes, and method of extraction. In total, 8,592 abstracts were found, from which 122 studies were selected for complete reading and 82 were selected for further analysis. Techniques of extraction, evaluated parts of the plant and methods of identification were systematized. Studies with leaves were most conspicuous (54.4%), 34 species of Passiflora were evaluated and orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin were commonly found structures. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography-diode array detector was the technique most applied, with which the same structures were identified all through the studies, although other unknown structures were detected, but not elucidated. The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry, which are more sensitive techniques, needs to be intensified, to identify other unconventional compounds detected in Passiflora, to enhance the comprehension of the bioactive compounds in these plants. 10.1080/10408398.2016.1224805
    Flavonoids from Triticum aestivum inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by upregulating the insig pathway. Poudel Barun,Nepali Sarmila,Xin Mingjie,Ki Hyeon-Hui,Kim Young-Ho,Kim Dae-Ki,Lee Young-Mi Molecular medicine reports The present study aimed to compare the potential anti-adipogenic effects and underlying mechanisms of the luteolin, isoscoparin and isoorientin flavonoids, purified from Triticum aestivum sprout (TA) in 3T3-L1 cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of flavonoids for 8 days and the lipid accumulation was assessed using Oil-Red-O staining. The expression levels of the transcription factors and the genes involved in adipogenesis in the cells were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results demonstrated that 10 μM luteolin, isoscoparin or isoorientin inhibited lipid deposition in the cells by 74, 63 and 65%, respectively. The flavonoids also significantly inhibited the transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, compared with the control cells. Similarly, there was a significant downregulation of the adipocyte specific markers associated with lipid metabolism, including activating protein-2, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase, in the flavonoid treated cells. Notably, the cells treated with the flavonoids demonstrated increased expression levels of the insulin-induced genes, insig-1 and insig-2, which may have inhibited the activation of the adipogenic transcription factor, SREBP, eventually leading to the inhibition of adipogenesis. Taken together, these results revealed that the flavonoids from TA possessed an inhibitory effect on adipogenesis through downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and genes associated with lipid metabolism, and the upregulation of insig 1 and 2, suggesting that the flavonoids from TA may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of obesity. 10.3892/mmr.2015.3700
    The effects of C-glycosylation of luteolin on its antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Choi Jae Sue,Islam Md Nurul,Ali Md Yousof,Kim Young Myeong,Park Hye Jin,Sohn Hee Sook,Jung Hyun Ah Archives of pharmacal research To investigate the effect of C-glycosylation at different positions of luteolin, the structure-activity relationships of luteolin and a pair of isomeric C-glycosylated derivatives orientin and isoorientin, were evaluated. We investigated the effects of C-glycosylation on the antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD), anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and its two C-glycosides via in vitro assays of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), total reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl (DPPH), aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and cellular assays of NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Of the three compounds, isoorientin showed the highest scavenging activity against DPPH, NO, and ONOO(-), while luteolin was the most potent inhibitor of ROS generation. In addition, luteolin showed the most potent anti-AD activity as determined by its inhibition of AChE, BChE, and BACE1. With respect to anti-diabetic effects, luteolin exerted the strongest inhibitory activity against PTP1B and rat lens aldose reductase. Luteolin also inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, while orientin and isoorientin were inactive at the same concentrations. The effects of C-glycosylation at different positions of luteolin may be closely linked to the intensity and modulation of antioxidant, anti-AD, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and its C-glycosylated derivatives. 10.1007/s12272-014-0351-3
    Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside, a water-soluble antioxidant isolated from Gentiana arisanensis. Ko F N,Chu C C,Lin C N,Chang C C,Teng C M Biochimica et biophysica acta The antioxidant activities of isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside were studied using various models. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside was more potent than Trolox, probucol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It also scavenged superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. The IC50 value, stoichiometry factor and second-order rate constant were 9.0+/-0.8 microM, 1.8+/-0.1 and 2.6 X 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) for superoxide generation, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. However, isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), carbon radical or 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile) (AMVN)-derived peroxyl radical in hexane. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside inhibited Cu2+-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation and electrophoretic mobility. Since isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not possess pro-oxidant activity, it may be an effective water-soluble antioxidant that can prevent LDL against oxidation. 10.1016/s0005-2760(97)00157-4
    Evaluation of in vivo biological activity profile of isoorientin. Küpeli Esra,Aslan Mustafa,Gürbüz Ilhan,Yesilada Erdem Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the known C-glycosyl flavonoid, isoorientin, were studied in rats and mice. For the anti-nociceptive activity assessment the p-benzoquinone-induced writing test, for the anti-inflammatory activity the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice, and for the gastroprotective activity the EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats were used. Isoorientin was shown to possess significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities at 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg doses, without inducing any apparent acute toxicity as well as gastric damage. However, the compound did not possess any significant gastroprotective activity against EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis. 10.1515/znc-2004-11-1204
    Isoorientin induces Nrf2 pathway-driven antioxidant response through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Lim Ju Hee,Park Hae-Suk,Choi Jung-Kap,Lee Ik-Soo,Choi Hyun Jin Archives of pharmacal research Because oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases and the aging process, antioxidants that can increase the intrinsic antioxidant potency are proposed as desirable therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress-related diseases. NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates important antioxidant and phase II detoxification genes, and therefore, the molecule that regulates nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the induction of antioxidative proteins is thought to be a promising candidate as a cytoprotective agent for oxidative stress. In the present study, we show that isoorientin (luteolin 6-C-beta-D-glucoside) obtained from the leaves of Sasa borealis upregulates and activates Nrf2, and has protective ability against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen intermediates in HepG2 cells. Isoorientin induces increase in the level of antioxidant enzyme proteins, especially NQO1, and the cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of isoorientin are PI3K/Akt pathway-dependent. Together with direct radical scavenging activity, the novel effect of isoorientin on the regulation of antioxidative gene expression provides attractive strategy to prevent diseases associated with oxidative stress and attenuate the progress of the diseases.
    Isoorientin reverts TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes activating the insulin signaling pathway. Alonso-Castro Angel Josabad,Zapata-Bustos Rocio,Gómez-Espinoza Guadalupe,Salazar-Olivo Luis A Endocrinology Isoorientin (ISO) is a plant C-glycosylflavonoid with purported antidiabetic effects but unexplored mechanisms of action. To gain insight into its antidiabetic mechanisms, we assayed nontoxic ISO concentrations on the 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) uptake by murine 3T3-F442A and human sc adipocytes. In insulin-sensitive adipocytes, ISO stimulated the 2-NBDG uptake by 210% (murine) and 67% (human), compared with insulin treatment. Notably, ISO also induced 2-NBDG uptake in murine (139%) and human (60%) adipocytes made resistant to insulin by treatment with TNF-α, compared with the incorporation induced in these cells by rosiglitazone. ISO induction of glucose uptake in adipocytes was abolished by inhibitors of the insulin signaling pathway. These inhibitors also blocked the proper phosphorylation of insulin signaling pathway components induced by ISO in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes. Additionally, ISO stimulated the transcription of genes encoding components of insulin signaling pathway in murine insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes. In summary, we show here that ISO exerts its antidiabetic effects by activating the insulin signaling pathway in adipocytes, reverts the insulin resistance caused in these cells by TNF-α by stimulating the proper phosphorylation of proteins in this signaling pathway, and induces the expression of genes encoding these proteins. 10.1210/en.2012-1290
    Isoorientin Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Through the Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis via Activating the SIRT1/SIRT6/Nrf-2 Pathway. Fan Xiaoye,Wei Wei,Huang Jingbo,Liu Xingkai,Ci Xinxin Frontiers in pharmacology Cisplatin (CDDP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for various solid tumors, but its severe side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity, limit its clinical application. Isoorientin (Iso) is a flavonoid-like compound known to have antioxidant effects. As oxidative injury plays a vital role in CDDP-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the effect of Iso on CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity has not yet been researched. We assessed the effects of Iso against CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity using mTEC cells and further explored the mechanisms underlying CDDP-induced renal dysfunction in WT and Nrf2 mice. The results showed that Iso treatment significantly reduced CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity via attenuating cell damage and via ameliorating renal injury, as determined by biochemical markers, in mice. The molecular mechanism underlying this protection was also investigated. Iso up-regulated the expression levels of SIRT1 and SIRT6 and . In addition, Iso activated Nrf2 translocation and the expression levels of its downstream antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and NQO1, whereas it inhibited the expression level of NOX4, thus decreasing oxidative stress. Notably, the protective effects of Iso observed in WT mice were completely abolished in Nrf2 mice. Collectively, these data indicate that the protective effect of Iso on CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity by SIRT1- and SIRT6-mediated Nrf2 activation regulates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The absence of Nrf2 exacerbates CDDP-induced renal damage, and the pharmacological activation of Nrf2 may represent a novel therapy to prevent kidney injury. 10.3389/fphar.2020.00264
    Experimental and theoretical investigations on the antioxidant activity of isoorientin from Crotalaria globosa. Deepha V,Praveena R,Sivakumar Raman,Sadasivam K Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy The increasing interests in naturally occurring flavonoids are well known for their bioactivity as antioxidants. The present investigations with combined experimental and theoretical methods are employed to determine the radical scavenging activity and phytochemicals present in Crotalaria globosa, a novel plant source. Preliminary quantification of ethanolic extract of leaves shows high phenolic and flavonoid content than root extract; also it is validated through DPPH assay. Further analysis is carried out with successive extracts of leaves of varying polarity of solvents. In DPPH and FRAP assays, ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) exhibit higher scavenging activity followed by ethanol fraction (EtOH) whereas in NOS assay ethanol fraction is slightly predominant over the EtOAc fraction. The LC-MS analysis provides tentative information about the presence of flavonoid C-glycoside in EtOAc fraction (yellow solid). Presence of flavonoid isorientin has been confirmed through isolation (PTLC) and detected by spectroscopy methods (UV-visible and (1)HNMR). Utilizing B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level of theory the structure and reactivity of flavonoid isoorientin theoretically have been explored. The analysis of the theoretical Bond dissociation energy values, for all OH sites of isoorientin reveals that minimum energy is required to dissociate H-atom from B-ring than A and C-rings. In order to validate the antioxidant characteristics of isoorientin the relevant molecular descriptors IP, HOMO-LUMO, Mulliken spin density analysis and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces have been computed and interpreted. From experimental and theoretical results, it is proved that isoorientin can act as potent antiradical scavenger in oxidative system. 10.1016/j.saa.2013.12.025
    Effects of Natural Flavonoid Isoorientin on Growth Performance and Gut Microbiota of Mice. Yuan Li,Li Xueyi,He Shenyuan,Gao Chunxia,Wang Chengtao,Shao Yuyu Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Isoorientin (ISO) is a natural flavonoid, which is a 6- C-glucoside of luteolin, and has been demonstrated to possess multiple biological properties. In this study, the effects of ISO on the growth performance and gut microbiota of BALB/c mice were investigated. The results showed that ISO could promote food intake and body weight gain, increase the digestibility of crude proteins and utilization of the gross energy, and strengthen antioxidant capacity of mice. We also demonstrated it has no side effects on hepatic and renal functions. Moreover, ISO inhibited the growth of most bacteria in gut microbiota, especially the pathogenic genera of Alistipes, Helicobacter, and Oscillibacter, which could lead to inflammation. Metabolisms of epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, and LPS biosynthesis proteins in gut microbiota of the control group were more abundant than those in the ISO group, while lipid metabolism and vitamin B metabolism were enriched in the ISO group. We found the changes in enrichments of metabolic pathways of the gut microbiota along with the ISO application were positively correlated with the antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antibiosis. This work provided a fundamental basis for the future development of ISO-functional foods used for resistance to oxidation, inflammation, and pathogens. 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03568
    Isoorientin improves scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments by restoring the cholinergic system, antioxidant defense, and p-CREB/BDNF signaling in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Ko Yong-Hyun,Kwon Seung-Hwan,Lee Seok-Yong,Jang Choon-Gon Archives of pharmacal research Isoorientin (ISO) is considered one of the most important flavonoids with various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Despite these beneficial activities, the effects of ISO on learning and memory have not been investigated so far. The current study evaluated the memory-enhancing effects of ISO in a scopolamine-treated mouse model by using the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. The results showed that ISO (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by scopolamine. Additionally, ISO significantly decreased scopolamine-induced acetylcholinesterase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance activities in both the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice. In addition, ISO significantly increased the levels of total superoxide dismutase induced by scopolamine in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, Western blot results indicated that ISO reversed the decreases in expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of scopolamine-treated mice. Thus, our results provide initial evidence that ISO ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory and cognitive impairments partly by restoring the cholinergic system, antioxidant defense, and p-CREB/BDNF signaling pathway, thereby exhibiting memory-enhancing activities. 10.1007/s12272-019-01172-7
    Isoorientin: A dietary flavone with the potential to ameliorate diverse metabolic complications. Ziqubu Khanyisani,Dludla Phiwayinkosi V,Joubert Elizabeth,Muller Christo J F,Louw Johan,Tiano Luca,Nkambule Bongani B,Kappo Abidemi P,Mazibuko-Mbeje Sithandiwe E Pharmacological research Isoorientin is a natural C-glucosyl flavone that is generating a lot of interest due to its multiple pharmacological activities. Increasing experimental data have shown that the robust antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin remain important in ameliorating a number of metabolic complications. In fact, plants rich in isoorientin have demonstrated strong ameliorative properties against complications such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. However, while such evidence is accumulating, it has not been reviewed to better inform on the therapeutic potential of this flavone in improving human health. This review examines and extrapolates available literature on the potential beneficial or detrimental effects associated with the use of isoorientin in mitigating metabolic diseases, with a specific focus on diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance, including associated complications. The discussion includes effective doses in various experimental settings and proposed molecular mechanisms by which isoorientin may exert its therapeutic effects. In addition, the protective effects of extracts of a number of isoorientin-rich plants against metabolic complications will be highlighted. 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104867
    Impact of Isoorientin on Metabolic Activity and Lipid Accumulation in Differentiated Adipocytes. Ziqubu Khanyisani,Muller Christo J F,Dludla Phiwayinkosi V,Mthembu Sinenhlanhla X H,Obonye Nnini,Louw Johan,Kappo Abidemi P,Silvestri Sonia,Orlando Patrick,Tiano Luca,Mazibuko-Mbeje Sithandiwe E Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) The current study explored the effect of isoorientin on the metabolic activity and lipid accumulation in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To achieve this, the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated for eight days and treated with various concentrations of isoorientin (0.1-100 μM) for four hours. Subsequently, the metabolic activity, lipid accumulation, and mitochondrial respiration were assessed. Furthermore, to unravel the molecular mechanisms that might elucidate the bioactivity of isoorientin, protein expression of the genes involved in insulin signaling and energy expenditure, such as AKT and AMPK, were investigated. The results showed that isoorientin, at different doses, could block lipid storage and enhance glycerol release, with a concomitant improvement of the metabolic activity and mitochondrial function. Although the observed beneficial effects of isoorientin on these cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were not consistent at all concentrations, it was clear that doses between 1 and 10 μM were most effective compared to the untreated control. Moreover, the activity of isoorientin was comparable to tested positive controls of CL-316,2431, isoproterenol, insulin, and metformin. Mechanistically, protein expression of AKT and AMPK, was enhanced with isoorientin exposure, suggesting their partial role in modulating lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Indeed, our results showed that isoorientin has the ability to enhance mitochondrial respiration, as we observed an increase in the ATP and oxygen consumption rate. Therefore, we concluded that isoorientin has a potential to impact mitochondrial activity, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure using an in vitro experimental model of obesity. 10.3390/molecules25081773
    Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of . Anilkumar Kotha,Reddy Gorla V,Azad Rajaram,Yarla Nagendra Sastry,Dharmapuri Gangappa,Srivastava Anand,Kamal Mohammad A,Pallu Reddanna Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor isolated from the tubers of , in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and interleukin 1- (IL-1-) both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties. 10.1155/2017/5498054
    Metabolism and plasma pharmacokinetics of isoorientin, a natural active ingredient, in Sprague-Dawley male rats after oral and intravenous administration. Shi Peiying,Lin Xinhua,Yao Hong Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems 1. Several pharmacological effects have been revealed on isoorientin, suggesting its potential medicinal prospects. The metabolic and plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of isoorientin were investigated in rats. 2. For intra-gastric gavage, parent drug and three metabolites were detected in urine and feces by HPLC-MS/MS, but only one metabolite was found in plasma and identified as isoorientin 3'- or 4'-O-sulfate (M1) according to MS and UV absorbance spectra. 3. After a single i.v. administration of isoorientin (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg B.W.) in rats, linear pharmacokinetic property was observed with favorable terminal half-lives (1.67 ± 1.32-2.07 ± 0.50 h). After a single p.o. administration of isoorientin (150 mg/kg B.W.) in rats, plasma isoorientin concentration was low, but the concentration of M1 was comparatively high. Low systemic exposure of oral isoorientin in rats could result from its low aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, and plasma concentration of M1 can be used as a biomarker of isoorientin intake. Isoorientin showed low oral bioavailability (8.98 ± 1.07%), and had about 6% or 45% dose recovery in urine or feces, respectively, 72 h after intra-gastric gavage. 4. These studies are the first to describe the pharmacokinetics of isoorientin via i.v. or p.o. dosing, providing important information for understanding its process in vivo. 10.3109/00498254.2015.1028513