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    A Neuroprotective Sericin Hydrogel As an Effective Neuronal Cell Carrier for the Repair of Ischemic Stroke. Wang Zheng,Wang Jian,Jin Yang,Luo Zhen,Yang Wen,Xie Hongjian,Huang Kai,Wang Lin ACS applied materials & interfaces Ischemic stroke causes extensive cellular loss that impairs brain functions, resulting in severe disabilities. No effective treatments are currently available for brain tissue regeneration. The need to develop effective therapeutic approaches for treating stroke is compelling. A tissue engineering approach employing a hydrogel carrying both cells and neurotrophic cytokines to damaged regions is an encouraging alternative for neuronal repair. However, this approach is often challenged by low in vivo cell survival rate, and low encapsulation efficiency and loss of cytokines. To address these limitations, we propose to develop a biomaterial that can form a matrix capable of improving in vivo survival of transplanted cells and reducing in vivo loss of cytokines. Here, we report that using sericin, a natural protein from silk, we have fabricated a genipin-cross-linked sericin hydrogel (GSH) with porous structure and mild swelling ratio. The GSH supports the effective attachment and growth of neurons in vitro. Strikingly, our data reveal that sericin protein is intrinsically neurotrophic and neuroprotective, promoting axon extension and branching as well as preventing primary neurons from hypoxia-induced cell death. Notably, these functions are inherited by the GSH's degradation products, which might spare a need of incorporating costly cytokines. We further demonstrate that this neurotrophic effect is dependent on the Lkb1-Nuak1 pathway, while the neuroprotective effect is realized through regulating the Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio. Importantly, when transplanted in vivo, the GSH gives a high cell survival rate and allows the cells to continuously proliferate. Together, this work unmasks the neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions for sericin and provides strong evidence justifying the GSH's suitability as a potential neuronal cell delivery vehicle for ischemic stroke repair. 10.1021/acsami.5b06804
    Hydrogels for brain repair after stroke: an emerging treatment option. Nih Lina Ratiba,Carmichael Stanley Thomas,Segura Tatiana Current opinion in biotechnology Stroke disability is the only major disease without an effective treatment. The substantial clinical burden of stroke in disabled survivors and the lack of a medical therapy that promotes recovery provide an opportunity to explore the use of biomaterials to promote brain repair after stroke. Hydrogels can be injected as a liquid and solidify in situ to form a gelatinous solid with similar mechanical properties to the brain. These biomaterials have been recently explored to generate pro-repair environments within the damaged organ. This review highlights the clinical problem of stroke treatment and discusses recent advances in using in situ forming hydrogels for brain repair. 10.1016/j.copbio.2016.04.021
    Biodegradation of ECM hydrogel promotes endogenous brain tissue restoration in a rat model of stroke. Ghuman Harmanvir,Mauney Carrinton,Donnelly Julia,Massensini Andre R,Badylak Stephen F,Modo Michel Acta biomaterialia The brain is considered to have a limited capacity to repair damaged tissue and no regenerative capacity following injury. Tissue lost after a stroke is therefore not spontaneously replaced. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based hydrogels implanted into the stroke cavity can attract endogenous cells. These hydrogels can be formulated at different protein concentrations that govern their rheological and inductive properties. We evaluated histologically 0, 3, 4 and 8 mg/mL of porcine-derived urinary bladder matrix (UBM)-ECM hydrogel concentrations implanted in a 14-day old stroke cavity. Less concentrated hydrogels (3 and 4 mg/mL) were efficiently degraded with a 95% decrease in volume by 90 days, whereas only 32% of the more concentrated and stiffer hydrogel (8 mg/mL) was resorbed. Macrophage infiltration and density within the bioscaffold progressively increased in the less concentrated hydrogels and decreased in the 8 mg/mL hydrogels. The less concentrated hydrogels showed a robust invasion of endothelial cells with neovascularization. No neovascularization occurred with the stiffer hydrogel. Invasion of neural cells increased with time in all hydrogel concentrations. Differentiation of neural progenitors into mature neurons with axonal projections was evident, as well as a robust invasion of oligodendrocytes. However, relatively few astrocytes were present in the ECM hydrogel, although some were present in the newly forming tissue between degrading scaffold patches. Implantation of an ECM hydrogel partially induced neural tissue restoration, but a more complete understanding is required to evaluate its potential therapeutic application. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Extracellular matrix hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in many peripheral soft tissues. However, the brain has generally been considered to lack the potential for tissue regeneration. We here demonstrate that tissue regeneration in the brain can be achieved using implantation of ECM hydrogel into a tissue cavity. A structure-function relationship is key to promote tissue regeneration in the brain. Specifically, weaker hydrogels that were retained in the cavity underwent an efficient biodegradation within 14 days post-implantation to promote a tissue restoration within the lesion cavity. In contrast, stiffer ECM hydrogel only underwent minor biodegradation and did not lead to a tissue restoration. Inductive hydrogels weaker than brain tissue provide the appropriate condition to promote an endogenous regenerative response that restores tissue in a cavity. This approach offers new avenues for the future treatment of chronic tissue damage caused by stroke and other acute brain injuries. 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.09.020
    A Hyaluronan-Based Injectable Hydrogel Improves the Survival and Integration of Stem Cell Progeny following Transplantation. Ballios Brian G,Cooke Michael J,Donaldson Laura,Coles Brenda L K,Morshead Cindi M,van der Kooy Derek,Shoichet Molly S Stem cell reports The utility of stem cells and their progeny in adult transplantation models has been limited by poor survival and integration. We designed an injectable and bioresorbable hydrogel blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC) and tested it with two cell types in two animal models, thereby gaining an understanding of its general applicability for enhanced cell distribution, survival, integration, and functional repair relative to conventional cell delivery in saline. HAMC improves cell survival and integration of retinal stem cell (RSC)-derived rods in the retina. The pro-survival mechanism of HAMC is ascribed to the interaction of the CD44 receptor with HA. Transient disruption of the retinal outer limiting membrane, combined with HAMC delivery, results in significantly improved rod survival and visual function. HAMC also improves the distribution, viability, and functional repair of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs). The HAMC delivery system improves cell transplantation efficacy in two CNS models, suggesting broad applicability. 10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.04.008
    Hydrogel-delivered brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes tissue repair and recovery after stroke. Cook Douglas J,Nguyen Cynthia,Chun Hyun N,L Llorente Irene,Chiu Abraham S,Machnicki Michal,Zarembinski Thomas I,Carmichael S Thomas Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Systemic delivery of candidate neural repair therapies is limited by the blood-brain barrier and off-target effects. We tested a bioengineering approach for local depot release of BDNF from the infarct cavity for neural repair in chronic periods after stroke. The brain release levels of a hyaluronic acid hydrogel + BDNF were tested in several stroke models in mouse (strains C57Bl/6, DBA) and non-human primate ( Macaca fascicularis) and tracked with MRI. The behavioral recovery effects of hydrogel + BDNF and the effects on tissue repair outcomes were determined. Hydrogel-delivered BDNF diffuses from the stroke cavity into peri-infarct tissue over 3 weeks in two mouse stroke models, compared with 1 week for direct BDNF injection. Hydrogel delivery of BDNF promotes recovery of motor function. Mapping of motor system connections indicates that hydrogel-BDNF induces axonal sprouting within existing cortical and cortico-striatal systems. Pharmacogenetic studies show that hydrogel-BDNF induces the initial migration of immature neurons into the peri-infarct cortex and their long-term survival. In chronic stroke in the non-human primate, hydrogel-released BDNF can be detected up to 2 cm from the infarct, a distance relevant to human functional recovery in stroke. The hydrogel can be tracked by MRI in mouse and primate. 10.1177/0271678X16649964
    Long-term retention of ECM hydrogel after implantation into a sub-acute stroke cavity reduces lesion volume. Ghuman Harmanvir,Gerwig Madeline,Nicholls Francesca J,Liu Jessie R,Donnelly Julia,Badylak Stephen F,Modo Michel Acta biomaterialia Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24h and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12weeks. Lesion volume, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and histology, was reduced by 28%, but a battery of behavioral tests (bilateral asymmetry test; footfault; rotameter) did not reveal a therapeutic or detrimental effect of the hydrogel. Glial scarring and peri-infarct astrocytosis were equivalent between untreated and treated animals, potentially indicating that permeation into host tissue is required to exert therapeutic effects. These results reveal a marked difference of biodegradation of ECM hydrogel in the stroke-damaged brain compared to peripheral soft tissue repair. Further exploration of these structure-function relationships is required to achieve a structural remodeling of the implanted hydrogel, as seen in peripheral tissues, to replace lost tissue and promote behavioral recovery. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:In situ gelation of ECM is essential for its retention within a tissue cavity. The brain is a unique environment with restricted access that necessitates image-guided delivery through a thin needle to access tissue cavities caused by stroke, as well as other conditions, such as traumatic brain injury or glioma resection. Knowledge about a brain tissue response to implanted hydrogels remains limited, especially in terms of long-term effects and potential impact on behavioral function. We here address the long-term retention of hydrogel within the brain environment, its impact on behavioral function, as well as its ability to reduce further tissue deformation caused by stroke. This study highlights considerable differences in the brain's long-term response to an ECM hydrogel compared to peripheral soft tissue. It underlines the importance of understanding the effect of the structural presence of a hydrogel within a cavity upon host brain tissue and behavioral function. As demonstrated herein, ECM hydrogel can fill a cavity long-term to reduce further progression of the cavity, while potentially serving as a reservoir for local drug or cell delivery. 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.011
    Enhancing neurogenesis and angiogenesis with target delivery of stromal cell derived factor-1α using a dual ionic pH-sensitive copolymer. Kim Dong Hee,Seo Young Kyu,Thambi Thavasyappan,Moon Gyeong Joon,Son Jung Pyo,Li Guangri,Park Jae Hyung,Lee Jung Hee,Kim Hyeon Ho,Lee Doo Sung,Bang Oh Young Biomaterials In this study, we hypothesized that the delivery of molecules that regulate the microenvironment after a cerebral infarction can influence regeneration potential after a stroke. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a chemoattractant molecule that plays a pivotal role in recruiting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to the infarct region after stroke. Increased SDF-1α expression leads to increased EPCs homing at the infarct region and induces neurogenesis, angiogenesis, neuroprotection, and stem cell homing. Thus, we evaluated the effects of targeted delivery of SDF-1α using a pH-sensitive polymer poly (urethane amino sulfamethazine) (PUASM), a synthetic macromolecule with potential for targeted drug delivery in acidic conditions, to enhance therapeutic neurogenesis and angiogenesis in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. A dual ionic pH-sensitive copolymer PUASM-based random copolymer was designed and synthesized for the controlled release of SDF-1α in stroke. Owing to the unique characteristics of PUASM, it exhibited a dual ionic pH-sensitive property in an aqueous solution. At pH 8.5, the copolymer exhibited a negative charge and was water soluble. Interestingly, when the pH decreased to 7.4, PUASM could form a micelle and encapsulate protein effectively via the ionic interaction between a negatively charged polymer and a positively charged protein. At pH 5.5, the ionization of tertiary amines led to the disassembly of the micellar structure and released the protein rapidly. Then, we investigated the effect of systemic administration of SDF-1α-loaded pH-sensitive polymeric micelles in a stroke induced rat model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed increased expression of SDF-1α in the ischemic region, indicating that the pH-sensitive micelles effectively delivered SDF-1α into the ischemic region. In order to observe the biodistribution of SDF-1α in the ischemic region, it was labeled with the near-infrared dye, Cy5.5. Optical imaging showed that the Cy5.5 signal increased in the infarct region 24 h after administration. Immunohistochemistry data showed that targeted delivery of SDF-1α enhanced neurogenesis and angiogenesis, but did not influence cell survival or inflammation. These observations suggest that SDF-1α-loaded pH-sensitive polymeric micelles can be used as pH-triggered targeting agents and can effectively modify the microenvironment to increase innate neurorestorative processes. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.05.025
    Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-drug conjugates with disulfide linkages for intracellular drug delivery. Kurtoglu Yunus E,Navath Raghavendra S,Wang Bing,Kannan Sujatha,Romero Robert,Kannan Rangaramanujam M Biomaterials Understanding and improving drug release kinetics from dendrimer-drug conjugates are key steps to improve their in vivo efficacy. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory agent with significant potential for clinical use in the treatment of neuroinflammation, stroke and cerebral palsy. There is a need for delivery of NAC which can enhance its efficacy, reduce dosage and prevent it from binding plasma proteins. For this purpose, a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-NAC conjugate that contains a disulfide linkage was synthesized and evaluated for its release kinetics in the presence of glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) at both physiological and lysosomal pH. The results indicate that the prepared conjugate can deliver approximately 60% of its NAC payload within 1h at intracellular GSH concentrations at physiological pH, whereas the conjugate did not release any drug at plasma GSH levels. The stability of the conjugate in the presence of bovine serum albumin at plasma concentrations was also demonstrated. The efficacy of the dendrimer-NAC conjugate was measured in activated microglial cells (target cells in vivo) using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. The conjugates showed an order of magnitude increase in antioxidant activity compared to free drug. When combined with intrinsic and ligand-based targeting with dendrimers, these types of GSH sensitive nanodevices can lead to improved drug release profiles and in vivo efficacy. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.12.054
    Dendrimer-drug conjugates for tailored intracellular drug release based on glutathione levels. Navath Raghavendra S,Kurtoglu Yunus E,Wang Bing,Kannan Sujatha,Romero Robert,Kannan Rangaramanujam M Bioconjugate chemistry N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with significant potential in clinical applications including stroke and neuroinflammation. The drug shows high plasma binding upon IV administration, requiring high doses and associated side effects. Through the use of an appropriate delivery vehicle, the stability and efficacy of NAC can be significantly improved. Dendrimers are an emerging class of nanoscale drug delivery vehicles, which enable high drug payloads and intracellular delivery. Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-NAC conjugates having cleavable disulfide linkages are designed for intracellular delivery based on glutathione levels. We have successfully synthesized two conjugates with a cationic G4-NH(2) and an anionic G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimer with NAC payloads of 16 and 18 per dendrimer, respectively, as confirmed by (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis. NAC release from the conjugates at intracellular and extracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations were evaluated by reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis, and approximately 70% of NAC payload was released within one hour at intracellular GSH concentrations (approximately 10 mM), whereas negligible NAC release was observed at extracellular GSH levels (2 microM). FITC-labeled conjugates showed that they enter cells rapidly and localize in the cytoplasm of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial cells (the target cells in vivo). The significantly improved efficacies of dendrimer-NAC conjugates in activated microglial cells was confirmed by measuring the nitrite inhibition in the cell culture medium, which is an indication of the antioxidative property of the drug. Both G4-NH(2) and G3.5-COOH conjugates showed significantly better nitrite inhibition both at 24 and 72 h compared to free NAC, by as much as a factor of 16. The results indicate that PAMAM dendrimer conjugates produce higher local NAC concentration inside the cells, with GSH-sensitive disulfide linker enabling efficient and rapid cellular release of the drug. 10.1021/bc800342d
    PAMAM dendrimers: blood-brain barrier transport and neuronal uptake after focal brain ischemia. Santos Sofia D,Xavier Miguel,Leite Diana M,Moreira Débora A,Custódio Beatriz,Torrado Marília,Castro Rita,Leiro Victoria,Rodrigues João,Tomás Helena,Pêgo Ana P Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Drug delivery to the central nervous system is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, with the onset of stroke, the BBB becomes leaky, providing a window of opportunity to passively target the brain. Here, cationic poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of different generations were functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to reduce cytotoxicity and prolong blood circulation half-life, aiming for a safe in vivo drug delivery system in a stroke scenario. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) was covalently tethered to the dendrimer backbone and used as a small surrogate drug as well as for tracking purposes. The biocompatibility of PAMAM was markedly increased by PEGylation as a function of dendrimer generation and degree of functionalization. The PEGylated RITC-modified dendrimers did not affect the integrity of an in vitro BBB model. Additionally, the functionalized dendrimers remained safe when in contact with the bEnd.3 cells and rat primary astrocytes composing the in vitro BBB model after hypoxia induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Modification with PEG also decreased the interaction and uptake by endothelial cells of PAMAM, indicating that the transport across a leaky BBB due to focal brain ischemia would be facilitated. Next, the functionalized dendrimers were tested in contact with red blood cells showing no haemolysis for the PEGylated PAMAM, in contrast to the unmodified dendrimer. Interestingly, the PEG-modified dendrimers reduced blood clotting, which may be an added beneficial function in the context of stroke. The optimized PAMAM formulation was intravenously administered in mice after inducing permanent focal brain ischemia. Twenty-four hours after administration, dendrimers could be detected in the brain, including in neurons of the ischemic cortex. Our results suggest that the proposed formulation has the potential for becoming a successful delivery vector for therapeutic application to the injured brain after stroke reaching the ischemic neurons. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.10.006
    Novel nanomaterials for clinical neuroscience. Gilmore Jamie L,Yi Xiang,Quan Lingdong,Kabanov Alexander V Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology Neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke are rapidly increasing as population ages. The field of nanomedicine is rapidly expanding and promises revolutionary advances to the diagnosis and treatment of devastating human diseases. This paper provides an overview of novel nanomaterials that have potential to improve diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, block ionomer complexes, nanogels, and dendrimers that have been tested clinically or in experimental models for delivery of drugs, genes, and imaging agents. More recently discovered nanotubes and nanofibers are evaluated as promising scaffolds for neuroregeneration. Novel experimental neuroprotective strategies also include nanomaterials, such as fullerenes, which have antioxidant properties to eliminate reactive oxygen species in the brain to mitigate oxidative stress. Novel technologies to enable these materials to cross the blood brain barrier will allow efficient systemic delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents to the brain. Furthermore, by combining such nanomaterials with cell-based delivery strategies, the outcomes of neurodegenerative disorders can be greatly improved. 10.1007/s11481-007-9099-6
    Hydrogel matrix to support stem cell survival after brain transplantation in stroke. Zhong Jin,Chan Albert,Morad Leeron,Kornblum Harley I,Fan Guoping,Carmichael S Thomas Neurorehabilitation and neural repair Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability. Stem/progenitor cell transplantation improves recovery after stroke in rodent models. These studies have 2 main limitations to clinical translation. First, most of the cells in stem/progenitor transplants die after brain transplantation. Second, intraparenchymal approaches target transplants to normal brain adjacent to the stroke, which is the site of the most extensive natural recovery in humans. Transplantation may damage this tissue. The stroke cavity provides an ideal target for transplantation because it is a compartmentalized region of necrosis, can accept a high volume transplant without tissue damage, and lies directly adjacent to the most plastic brain area in stroke. However, direct transplantation into the stroke cavity has caused massive death in the transplant. To overcome these limitations, the authors tested stem/progenitor transplants within a specific biopolymer hydrogel matrix to create a favorable environment for transplantation into the infarct cavity after stroke, and they tested this in comparison to stem cell injection without hydrogel support. A biopolymer hydrogel composed of cross-linked hyaluronan and heparin sulfate significantly promoted the survival of 2 different neural progenitor cell lines in vitro in conditions of stress and in vivo into the infarct cavity. Quantitative analysis of the transplant and surrounding tissue indicates diminished inflammatory infiltration of the graft with the hydrogel transplant. This result indicates that altering the local environment in stem cell transplantation enhances survival and diminishes cell stress. Stem cell transplantation into the infarct cavity within a pro-survival hydrogel matrix may provide a translational therapy for stroke recovery. 10.1177/1545968310361958
    Hydrogel delivery of erythropoietin to the brain for endogenous stem cell stimulation after stroke injury. Wang Yuanfei,Cooke Michael J,Morshead Cindi M,Shoichet Molly S Biomaterials Drug delivery to the brain is challenging because systemic delivery requires high doses to achieve diffusion across the blood-brain barrier and often results in systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular implantation of a minipump/catheter system provides local delivery, yet results in brain tissue damage and can be prone to infection. An alternate local delivery strategy, epi-cortical delivery, releases the biomolecule directly to the brain while causing minimal tissue disruption. We pursued this strategy with a hyaluronan/methyl cellulose (HAMC) hydrogel for the local release of erythropoietin to induce endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells of the subventricular zone to promote repair after stroke injury in the mouse brain. Erythropoeitin promotes neurogenesis when delivered intraventricularly, thereby making it an ideal biomolecule with which to test this new epi-cortical delivery strategy. We investigated HAMC in terms of the host tissue response and the diffusion of erythropoeitin therefrom in the stroke-injured brain for neural repair. Erythropoietin delivered from HAMC at 4 and 11 days post-stroke resulted in attenuated inflammatory response, reduced stroke cavity size, increased number of both neurons in the peri-infarct region and migratory neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, and decreased apoptosis in both the subventricular zone and the injured cortex. We demonstrate that HAMC-mediated epi-cortical administration is promising for minimally invasive delivery of erythropoeitin to the brain. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.12.031
    ECM hydrogel for the treatment of stroke: Characterization of the host cell infiltrate. Ghuman Harmanvir,Massensini Andre R,Donnelly Julia,Kim Sung-Min,Medberry Christopher J,Badylak Stephen F,Modo Michel Biomaterials Brain tissue loss following stroke is irreversible with current treatment modalities. The use of an acellular extracellular matrix (ECM), formulated to produce a hydrogel in situ within the cavity formed by a stroke, was investigated as a method to replace necrotic debris and promote the infiltration of host brain cells. Based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of lesion location and volume, different concentrations of ECM (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 mg/mL) were injected at a volume equal to that of the cavity (14 days post-stroke). Retention of ECM within the cavity occurred at concentrations >3 mg/mL. A significant cell infiltration into the ECM material in the lesion cavity occurred with an average of ∼36,000 cells in the 8 mg/mL concentration within 24 h. An infiltration of cells with distances of >1500 μm into the ECM hydrogel was observed, but the majority of cells were at the tissue/hydrogel boundary. Cells were typically of a microglia, macrophage, or neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor phenotype. At the 8 mg/mL concentration, ∼60% of infiltrating cells were brain-derived phenotypes and 30% being infiltrating peripheral macrophages, polarizing toward an M2-like anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that an 8 mg/mL ECM concentration promotes a significant acute endogenous repair response that could potentially be exploited to treat stroke. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.03.014
    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (diaCEST) affords magnetic resonance imaging of extracellular matrix hydrogel implantation in a rat model of stroke. Jin Tao,Nicholls Francesca J,Crum William R,Ghuman Harmanvir,Badylak Stephen F,Modo Michel Biomaterials Extracellular matrix (ECM) is widely used as an inductive biological scaffold to repair soft tissue after injury by promoting functional site-appropriate remodeling of the implanted material. However, there is a lack of non-invasive analysis methods to monitor the remodeling characteristics of the ECM material after implantation and its biodegradation over time. We describe the use of diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging to monitor the distribution of an ECM hydrogel after intracerebral implantation into a stroke cavity. In vitro imaging indicated a robust concentration-dependent detection of the ECM precursor and hydrogel at 1.8 and 3.6 ppm, which broadly corresponded to chondroitin sulfate and fibronectin. This detection was robust to changes in pH and improved at 37 °C. In vivo implantation of ECM hydrogel into the stroke cavity in a rat model corresponded macroscopically to the distribution of biomaterial as indicated by histology, but mismatches were also evident. Indeed, CEST imaging detected an endogenous "increased deposition". To account for this endogenous activity, pre-implantation images were subtracted from post-implantation images to yield a selective visualization of hydrogel distribution in the stroke cavity and its evolution over 7 days. The CEST detection of ECM returned to baseline within 3 days due to a decrease in fibronectin and chondroitin sulfate in the hydrogel. The distribution of ECM hydrogel within the stroke cavity is hence feasible in vivo, but further advances are required to warrant a selective long-term monitoring in the context of biodegradation. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.10.043
    pH gradient difference around ischemic brain tissue can serve as a trigger for delivering polyethylene glycol-conjugated urokinase nanogels. Cui Wei,Liu Ran,Jin Haiqiang,Lv Pu,Sun Yuyao,Men Xi,Yang Saina,Qu Xiaozhong,Yang Zhenzhong,Huang Yining Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:pH-sensitive polyethylene glycol-conjugated urokinase nanogels (PEG-UKs) were previously reported to be a new form of UK nanogels that could release UK at certain pH values. In this study, we evaluated the effect of PEG-UK targeted to ischemic tissue with microcirculation failure in rat model of ischemic stroke and investigated the possible mechanisms of action. METHODS:Surgeries were performed to induce persistent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The pH distribution in the brain was mapped 1h after ischemia using a needle-type pH micro sensor. The release curve of active UK from PEG-UK was also mapped by a continuous measurement of the peripheral blood. The thrombolytic effects of PEG-UK, when it was administrated 1h after occlusion, including dynamic changes in the D-dimer level, neurological deficits and infarction volume, were observed. Next, the possible mechanisms underlying these effects were explored, including the BBB integrity and the extent of apoptosis and neurotoxicity. Additionally, the long-term effects of PEG-UK during the four weeks after treatment were evaluated using the dynamic changes in the body weights and clinical scores and the numbers of deaths and hemorrhagic transformations (HTs). To evaluate the systemic side effects of PEG-UK, the fluctuations of cytokines in the liver and kidney were evaluated. RESULTS:On average, MCA occlusion for 1h induced an approximately 0.49 decline in the pH value (from 7.12 to 6.73), and the lowest value was 6.32 in the predominantly affected region around the cortex. PEG suspended the release of UK from PEG-UK into the circulation. When it was administrated 1h after occlusion, PEG-UK treatment clearly reduced the severity of neurological deficits in the acute phase (P=0.001). The relative infarct volume also decreased significantly in PEG-UK rats (P<0.001). As to the integrity of BBB, the EB leakage in the PEG-UK group was reduced (P=0.001). Maintenance of the expression of TIMP-1 (P=0.032) and claudin5 (P<0.001) and inhibition of MMP9 upregulation (P<0.001) were observed through both immunohistochemistry and Western blot in the PEG-UK group. Moreover, the expression of both NMDAR1 (P<0.001) and Caspase9 (P=0.013) in PEG-UK-treated rats was reduced. As to the long-term prognosis, the rats in PEG-UK group recovered faster and better, and the numbers of deaths and HTs were not increased. No significant fluctuation in IL-1β and TNF-α was found in the PEG-UK-treated rats during the four post-treatment weeks. When PEG-UK was administrated 2.5h after occlusion, no clearly better outcomes were observed; however, the number of HTs was not increased. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with PEG-UK decreased the severity of ischemic stroke by improving ischemic brain tissue and protecting the BBB and by inhibiting apoptosis and decreasing neurotoxicity. PEG-UK could further inhibit HT through its BBB protection effect. The administration of PEG-UK also improved the long-term prognosis and had no obvious systemic side effects in rats. Our data provide new insights into the thrombolytic treatment of ischemic stroke. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.01.028
    The protective effect of polyethylene glycol-conjugated urokinase nanogels in rat models of ischemic stroke when administrated outside the usual time window. Cui Wei,Liu Ran,Jin Haiqiang,Huang Yining,Liu Wenhong,He Maolin Biochemical and biophysical research communications pH-sensitive polyethylene glycol-conjugated urokinase nanogels (PEG-UK) is a new form of urokinase (UK) nanogels that could release UK at certain pH values. In our former study, we demonstrated that the pH value in the infarcted brain significantly declined to the level that could trigger the delivery of UK from PEG-UK. Thrombolysis is recommended as the first choice for ischemic stroke within the time window. However, it is common for the patients to miss the thrombolysis time window, which is one of the major causes of bad prognosis from ischemic stroke. It remains promising for seeking therapeutic approaches for ischemic stroke by investigating potential protective reagents delivered out of the usually thrombolysis time window. In this study, the protective effect of administration of PEG-UK outside the usual time window and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. PEG-UK was administrated 2 h and a half after ischemic stroke Delayed administration of PEG-UK significantly ameliorated the severity of neurological deficits of permanent middle cerebral occlusion (pMCAO) rats and reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the concentration of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the brain tissues. The content of water and the leakage of Evans Blue (EB) in the PEG-UK group were also decreased. Maintenance of the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) and inhibition of the upregulation of metalloproteinase proteins, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were observed through western blotting and realtime PCR in the PEG-UK group. Besides, delayed administration of PEG-UK attenuated the up regulation of Caspase8 and Caspase9 and the cleavage of Caspase3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in ischemic lesion sites. Moreover, PEG-UK treatment also inhibited the upregulation and phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs), which has been revealed to play a vital role in mediating excito-neurotoxicity in ischemic stroke. In conclusion, through the inhibition of LRP/NF-κB/Cox-2 pathway, the Caspase cascade and activation of NMDARs, administration of PEG-UK outside the usual time window could still exert protective effects in pMCAO rats through the maintenance of the integrity of BBB and the inhibition of apoptosis and excito-neurotoxicity. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.01.032
    Nanotechnological advances for the delivery of CNS therapeutics. Wong Ho Lun,Wu Xiao Yu,Bendayan Reina Advanced drug delivery reviews Effective non-invasive treatment of neurological diseases is often limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). The majority of drugs and biotechnological agents do not readily permeate into brain parenchyma due to the presence of two anatomical and biochemical dynamic barriers: the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Therefore, one of the most significant challenges facing CNS drug development is the availability of effective brain targeting technology. Recent advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. Several nanocarriers ranging from the more established systems, e.g. polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles to the newer systems, e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions have been studied for the delivery of CNS therapeutics. Many of these nanomedicines can be effectively transported across various in vitro and in vivo BBB models by endocytosis and/or transcytosis, and demonstrated early preclinical success for the management of CNS conditions such as brain tumors, HIV encephalopathy, Alzheimer's disease and acute ischemic stroke. Future development of CNS nanomedicines need to focus on increasing their drug-trafficking performance and specificity for brain tissue using novel targeting moieties, improving their BBB permeability and reducing their neurotoxicity. 10.1016/j.addr.2011.10.007
    Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lysine) copolymer bearing nitroaromatics for hypoxia-sensitive drug delivery. Thambi Thavasyappan,Son Soyoung,Lee Doo Sung,Park Jae Hyung Acta biomaterialia UNLABELLED:Hypoxia occurs in a variety of pathological conditions including stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and tumors. In this study, an amphiphilic block copolymer, composed of poly(ethylene glycol) as the hydrophilic block and poly(ε-(4-nitro)benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine) as the hydrophobic block, was prepared for hypoxia-sensitive drug delivery. Owing to its amphiphilic nature, the block copolymer formed micelles and encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) in an aqueous condition. The DOX-loaded micelles exhibited rapid intracellular release of DOX under the hypoxic condition, implying high potential as a drug carrier for cancer therapy. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Hypoxia occurs in a variety of pathological conditions including stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and tumors. In this study, we developed a novel type of hypoxia-sensitive polymeric micelles (HS-PMs) that can specifically release the drug under the hypoxic conditions. HS-PMs were prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) as the hydrophilic block and poly(ε-(4-nitro)benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine) as the hydrophobic block. Owing to its amphiphilic nature, the block copolymer formed micelles and encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) in an aqueous condition. The DOX-loaded micelles exhibited rapid intracellular release of DOX under the hypoxic condition. Overall, it is evident that the HS-PMs prepared in this study have the potential to effectively deliver hydrophobic drugs into the hypoxic cells involved in various intractable diseases. 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.10.011
    The use of pH-sensitive positively charged polymeric micelles for protein delivery. Gao Guang Hui,Park Min Jung,Li Yi,Im Geun Ho,Kim Jae-Hoon,Kim Hun Nyun,Lee Jae Won,Jeon Pyoung,Bang Oh Young,Lee Jung Hee,Lee Doo Sung Biomaterials In this investigation, a nano-sized protein-encapsulated polymeric micelle was prepared by self-assembling human serum albumin (HSA) as a model protein and degradable block copolymer methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(β-amino ester) (PEG-PAE) with piperidine and imidazole rings. From the zeta potential measurement, the protein-encapsulated polymeric micelle showed a pH-tuning charge conversion from neutral to positive when pH decreases from 7.8 to 6.2. It was envisioned that the pH-tunable positively charged polymeric micelle could enhance the protein delivery efficiency and, simultaneously, target to the pH-stimuli tissue, such as cancerous tissue or ischemia. The pH-dependent particle size and scattering intensity were also measured and showed 50-70 nm particle size. Consequently, the circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed that the secondary structure of albumin was unaffected during the pH changing process. The in vitro cytotoxicity for the polymeric micelle was evaluated on MDA-MB-435 cell lines and no obvious toxicity could be observed when the polymer concentration was below 200 μg/mL. To assess the ability of this pH-tunable positively charged polymeric micelle as a vehicle for protein delivery to in vivo acidic tissues, we utilized a disease rat model of cerebral ischemia that produced an acidic tissue due to its pathologic condition. The rat was intravenously injected with the Cy5.5-labled albumin-encapsulated polymeric micelle. We found a gradual increase in fluorescence signals of the brain ischemic area, indicating that the pH-tuning positively charged protein-encapsulated polymeric micelle could be effective for targeting the acidic environment and diagnostic imaging. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.09.016
    Microthrombus-Targeting Micelles for Neurovascular Remodeling and Enhanced Microcirculatory Perfusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Lu Yifei,Li Chao,Chen Qinjun,Liu Peixin,Guo Qin,Zhang Yu,Chen Xinli,Zhang Yujie,Zhou Wenxi,Liang Donghui,Zhang Yiwen,Sun Tao,Lu Weigen,Jiang Chen Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Reperfusion injury exists as the major obstacle to full recovery of neuron functions after ischemic stroke onset and clinical thrombolytic therapies. Complex cellular cascades including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and brain vascular impairment occur within neurovascular units, leading to microthrombus formation and ultimate neuron death. In this work, a multitarget micelle system is developed to simultaneously modulate various cell types involved in these events. Briefly, rapamycin is encapsulated in self-assembled micelles that are consisted of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive and fibrin-binding polymers to achieve micelle retention and controlled drug release within the ischemic lesion. Neuron survival is reinforced by the combination of micelle facilitated ROS elimination and antistress signaling pathway interference under ischemia conditions. In vivo results demonstrate an overall remodeling of neurovascular unit through micelle polarized M2 microglia repair and blood-brain barrier preservation, leading to enhanced neuroprotection and blood perfusion. This strategy gives a proof of concept that neurovascular units can serve as an integrated target for ischemic stroke treatment with nanomedicines. 10.1002/adma.201808361
    A dense poly(ethylene glycol) coating improves penetration of large polymeric nanoparticles within brain tissue. Nance Elizabeth A,Woodworth Graeme F,Sailor Kurt A,Shih Ting-Yu,Xu Qingguo,Swaminathan Ganesh,Xiang Dennis,Eberhart Charles,Hanes Justin Science translational medicine Prevailing opinion suggests that only substances up to 64 nm in diameter can move at appreciable rates through the brain extracellular space (ECS). This size range is large enough to allow diffusion of signaling molecules, nutrients, and metabolic waste products, but too small to allow efficient penetration of most particulate drug delivery systems and viruses carrying therapeutic genes, thereby limiting effectiveness of many potential therapies. We analyzed the movements of nanoparticles of various diameters and surface coatings within fresh human and rat brain tissue ex vivo and mouse brain in vivo. Nanoparticles as large as 114 nm in diameter diffused within the human and rat brain, but only if they were densely coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Using these minimally adhesive PEG-coated particles, we estimated that human brain tissue ECS has some pores larger than 200 nm and that more than one-quarter of all pores are ≥ 100 nm. These findings were confirmed in vivo in mice, where 40- and 100-nm, but not 200-nm, nanoparticles spread rapidly within brain tissue, only if densely coated with PEG. Similar results were observed in rat brain tissue with paclitaxel-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles of similar size (85 nm) and surface properties. The ability to achieve brain penetration with larger nanoparticles is expected to allow more uniform, longer-lasting, and effective delivery of drugs within the brain, and may find use in the treatment of brain tumors, stroke, neuroinflammation, and other brain diseases where the blood-brain barrier is compromised or where local delivery strategies are feasible. 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003594
    Direct Macromolecular Drug Delivery to Cerebral Ischemia Area using Neutrophil-Mediated Nanoparticles. Zhang Chun,Ling Cheng-Li,Pang Liang,Wang Qi,Liu Jing-Xin,Wang Bing-Shan,Liang Jian-Ming,Guo Yi-Zhen,Qin Jing,Wang Jian-Xin Theranostics Delivery of macromolecular drugs to the brain is impeded by the blood brain barrier. The recruitment of leukocytes to lesions in the brain, a typical feature of neuroinflammation response which occurs in cerebral ischemia, offers a unique opportunity to deliver drugs to inflammation sites in the brain. In the present study, cross-linked dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL) nanoparticles containing cis-aconitic anhydride-modified catalase and modified with PGP, an endogenous tripeptide that acts as a ligand with high affinity to neutrophils, were developed to form the PGP-PEG-DGL/CAT-Aco system. Significant binding efficiency to neutrophils, efficient protection of catalase enzymatic activity from degradation and effective transport to receiver cells were revealed in the delivery system. Delivery of catalase to ischemic subregions and cerebral neurocytes in MCAO mice was significantly enhanced, which obviously reducing infarct volume in MCAO mice. Thus, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia was greatly improved. The underlying mechanism was found to be related to the inhibition of ROS-mediated apoptosis. Considering that neuroinflammation occurs in many neurological disorders, the strategy developed here is not only promising for treatment of cerebral ischemia but also an effective approach for various CNS diseases related to inflammation. 10.7150/thno.19979
    Dendrimer grafted albumin nanoparticles for the treatment of post cerebral stroke damages: A proof of concept study. Pradhan Deepak,Tambe Vishakha,Raval Nidhi,Gondalia Piyush,Bhattacharya Pallab,Kalia Kiran,Tekade Rakesh K Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces Stroke is the second largest disease of mortality. The biggest hurdle in designing effective brain drug delivery systems is offered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is highly impermeable to many drugs. Albumin nanoparticles (NP) have gained attention due to their multiple ligand binding sites and long circulatory half-life. Citicoline (CIT) is reported to enhance the acetylcholine secretion in the brain and also helps in membrane repair and regeneration. However, the poor BBB permeation of CIT results in lower levels of CIT in the brain. This demands the development of a suitable delivery platform to completely realize the therapeutic benefit of CIT in stroke therapy. This investigation reports the synthesis and characterization of second generation (2.0 G) dendrimer Amplified Albumin (dAA) biopolymer by FTIR, MALDI-TOF, and surface charge (mV). Further, the synthesized biopolymer has been utilized to develop a CIT nanoformulation using a commercially translatable one-pot process. Release of CIT from biopolymer was performed within an acetate buffer at pH 5 and Phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Further, we investigated the ability of biopolymer to permeate BBB by in vitro permeability assay in bEnd.3 cells. MTT assay of CIT-dAA-NP, CIT-ANP, and 2.0 G PAMAM dendrimers was performed in bEnd.3 cells. Therapeutic efficacy of the synthesized biopolymer was determined by VEGF gene expression within an in vitro hypoxia model in PC12 cells. Thus, this investigation resulted in biopolymers that can be used to deliver any therapeutic agent by altering the permeability of the BBB. Also, cationization by dendrimer grafting is one such strategy that may be used to cationize any other negatively charged polymer, such as albumin. The synthesized biopolymer is not limited to deliver molecules to the brain, but can also be used to increase the loading of negatively-charged drug molecules, siRNA, or any other oligonucleotide. 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.110488
    Endothelial siRNA delivery in nonhuman primates using ionizable low-molecular weight polymeric nanoparticles. Khan Omar F,Kowalski Piotr S,Doloff Joshua C,Tsosie Jonathan K,Bakthavatchalu Vasudevan,Winn Caroline Bodi,Haupt Jennifer,Jamiel Morgan,Langer Robert,Anderson Daniel G Science advances Dysfunctional endothelial cells contribute to the pathophysiology of many diseases, including vascular disease, stroke, hypertension, atherosclerosis, organ failure, diabetes, retinopathy, and cancer. Toward the goal of creating a new RNA-based therapy to correct aberrant endothelial cell gene expression in humans, efficient gene silencing in the endothelium of nonhuman primates was achieved by delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) with 7C1, a low-molecular weight, ionizable polymer that forms nanoparticles. After a single intravenous administration of 1 mg of siRNA per kilogram of animal, 7C1 nanoparticles delivering Tie2 siRNA caused Tie2 mRNA levels to decrease by approximately 80% in the endothelium of the lung. Significant decreases in Tie2 mRNA were also found in the heart, retina, kidney, pancreas, and bone. Blood chemistry and liver function analysis before and after treatment all showed protein and enzyme concentrations within the normal reference ranges. Furthermore, after controlling for siRNA-specific effects, no significant increases in inflammatory cytokine concentrations were found in the serum. Similarly, no gross lesions or significant underlying pathologies were observed after histological examination of nonhuman primate tissues. This study is the first demonstration of endothelial gene silencing in multiple nonhuman primate organs using systemically administered siRNA nanoparticles and highlights the potential of this approach for the treatment of disease in humans. 10.1126/sciadv.aar8409
    Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia. Ferreira R,Fonseca M C,Santos T,Sargento-Freitas J,Tjeng R,Paiva F,Castelo-Branco M,Ferreira L S,Bernardino L Nanoscale Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature. 10.1039/c5nr09077f
    Intraperitoneal delivery of acetate-encapsulated liposomal nanoparticles for neuroprotection of the penumbra in a rat model of ischemic stroke. So Po-Wah,Ekonomou Antigoni,Galley Kim,Brody Leigh,Sahuri-Arisoylu Meliz,Rattray Ivan,Cash Diana,Bell Jimmy D International journal of nanomedicine Background:Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition, with metabolic derangement and persistent inflammation enhancing the initial insult of ischaemia. Recombinant tissue plasminogen remains the only effective treatment but limited as therapy must commence soon after the onset of symptoms. Purpose:We investigated whether acetate, which modulates many pathways including inflammation, may attenuate brain injury in stroke. As acetate has a short blood half-life and high amounts irritate the gastrointestinal tract, acetate was administered encapsulated in a liposomal nanoparticle (liposomal-encapsulated acetate, LITA). Methods:Transient ischemia was induced by 90 mins middle-cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats, and LITA or control liposomes given intraperitoneally at occlusion and daily for up to two weeks post-MCAO. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate lesion volume at 24 h, 1 and 2 weeks post-MCAO and anterior lateral ventricular volume (ALVv) at 2 weeks post-MCAO. Locomotive behaviour was tested prior to the final MRI scan. After the final scan, brains were collected, and immunohistochemistry was performed. Results:Lesion volumes were decreased by ~80% from 24 h to one-week post-MCAO, in both control and LITA groups (⩽0.05). However, the lesion was increased by ~50% over the subsequent 1 to 2 weeks after MCAO in the control group (from 24.1±10.0 to 58.7±28.6 mm; ⩽0.05) but remained unchanged in the LITA group. ALVv were also attenuated by LITA treatment at 2 weeks post-MCAO (177.2±11.9% and 135.3±10.9% of contralateral ALVv for control and LITA groups, respectively; ⩽0.05). LITA-treated animals also appeared to have improved motor activity, moving with greater average velocity than control animals. Microglial immunoreactivity was ~40% lower in the LITA group compared to the control group (⩽0.05), but LITA did not modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, histone acetylation and lipid peroxidation. Conclusion:LITA appears to attenuate the harmful chronic neuroinflammation observed during brain remodeling after a focal ischemic insult. 10.2147/IJN.S193965
    Advanced materials and nanotechnology for drug delivery. Yan Li,Yang Yang,Zhang Wenjun,Chen Xianfeng Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Many biological barriers are of great importance. For example, stratum corneum, the outmost layer of skin, effectively protects people from being invaded by external microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling substances to enter and leave cells. However, on the other hand, these biological barriers seriously restrict drug delivery. For instance, stratum corneum has a very dense structure and only allows very small molecules with a molecular weight of below 500 Da to permeate whereas most drug molecules are much larger than that. A wide variety of drugs including genes needs to enter cells for proper functioning but cell membranes are not permeable to them. To overcome these biological barriers, many drug-delivery routes are being actively researched and developed. In this research news, we will focus on two advanced materials and nanotechnology approaches for delivering vaccines through the skin for painless and efficient immunization and transporting drug molecules to cross cell membranes for high-throughput intracellular delivery. 10.1002/adma.201305683
    Nanotechnology for drug delivery: the perfect partnership. Farokhzad Omid C Expert opinion on drug delivery The pipelines of pharmaceutical companies are in many cases believed to be drying up and many blockbuster drugs are expected to be coming off patent in the near term. The application of nanotechnology to drug delivery is widely expected to create novel therapeutics capable of changing the landscape for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. This editorial highlights the nanotechnology platforms that are under development or in clinical use today, and points to exciting areas of opportunity where nanotechnology may enable the development of more effective and safer targeted therapeutics for a myriad of clinical applications. 10.1517/17425247.5.9.927
    Facing the truth about nanotechnology in drug delivery. Park Kinam ACS nano Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient truths. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. 10.1021/nn404501g
    Nanotechnology and Microtechnology in Drug Delivery Systems. Sun Jingyao,Yang Zhaogang,Teng Lesheng Dose-response : a publication of International Hormesis Society A special issue of the journal entitled "Nanotechnology and Microtechnology in Drug Delivery Systems" is proposed. In pharmaceutical studies, new and existing drugs continue to be investigated for their poor specificity, solubility, therapeutic index, and immunogenicity. In order to solve these problems, drug delivery systems are essential for controlled drug release. It has been shown that the size and shape (nano- or micro-) of drug carriers can affect a drug's circulation time, distribution, and cellular uptake. Hence, it is not surprising that nanotechnology and microtechnology have been explored as powerful tools for drug delivery in past decades. The main topics will be related to the technologies including microtechnology for the sustained release of drug, nanotechnology for the targeting delivery of drugs, new polymer materials nanotechnology, nanotechnology in drugs combination application, and so on. 10.1177/1559325820907810
    Cerebral ischemia and neuroregeneration. Lee Reggie H C,Lee Michelle H H,Wu Celeste Y C,Couto E Silva Alexandre,Possoit Harlee E,Hsieh Tsung-Han,Minagar Alireza,Lin Hung Wen Neural regeneration research Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although stroke (a form of cerebral ischemia)-related costs are expected to reach 240.67 billion dollars by 2030, options for treatment against cerebral ischemia/stroke are limited. All therapies except anti-thrombolytics (i.e., tissue plasminogen activator) and hypothermia have failed to reduce neuronal injury, neurological deficits, and mortality rates following cerebral ischemia, which suggests that development of novel therapies against stroke/cerebral ischemia are urgently needed. Here, we discuss the possible mechanism(s) underlying cerebral ischemia-induced brain injury, as well as current and future novel therapies (i.e., growth factors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, melatonin, resveratrol, protein kinase C isozymes, pifithrin, hypothermia, fatty acids, sympathoplegic drugs, and stem cells) as it relates to cerebral ischemia. 10.4103/1673-5374.228711
    Nanotechnology for angiogenesis: opportunities and challenges. Kargozar Saeid,Baino Francesco,Hamzehlou Sepideh,Hamblin Michael R,Mozafari Masoud Chemical Society reviews Angiogenesis plays a critical role within the human body, from the early stages of life (i.e., embryonic development) to life-threatening diseases (e.g., cancer, heart attack, stroke, wound healing). Many pharmaceutical companies have expended huge efforts on both stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis. During the last decade, the nanotechnology revolution has made a great impact in medicine, and regulatory approvals are starting to be achieved for nanomedicines to treat a wide range of diseases. Angiogenesis therapies involve the inhibition of angiogenesis in oncology and ophthalmology, and stimulation of angiogenesis in wound healing and tissue engineering. This review aims to summarize nanotechnology-based strategies that have been explored in the broad area of angiogenesis. Lipid-based, carbon-based and polymeric nanoparticles, and a wide range of inorganic and metallic nanoparticles are covered in detail. Theranostic and imaging approaches can be facilitated by nanoparticles. Many preparations have been reported to have a bimodal effect where they stimulate angiogenesis at low dose and inhibit it at higher doses. 10.1039/c8cs01021h
    Nanotechnology based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for neuroscience with special emphasis on ischemic stroke. Nair S B,Dileep A,Rajanikant G K Current medicinal chemistry Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide, for which no effective therapies are available. The increasing prevalence of ischemic stroke and related health risks, combined with the lack of effective therapies, highlight the desperate need for continued research for exploring the safe and effective drugs, which favourably influence multiple pathways leading to neuroprotection and extend the benefit to a larger number of patients diagnosed with stroke. Numerous preclinical studies have reported very promising results using "neuroprotectants", all of which have failed at clinical trials because of either safety issues or lack of efficacy. The delivery of many potentially therapeutic neuroprotectants and diagnostic compounds to specific areas of the brain is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) have colossal applications that could revolutionize the treatment of ischemic stroke. NPs can readily transmigrate across the BBB without compromising its integrity. Recent striking developments in nanotechnology have produced a great deal of nano-devices, which could be used for the treatment and neuronal regeneration following ischemic stroke. This article attempts to convey the untapped potentials of nanopharmaceuticals for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Looking towards the future, this review focuses on the potential applications of nanoparticulate systems for the delivery of therapeutic cargo into the brain for imparting neuroprotection against ischemic stroke. This review also provides an overview of targeted NPs, which are being used for imaging, neuroprotection and regeneration of ischemic brain.
    Therapeutic benefits of nanoparticles in stroke. Panagiotou Stavros,Saha Sikha Frontiers in neuroscience Stroke represents one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide, for which no effective treatments are available. The thrombolytic drug alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is the only treatment for acute ischemic stroke but its use is limited by several factors including short therapeutic window, selective efficacy, and subsequent haemorrhagic complications. Numerous preclinical studies have reported very promising results using neuroprotective agents but they have failed at clinical trials because of either safety issues or lack of efficacy. The delivery of many potentially therapeutic neuroprotectants and diagnostic compounds to the brain is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs), which can readily cross the BBB without compromising its integrity, have immense applications in the treatment of ischemic stroke. In this review, potential uses of NPs will be summarized for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Additionally, an overview of targeted NPs will be provided, which could be used in the diagnosis of stroke. Finally, the potential limitations of using NPs in medical applications will be mentioned. Since the use of NPs in stroke therapy is now emerging and is still in development, this review is far from comprehensive or conclusive. Instead, examples of NPs and their current use will be provided, as well as the potentials of NPs in an effort to meet the high demand of new therapies in stroke. 10.3389/fnins.2015.00182
    Targeted Drug Delivery to Stroke via Chemotactic Recruitment of Nanoparticles Coated with Membrane of Engineered Neural Stem Cells. Ma Junning,Zhang Shenqi,Liu Jun,Liu Fuyao,Du Fenyi,Li Miao,Chen Ann T,Bao Youmei,Suh Hee Won,Avery Jonathan,Deng Gang,Zhou Yu,Wu Peng,Sheth Kevin,Wang Haijun,Zhou Jiangbing Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) Cell membrane coating has recently emerged as a promising biomimetic approach to engineering nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted drug delivery. However, simple cell membrane coating may not meet the need for efficient drug delivery to the brain. Here, a novel molecular engineering strategy to modify the surface of NPs with a cell membrane coating for enhanced brain penetration is reported. By using poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid NPs as a model, it is shown that delivery of NPs to the ischemic brain is enhanced through surface coating with the membrane of neural stem cells (NSCs), and the delivery efficiency can be further increased using membrane isolated from NSCs engineered for overexpression of CXCR4. It is found that this enhancement is mediated by the chemotactic interaction of CXCR4 with SDF-1, which is enriched in the ischemic microenvironment. It is demonstrated that the resulting CXCR4-overexpressing membrane-coated NPs, termed CMNPs, significantly augment the efficacy of glyburide, an anti-edema agent, for stroke treatment. The study suggests a new approach to improving drug delivery to the ischemic brain and establishes a novel formulation of glyburide that can be potentially translated into clinical applications to improve management of human patients with stroke. 10.1002/smll.201902011
    Bioengineered Boronic Ester Modified Dextran Polymer Nanoparticles as Reactive Oxygen Species Responsive Nanocarrier for Ischemic Stroke Treatment. Lv Wei,Xu Jianpei,Wang Xiaoqi,Li Xinrui,Xu Qunwei,Xin Hongliang ACS nano Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Current drug delivery vehicles for the treatment of ischemic stroke are less than satisfactory, in large part due to their short circulation lives, lack of specific targeting to the ischemic site, and poor controllability of drug release. In light of the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ischemic neuron, we herein developed a bioengineered ROS-responsive nanocarrier for stroke-specific delivery of a neuroprotective agent, NR2B9C, against ischemic brain damage. The nanocarrier is composed of a dextran polymer core modified with ROS-responsive boronic ester and a red blood cell (RBC) membrane shell with stroke homing peptide (SHp) inserted. These targeted "core-shell" nanoparticles (designated as SHp-RBC-NP) could thus have controlled release of NR2B9C triggered by high intracellular ROS in ischemic neurons after homing to ischemic brain tissues. The potential of the SHp-RBC-NP for ischemic stroke therapy was systematically evaluated in vitro and in rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In vitro results showed that the SHp-RBC-NP had great protective effects on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in PC-12 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) testing further demonstrated that the bioengineered nanoparticles can drastically prolong the systemic circulation of NR2B9C, enhance the active targeting of the ischemic area in the MCAO rats, and reduce ischemic brain damage. 10.1021/acsnano.8b00477
    Nanotechnology for the detection and therapy of stroke. Kyle Stuart,Saha Sikha Advanced healthcare materials Over the years, nanotechnology has greatly developed, moving from careful design strategies and synthesis of novel nanostructures to producing them for specific medical and biological applications. The use of nanotechnology in diagnostics, drug delivery, and tissue engineering holds great promise for the treatment of stroke in the future. Nanoparticles are employed to monitor grafted cells upon implantation, or to enhance the imagery of the tissue, which is coupled with a noninvasive imaging modality such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed axial tomography or positron emission tomography scan. Contrast imaging agents used can range from iron oxide, perfluorocarbon, cerium oxide or platinum nanoparticles to quantum dots. The use of nanomaterial scaffolds for neuroregeneration is another area of nanomedicine, which involves the creation of an extracellular matrix mimic that not only serves as a structural support but promotes neuronal growth, inhibits glial differentiation, and controls hemostasis. Promisingly, carbon nanotubes can act as scaffolds for stem cell therapy and functionalizing these scaffolds may enhance their therapeutic potential for treatment of stroke. This Progress Report highlights the recent developments in nanotechnology for the detection and therapy of stroke. Recent advances in the use of nanomaterials as tissue engineering scaffolds for neuroregeneration will also be discussed. 10.1002/adhm.201400009
    Ischaemic stroke. Campbell Bruce C V,De Silva Deidre A,Macleod Malcolm R,Coutts Shelagh B,Schwamm Lee H,Davis Stephen M,Donnan Geoffrey A Nature reviews. Disease primers Stroke is the second highest cause of death globally and a leading cause of disability, with an increasing incidence in developing countries. Ischaemic stroke caused by arterial occlusion is responsible for the majority of strokes. Management focuses on rapid reperfusion with intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy, which both reduce disability but are time-critical. Accordingly, improving the system of care to reduce treatment delays is key to maximizing the benefits of reperfusion therapies. Intravenous thrombolysis reduces disability when administered within 4.5 h of the onset of stroke. Thrombolysis also benefits selected patients with evidence from perfusion imaging of salvageable brain tissue for up to 9 h and in patients who awake with stroke symptoms. Endovascular thrombectomy reduces disability in a broad group of patients with large vessel occlusion when performed within 6 h of stroke onset and in patients selected by perfusion imaging up to 24 h following stroke onset. Secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke shares many common elements with cardiovascular risk management in other fields, including blood pressure control, cholesterol management and antithrombotic medications. Other preventative interventions are tailored to the mechanism of stroke, such as anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation and carotid endarterectomy for severe symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. 10.1038/s41572-019-0118-8
    Targeted drug delivery to ischemic stroke via chlorotoxin-anchored, lexiscan-loaded nanoparticles. Han Liang,Cai Qiang,Tian Daofeng,Kong Derek K,Gou Xingchun,Chen Zeming,Strittmatter Stephen M,Wang Zuoheng,Sheth Kevin N,Zhou Jiangbing Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Current drug treatment for stroke remains inadequate due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier. We proposed an innovative nanotechnology-based autocatalytic targeting approach, in which the blood-brain barrier modulator lexiscan is encapsulated in nanoparticles to enhance blood-brain barrier permeability and autocatalytically augment the brain stroke-targeting delivery efficiency of chlorotoxin-anchored nanoparticles. The nanoparticles efficiently and specifically accumulated in the brain ischemic microenvironment and the targeting efficiency autocatalytically increased with subsequent administrations. When Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide NEP1-40, a potential therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke, was loaded, nanoparticles significantly reduced infarct volumes and enhanced survival. Our findings suggest that the autocatalytic targeting approach is a promising strategy for drug delivery to the ischemic microenvironment inside the brain. Nanoparticles developed in this study may serve as a new approach for the clinical management of stroke. 10.1016/j.nano.2016.03.005