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    Body Mass Index and Risk for Intubation or Death in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Anderson Michaela R,Geleris Joshua,Anderson David R,Zucker Jason,Nobel Yael R,Freedberg Daniel,Small-Saunders Jennifer,Rajagopalan Kartik N,Greendyk Richard,Chae Sae-Rom,Natarajan Karthik,Roh David,Edwin Ethan,Gallagher Dympna,Podolanczuk Anna,Barr R Graham,Ferrante Anthony W,Baldwin Matthew R Annals of internal medicine BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether obesity is associated with intubation or death, inflammation, cardiac injury, or fibrinolysis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:A quaternary academic medical center and community hospital in New York City. PARTICIPANTS:2466 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection over a 45-day period with at least 47 days of in-hospital observation. MEASUREMENTS:Body mass index (BMI), admission biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]), cardiac injury (troponin level), and fibrinolysis (D-dimer level). The primary end point was a composite of intubation or death in time-to-event analysis. RESULTS:Over a median hospital length of stay of 7 days (interquartile range, 3 to 14) days, 533 patients (22%) were intubated, 627 (25%) died, and 59 (2%) remained hospitalized. Compared with overweight patients, patients with obesity had higher risk for intubation or death, with the highest risk among those with class 3 obesity (hazard ratio, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1]). This association was primarily observed among patients younger than 65 years and not in older patients ( for interaction by age = 0.042). Body mass index was not associated with admission levels of biomarkers of inflammation, cardiac injury, or fibrinolysis. LIMITATIONS:Body mass index was missing for 28% of patients. The primary analyses were conducted with multiple imputation for missing BMI. Upper bounding factor analysis suggested that the results are robust to possible selection bias. CONCLUSION:Obesity is associated with increased risk for intubation or death from COVID-19 in adults younger than 65 years, but not in adults aged 65 years or older. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:National Institutes of Health. 10.7326/M20-3214
    Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and risk factors for mortality in patients with cancer and COVID-19 in Hubei, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Yang Kunyu,Sheng Yuhan,Huang Chaolin,Jin Yang,Xiong Nian,Jiang Ke,Lu Hongda,Liu Jing,Yang Jiyuan,Dong Youhong,Pan Dongfeng,Shu Chengrong,Li Jun,Wei Jielin,Huang Yu,Peng Ling,Wu Mengjiao,Zhang Ruiguang,Wu Bian,Li Yuhui,Cai Liqiong,Li Guiling,Zhang Tao,Wu Gang The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Patients with cancer are a high-risk population in the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer and COVID-19, and examined risk factors for mortality in this population. METHODS:We did a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study of 205 patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and with a pathological diagnosis of a malignant tumour in nine hospitals within Hubei, China, from Jan 13 to March 18, 2020. All patients were either discharged from hospitals or had died by April 20, 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and cancer histories were compared between survivors and non-survivors by use of χ test. Risk factors for mortality were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. FINDINGS:Between Jan 13 and Mar 18, 2020, 205 patients with cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled (median age 63 years [IQR 56-70; range 14-96]; 109 [53%] women). 183 (89%) had solid tumours and 22 (11%) had haematological malignancies. The median duration of follow-up was 68 days (IQR 59-78). The most common solid tumour types were breast (40 [20%] patients), colorectal (28 [14%]), and lung cancer (24 [12%]). 54 (30%) of 182 patients received antitumour therapies within 4 weeks before symptom onset. 30 (15%) of 205 patients were transferred to an intensive care unit and 40 (20%) died during hospital admission. Patients with haematological malignancies had poorer prognoses than did those with solid tumours: nine (41%) of 22 patients with haematological malignancies died versus 31 (17%) of 183 patients with solid tumours (hazard ratio for death 3·28 [95% CI 1·56-6·91]; log rank p=0·0009). Multivariable regression analysis showed that receiving chemotherapy within 4 weeks before symptom onset (odds ratio [OR] 3·51 [95% CI 1·16-10·59]; p=0·026) and male sex (OR 3·86 [95% CI 1·57-9·50]; p=0·0033) were risk factors for death during admission to hospital. INTERPRETATION:Patients with cancer and COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital had a high case-fatality rate. Unfavourable prognostic factors, including receiving chemotherapy within 4 weeks before symptom onset and male sex, might help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of fatal outcomes. FUNDING:National Natural Science Foundation of China. 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30310-7
    Risk Factors Associated With Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 in Intensive Care Units in Lombardy, Italy. Grasselli Giacomo,Greco Massimiliano,Zanella Alberto,Albano Giovanni,Antonelli Massimo,Bellani Giacomo,Bonanomi Ezio,Cabrini Luca,Carlesso Eleonora,Castelli Gianpaolo,Cattaneo Sergio,Cereda Danilo,Colombo Sergio,Coluccello Antonio,Crescini Giuseppe,Forastieri Molinari Andrea,Foti Giuseppe,Fumagalli Roberto,Iotti Giorgio Antonio,Langer Thomas,Latronico Nicola,Lorini Ferdinando Luca,Mojoli Francesco,Natalini Giuseppe,Pessina Carla Maria,Ranieri Vito Marco,Rech Roberto,Scudeller Luigia,Rosano Antonio,Storti Enrico,Thompson B Taylor,Tirani Marcello,Villani Pier Giorgio,Pesenti Antonio,Cecconi Maurizio, JAMA internal medicine Importance:Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective:To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures:Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures:Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results:Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance:In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3539
    Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Zhou Fei,Yu Ting,Du Ronghui,Fan Guohui,Liu Ying,Liu Zhibo,Xiang Jie,Wang Yeming,Song Bin,Gu Xiaoying,Guan Lulu,Wei Yuan,Li Hui,Wu Xudong,Xu Jiuyang,Tu Shengjin,Zhang Yi,Chen Hua,Cao Bin Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. METHODS:In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. FINDINGS:191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03-1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61-12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64-128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0-24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. INTERPRETATION:The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. FUNDING:Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
    Characteristics and clinical significance of myocardial injury in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019. Shi Shaobo,Qin Mu,Cai Yuli,Liu Tao,Shen Bo,Yang Fan,Cao Sheng,Liu Xu,Xiang Yaozu,Zhao Qinyan,Huang He,Yang Bo,Huang Congxin European heart journal AIMS:To investigate the characteristics and clinical significance of myocardial injury in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS:We enrolled 671 eligible hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 from 1 January to 23 February 2020, with a median age of 63 years. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and compared between patients who died and survivors. Risk factors of death and myocardial injury were analysed using multivariable regression models. A total of 62 patients (9.2%) died, who more often had myocardial injury (75.8% vs. 9.7%; P < 0.001) than survivors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of initial cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.96; sensitivity, 0.86; specificity, 0.86; P < 0.001]. The single cut-off point and high level of cTnI predicted risk of in-hospital death, hazard ratio (HR) was 4.56 (95% CI, 1.28-16.28; P = 0.019) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07-1.46; P = 0.004), respectively. In multivariable logistic regression, senior age, comorbidities (e.g. hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and high level of C-reactive protein were predictors of myocardial injury. CONCLUSION:The risk of in-hospital death among patients with severe COVID-19 can be predicted by markers of myocardial injury, and was significantly associated with senior age, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular comorbidities. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa408
    Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. Chen Guang,Wu Di,Guo Wei,Cao Yong,Huang Da,Wang Hongwu,Wang Tao,Zhang Xiaoyun,Chen Huilong,Yu Haijing,Zhang Xiaoping,Zhang Minxia,Wu Shiji,Song Jianxin,Chen Tao,Han Meifang,Li Shusheng,Luo Xiaoping,Zhao Jianping,Ning Qin The Journal of clinical investigation BACKGROUNDSince December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and is now becoming a global threat. We aimed to delineate and compare the immunological features of severe and moderate COVID-19.METHODSIn this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 21 patients (17 male and 4 female) with COVID-19 were analyzed. These patients were classified as severe (11 cases) and moderate (10 cases) according to the guidelines released by the National Health Commission of China.RESULTSThe median age of severe and moderate cases was 61.0 and 52.0 years, respectively. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough, and fatigue. Compared with moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5, and 89.0 × 106/L, respectively) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5, and 254.0 × 106/L, respectively). The expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than in moderate cases (22.8%).CONCLUSIONThe SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in a decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells. These potential immunological markers may be of importance because of their correlation with disease severity in COVID-19.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis is a retrospective observational study without a trial registration number.FUNDINGThis work is funded by grants from Tongji Hospital for the Pilot Scheme Project, and partly supported by the Chinese National Thirteenth Five Years Project in Science and Technology for Infectious Disease (2017ZX10202201). 10.1172/JCI137244
    High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Helms Julie,Tacquard Charles,Severac François,Leonard-Lorant Ian,Ohana Mickaël,Delabranche Xavier,Merdji Hamid,Clere-Jehl Raphaël,Schenck Malika,Fagot Gandet Florence,Fafi-Kremer Samira,Castelain Vincent,Schneider Francis,Grunebaum Lélia,Anglés-Cano Eduardo,Sattler Laurent,Mertes Paul-Michel,Meziani Ferhat, Intensive care medicine PURPOSE:Little evidence of increased thrombotic risk is available in COVID-19 patients. Our purpose was to assess thrombotic risk in severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:All patients referred to 4 intensive care units (ICUs) from two centers of a French tertiary hospital for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 between March 3rd and 31st 2020 were included. Medical history, symptoms, biological data and imaging were prospectively collected. Propensity score matching was performed to analyze the occurrence of thromboembolic events between non-COVID-19 ARDS and COVID-19 ARDS patients. RESULTS:150 COVID-19 patients were included (122 men, median age 63 [53; 71] years, SAPSII 49 [37; 64] points). Sixty-four clinically relevant thrombotic complications were diagnosed in 150 patients, mainly pulmonary embolisms (16.7%). 28/29 patients (96.6%) receiving continuous renal replacement therapy experienced circuit clotting. Three thrombotic occlusions (in 2 patients) of centrifugal pump occurred in 12 patients (8%) supported by ECMO. Most patients (> 95%) had elevated D-dimer and fibrinogen. No patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Von Willebrand (vWF) activity, vWF antigen and FVIII were considerably increased, and 50/57 tested patients (87.7%) had positive lupus anticoagulant. Comparison with non-COVID-19 ARDS patients (n = 145) confirmed that COVID-19 ARDS patients (n = 77) developed significantly more thrombotic complications, mainly pulmonary embolisms (11.7 vs. 2.1%, p < 0.008). Coagulation parameters significantly differed between the two groups. CONCLUSION:Despite anticoagulation, a high number of patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 developed life-threatening thrombotic complications. Higher anticoagulation targets than in usual critically ill patients should therefore probably be suggested. 10.1007/s00134-020-06062-x
    Obesity and COVID-19 Severity in a Designated Hospital in Shenzhen, China. Cai Qingxian,Chen Fengjuan,Wang Tao,Luo Fang,Liu Xiaohui,Wu Qikai,He Qing,Wang Zhaoqin,Liu Yingxia,Liu Lei,Chen Jun,Xu Lin Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Patients with obesity are at increased risk of exacerbations from viral respiratory infections. However, the association of obesity with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. We examined this association using data from the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 383 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted from 11 January 2020 to 16 February 2020 and followed until 26 March 2020 at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen were included. Underweight was defined as a BMI <18.5 kg/m, normal weight as 18.5-23.9 kg/m, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m, and obesity as ≥28 kg/m. RESULTS:Of the 383 patients, 53.1% were normal weight, 4.2% were underweight, 32.0% were overweight, and 10.7% were obese at admission. Obese patients tended to have symptoms of cough ( = 0.03) and fever ( = 0.06) compared with patients who were not obese. Compared with normal weight patients, those who were overweight had 1.84-fold odds of developing severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% CI 0.99-3.43, = 0.05), while those who were obese were at 3.40-fold odds of developing severe disease (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.40-2.86, = 0.007), after adjusting for age, sex, epidemiological characteristics, days from disease onset to hospitalization, presence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, and cancer, and drug used for treatment. Additionally, after similar adjustment, men who were obese versus those who were normal weight were at increased odds of developing severe COVID-19 (OR 5.66, 95% CI 1.80-17.75, = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:In this study, obese patients had increased odds of progressing to severe COVID-19. As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may continue to spread worldwide, clinicians should pay close attention to obese patients, who should be carefully managed with prompt and aggressive treatment. 10.2337/dc20-0576
    Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis. Louapre Céline,Collongues Nicolas,Stankoff Bruno,Giannesini Claire,Papeix Caroline,Bensa Caroline,Deschamps Romain,Créange Alain,Wahab Abir,Pelletier Jean,Heinzlef Olivier,Labauge Pierre,Guilloton Laurent,Ahle Guido,Goudot Mathilde,Bigaut Kevin,Laplaud David-Axel,Vukusic Sandra,Lubetzki Catherine,De Sèze Jérôme, JAMA neurology Importance:Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities. Objective:To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020. Exposures:COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes. Results:A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01). Conclusions and Relevance:In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic. 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581
    Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Tian Jianbo,Yuan Xianglin,Xiao Jun,Zhong Qiang,Yang Chunguang,Liu Bo,Cai Yimin,Lu Zequn,Wang Jing,Wang Yanan,Liu Shuanglin,Cheng Biao,Wang Jin,Zhang Ming,Wang Lu,Niu Siyuan,Yao Zhi,Deng Xiongbo,Zhou Fan,Wei Wei,Li Qinglin,Chen Xin,Chen Wenqiong,Yang Qin,Wu Shiji,Fan Jiquan,Shu Bo,Hu Zhiquan,Wang Shaogang,Yang Xiang-Ping,Liu Wenhua,Miao Xiaoping,Wang Zhihua The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:COVID-19 has spread globally. Epidemiological susceptibility to COVID-19 has been reported in patients with cancer. We aimed to systematically characterise clinical features and determine risk factors of COVID-19 disease severity for patients with cancer and COVID-19. METHODS:In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort study, we included all adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with any type of malignant solid tumours and haematological malignancy who were admitted to nine hospitals in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between Jan 13 and March 18, 2020. Enrolled patients were statistically matched (2:1) with patients admitted with COVID-19 who did not have cancer with propensity score on the basis of age, sex, and comorbidities. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examinations, illness severity, and clinical interventions were compared between patients with COVID-19 with or without cancer as well as between patients with cancer with non-severe or severe COVID-19. COVID-19 disease severity was defined on admission on the basis of the WHO guidelines. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, cancer type, tumour stage, and antitumour treatments, were used to explore risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity. This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR2000030807. FINDINGS:Between Jan 13 and March 18, 2020, 13 077 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the nine hospitals in Wuhan and 232 patients with cancer and 519 statistically matched patients without cancer were enrolled. Median follow-up was 29 days (IQR 22-38) in patients with cancer and 27 days (20-35) in patients without cancer. Patients with cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 than patients without cancer (148 [64%] of 232 vs 166 [32%] of 519; odds ratio [OR] 3·61 [95% CI 2·59-5·04]; p<0·0001). Risk factors previously reported in patients without cancer, such as older age; elevated interleukin 6, procalcitonin, and D-dimer; and reduced lymphocytes were validated in patients with cancer. We also identified advanced tumour stage (OR 2·60, 95% CI 1·05-6·43; p=0·039), elevated tumour necrosis factor α (1·22, 1·01-1·47; p=0·037), elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (1·65, 1·03-2·78; p=0·032), reduced CD4+ T cells (0·84, 0·71-0·98; p=0·031), and reduced albumin-globulin ratio (0·12, 0·02-0·77; p=0·024) as risk factors of COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer. INTERPRETATION:Patients with cancer and COVID-19 were more likely to deteriorate into severe illness than those without cancer. The risk factors identified here could be helpful for early clinical surveillance of disease progression in patients with cancer who present with COVID-19. FUNDING:China National Natural Science Foundation. 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30309-0
    Impaired immune cell cytotoxicity in severe COVID-19 is IL-6 dependent. Mazzoni Alessio,Salvati Lorenzo,Maggi Laura,Capone Manuela,Vanni Anna,Spinicci Michele,Mencarini Jessica,Caporale Roberto,Peruzzi Benedetta,Antonelli Alberto,Trotta Michele,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Ciani Luca,Gori Leonardo,Lazzeri Chiara,Matucci Andrea,Vultaggio Alessandra,Rossi Oliviero,Almerigogna Fabio,Parronchi Paola,Fontanari Paolo,Lavorini Federico,Peris Adriano,Rossolini Gian Maria,Bartoloni Alessandro,Romagnani Sergio,Liotta Francesco,Annunziato Francesco,Cosmi Lorenzo The Journal of clinical investigation BACKGROUNDCoronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral immune response is crucial to achieve pathogen clearance; however, in some patients an excessive and aberrant host immune response can lead to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. The comprehension of the mechanisms that regulate pathogen elimination, immunity, and pathology is essential to better characterize disease progression and widen the spectrum of therapeutic options.METHODSWe performed a flow cytometric characterization of immune cell subsets from 30 patients with COVID-19 and correlated these data with clinical outcomes.RESULTSPatients with COVID-19 showed decreased numbers of circulating T, B, and NK cells and exhibited a skewing of CD8+ T cells toward a terminally differentiated/senescent phenotype. In agreement, CD4+ T and CD8+ T, but also NK cells, displayed reduced antiviral cytokine production capability. Moreover, a reduced cytotoxic potential was identified in patients with COVID-19, particularly in those who required intensive care. The latter group of patients also showed increased serum IL-6 levels that inversely correlated to the frequency of granzyme A-expressing NK cells. Off-label treatment with tocilizumab restored the cytotoxic potential of NK cells.CONCLUSIONThe association between IL-6 serum levels and the impairment of cytotoxic activity suggests the possibility that targeting this cytokine may restore antiviral mechanisms.FUNDINGThis study was supported by funds from the Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine of University of Florence (the ex-60% fund and the "Excellence Departments 2018-2022 Project") derived from Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (Italy). 10.1172/JCI138554
    Platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation trigger tissue factor expression in patients with severe COVID-19. Hottz Eugenio D,Azevedo-Quintanilha Isaclaudia G,Palhinha Lohanna,Teixeira Lívia,Barreto Ester A,Pão Camila R R,Righy Cassia,Franco Sérgio,Souza Thiago M L,Kurtz Pedro,Bozza Fernando A,Bozza Patrícia T Blood Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its emergence, the novel coronavirus has rapidly achieved pandemic proportions causing remarkably increased morbidity and mortality around the world. A hypercoagulability state has been reported as a major pathologic event in COVID-19, and thromboembolic complications listed among life-threatening complications of the disease. Platelets are chief effector cells of hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. However, the participation of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains elusive. This report demonstrates that increased platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation are observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but not in patients presenting mild COVID-19 syndrome. In addition, exposure to plasma from severe COVID-19 patients increased the activation of control platelets ex vivo. In our cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, platelet-monocyte interaction was strongly associated with tissue factor (TF) expression by the monocytes. Platelet activation and monocyte TF expression were associated with markers of coagulation exacerbation as fibrinogen and D-dimers, and were increased in patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or patients who evolved with in-hospital mortality. Finally, platelets from severe COVID-19 patients were able to induce TF expression ex vivo in monocytes from healthy volunteers, a phenomenon that was inhibited by platelet P-selectin neutralization or integrin αIIb/β3 blocking with the aggregation inhibitor abciximab. Altogether, these data shed light on new pathological mechanisms involving platelet activation and platelet-dependent monocyte TF expression, which were associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. 10.1182/blood.2020007252
    Presence of Genetic Variants Among Young Men With Severe COVID-19. van der Made Caspar I,Simons Annet,Schuurs-Hoeijmakers Janneke,van den Heuvel Guus,Mantere Tuomo,Kersten Simone,van Deuren Rosanne C,Steehouwer Marloes,van Reijmersdal Simon V,Jaeger Martin,Hofste Tom,Astuti Galuh,Corominas Galbany Jordi,van der Schoot Vyne,van der Hoeven Hans,Hagmolen Of Ten Have Wanda,Klijn Eva,van den Meer Catrien,Fiddelaers Jeroen,de Mast Quirijn,Bleeker-Rovers Chantal P,Joosten Leo A B,Yntema Helger G,Gilissen Christian,Nelen Marcel,van der Meer Jos W M,Brunner Han G,Netea Mihai G,van de Veerdonk Frank L,Hoischen Alexander JAMA Importance:Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can occur in younger, predominantly male, patients without preexisting medical conditions. Some individuals may have primary immunodeficiencies that predispose to severe infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective:To explore the presence of genetic variants associated with primary immunodeficiencies among young patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants:Case series of pairs of brothers without medical history meeting the selection criteria of young (age <35 years) brother pairs admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe COVID-19. Four men from 2 unrelated families were admitted to the ICUs of 4 hospitals in the Netherlands between March 23 and April 12, 2020. The final date of follow-up was May 16, 2020. Available family members were included for genetic variant segregation analysis and as controls for functional experiments. Exposure:Severe COVID-19. Main Outcome and Measures:Results of rapid clinical whole-exome sequencing, performed to identify a potential monogenic cause. Subsequently, basic genetic and immunological tests were performed in primary immune cells isolated from the patients and family members to characterize any immune defects. Results:The 4 male patients had a mean age of 26 years (range, 21-32), with no history of major chronic disease. They were previously well before developing respiratory insufficiency due to severe COVID-19, requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU. The mean duration of ventilatory support was 10 days (range, 9-11); the mean duration of ICU stay was 13 days (range, 10-16). One patient died. Rapid clinical whole-exome sequencing of the patients and segregation in available family members identified loss-of-function variants of the X-chromosomal TLR7. In members of family 1, a maternally inherited 4-nucleotide deletion was identified (c.2129_2132del; p.[Gln710Argfs*18]); the affected members of family 2 carried a missense variant (c.2383G>T; p.[Val795Phe]). In primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patients, downstream type I interferon (IFN) signaling was transcriptionally downregulated, as measured by significantly decreased mRNA expression of IRF7, IFNB1, and ISG15 on stimulation with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod as compared with family members and controls. The production of IFN-γ, a type II IFN, was decreased in patients in response to stimulation with imiquimod. Conclusions and Relevance:In this case series of 4 young male patients with severe COVID-19, rare putative loss-of-function variants of X-chromosomal TLR7 were identified that were associated with impaired type I and II IFN responses. These preliminary findings provide insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19. 10.1001/jama.2020.13719
    Immunological and inflammatory profiles in mild and severe cases of COVID-19. Song Jin-Wen,Zhang Chao,Fan Xing,Meng Fan-Ping,Xu Zhe,Xia Peng,Cao Wen-Jing,Yang Tao,Dai Xiao-Peng,Wang Si-Yu,Xu Ruo-Nan,Jiang Tian-Jun,Li Wen-Gang,Zhang Da-Wei,Zhao Peng,Shi Ming,Agrati Chiara,Ippolito Giuseppe,Maeurer Markus,Zumla Alimuddin,Wang Fu-Sheng,Zhang Ji-Yuan Nature communications COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients. 10.1038/s41467-020-17240-2
    Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study. Banerjee Amitava,Pasea Laura,Harris Steve,Gonzalez-Izquierdo Arturo,Torralbo Ana,Shallcross Laura,Noursadeghi Mahdad,Pillay Deenan,Sebire Neil,Holmes Chris,Pagel Christina,Wong Wai Keong,Langenberg Claudia,Williams Bryan,Denaxas Spiros,Hemingway Harry Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:The medical, societal, and economic impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has unknown effects on overall population mortality. Previous models of population mortality are based on death over days among infected people, nearly all of whom thus far have underlying conditions. Models have not incorporated information on high-risk conditions or their longer-term baseline (pre-COVID-19) mortality. We estimated the excess number of deaths over 1 year under different COVID-19 incidence scenarios based on varying levels of transmission suppression and differing mortality impacts based on different relative risks for the disease. METHODS:In this population-based cohort study, we used linked primary and secondary care electronic health records from England (Health Data Research UK-CALIBER). We report prevalence of underlying conditions defined by Public Health England guidelines (from March 16, 2020) in individuals aged 30 years or older registered with a practice between 1997 and 2017, using validated, openly available phenotypes for each condition. We estimated 1-year mortality in each condition, developing simple models (and a tool for calculation) of excess COVID-19-related deaths, assuming relative impact (as relative risks [RRs]) of the COVID-19 pandemic (compared with background mortality) of 1·5, 2·0, and 3·0 at differing infection rate scenarios, including full suppression (0·001%), partial suppression (1%), mitigation (10%), and do nothing (80%). We also developed an online, public, prototype risk calculator for excess death estimation. FINDINGS:We included 3 862 012 individuals (1 957 935 [50·7%] women and 1 904 077 [49·3%] men). We estimated that more than 20% of the study population are in the high-risk category, of whom 13·7% were older than 70 years and 6·3% were aged 70 years or younger with at least one underlying condition. 1-year mortality in the high-risk population was estimated to be 4·46% (95% CI 4·41-4·51). Age and underlying conditions combined to influence background risk, varying markedly across conditions. In a full suppression scenario in the UK population, we estimated that there would be two excess deaths (vs baseline deaths) with an RR of 1·5, four with an RR of 2·0, and seven with an RR of 3·0. In a mitigation scenario, we estimated 18 374 excess deaths with an RR of 1·5, 36 749 with an RR of 2·0, and 73 498 with an RR of 3·0. In a do nothing scenario, we estimated 146 996 excess deaths with an RR of 1·5, 293 991 with an RR of 2·0, and 587 982 with an RR of 3·0. INTERPRETATION:We provide policy makers, researchers, and the public a simple model and an online tool for understanding excess mortality over 1 year from the COVID-19 pandemic, based on age, sex, and underlying condition-specific estimates. These results signal the need for sustained stringent suppression measures as well as sustained efforts to target those at highest risk because of underlying conditions with a range of preventive interventions. Countries should assess the overall (direct and indirect) effects of the pandemic on excess mortality. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, Health Data Research UK. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30854-0
    Outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with CLL: a multicenter international experience. Mato Anthony R,Roeker Lindsey E,Lamanna Nicole,Allan John N,Leslie Lori,Pagel John M,Patel Krish,Osterborg Anders,Wojenski Daniel,Kamdar Manali,Huntington Scott F,Davids Matthew S,Brown Jennifer R,Antic Darko,Jacobs Ryan,Ahn Inhye E,Pu Jeffrey,Isaac Krista M,Barr Paul M,Ujjani Chaitra S,Geyer Mark B,Berman Ellin,Zelenetz Andrew D,Malakhov Nikita,Furman Richard R,Koropsak Michael,Bailey Neil,Hanson Lotta,Perini Guilherme F,Ma Shuo,Ryan Christine E,Wiestner Adrian,Portell Craig A,Shadman Mazyar,Chong Elise A,Brander Danielle M,Sundaram Suchitra,Seddon Amanda N,Seymour Erlene,Patel Meera,Martinez-Calle Nicolas,Munir Talha,Walewska Renata,Broom Angus,Walter Harriet,El-Sharkawi Dima,Parry Helen,Wilson Matthew R,Patten Piers E M,Hernández-Rivas José-Ángel,Miras Fatima,Fernández Escalada Noemi,Ghione Paola,Nabhan Chadi,Lebowitz Sonia,Bhavsar Erica,López-Jiménez Javier,Naya Daniel,Garcia-Marco Jose Antonio,Skånland Sigrid S,Cordoba Raul,Eyre Toby A Blood Given advanced age, comorbidities, and immune dysfunction, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients may be at particularly high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Robust analysis of outcomes for CLL patients, particularly examining effects of baseline characteristics and CLL-directed therapy, is critical to optimally manage CLL patients through this evolving pandemic. CLL patients diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 across 43 international centers (n = 198) were included. Hospital admission occurred in 90%. Median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 70.5 years. Median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score was 8 (range, 4-32). Thirty-nine percent were treatment naive ("watch and wait"), while 61% had received ≥1 CLL-directed therapy (median, 2; range, 1-8). Ninety patients (45%) were receiving active CLL therapy at COVID-19 diagnosis, most commonly Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi's; n = 68/90 [76%]). At a median follow-up of 16 days, the overall case fatality rate was 33%, though 25% remain admitted. Watch-and-wait and treated cohorts had similar rates of admission (89% vs 90%), intensive care unit admission (35% vs 36%), intubation (33% vs 25%), and mortality (37% vs 32%). CLL-directed treatment with BTKi's at COVID-19 diagnosis did not impact survival (case fatality rate, 34% vs 35%), though the BTKi was held during the COVID-19 course for most patients. These data suggest that the subgroup of CLL patients admitted with COVID-19, regardless of disease phase or treatment status, are at high risk of death. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to assess severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection risk, these data should be validated independently, and randomized studies of BTKi's in COVID-19 are needed to provide definitive evidence of benefit. 10.1182/blood.2020006965
    COVID-19 with Different Severities: A Multicenter Study of Clinical Features. Feng Yun,Ling Yun,Bai Tao,Xie Yusang,Huang Jie,Li Jian,Xiong Weining,Yang Dexiang,Chen Rong,Lu Fangying,Lu Yunfei,Liu Xuhui,Chen Yuqing,Li Xin,Li Yong,Summah Hanssa Dwarka,Lin Huihuang,Yan Jiayang,Zhou Min,Lu Hongzhou,Qu Jieming American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern. We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China. A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China. The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients. Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality. 10.1164/rccm.202002-0445OC
    Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan. Li Xiaochen,Xu Shuyun,Yu Muqing,Wang Ke,Tao Yu,Zhou Ying,Shi Jing,Zhou Min,Wu Bo,Yang Zhenyu,Zhang Cong,Yue Junqing,Zhang Zhiguo,Renz Harald,Liu Xiansheng,Xie Jungang,Xie Min,Zhao Jianping The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred in Wuhan. Data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 are limited. OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate the severity on admission, complications, treatment, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS:Patients with COVID-19 admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 26, 2020, to February 5, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled and followed-up until March 3, 2020. Potential risk factors for severe COVID-19 were analyzed by a multivariable binary logistic model. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for survival analysis in severe patients. RESULTS:We identified 269 (49.1%) of 548 patients as severe cases on admission. Older age, underlying hypertension, high cytokine levels (IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), and high lactate dehydrogenase level were significantly associated with severe COVID-19 on admission. The prevalence of asthma in patients with COVID-19 was 0.9%, markedly lower than that in the adult population of Wuhan. The estimated mortality was 1.1% in nonsevere patients and 32.5% in severe cases during the average 32 days of follow-up period. Survival analysis revealed that male sex, older age, leukocytosis, high lactate dehydrogenase level, cardiac injury, hyperglycemia, and high-dose corticosteroid use were associated with death in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with older age, hypertension, and high lactate dehydrogenase level need careful observation and early intervention to prevent the potential development of severe COVID-19. Severe male patients with heart injury, hyperglycemia, and high-dose corticosteroid use may have a high risk of death. 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.006
    Viral and host factors related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Zhang Xiaonan,Tan Yun,Ling Yun,Lu Gang,Liu Feng,Yi Zhigang,Jia Xiaofang,Wu Min,Shi Bisheng,Xu Shuibao,Chen Jun,Wang Wei,Chen Bing,Jiang Lu,Yu Shuting,Lu Jing,Wang Jinzeng,Xu Mingzhu,Yuan Zhenghong,Zhang Qin,Zhang Xinxin,Zhao Guoping,Wang Shengyue,Chen Saijuan,Lu Hongzhou Nature In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan (Hubei province, China); it soon spread across the world. In this ongoing pandemic, public health concerns and the urgent need for effective therapeutic measures require a deep understanding of the epidemiology, transmissibility and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we analysed clinical, molecular and immunological data from 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, assembled from 112 high-quality samples together with sequences in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) dataset, showed a stable evolution and suggested that there were two major lineages with differential exposure history during the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan. Nevertheless, they exhibited similar virulence and clinical outcomes. Lymphocytopenia, especially reduced CD4 and CD8 T cell counts upon hospital admission, was predictive of disease progression. High levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 during treatment were observed in patients with severe or critical disease and correlated with decreased lymphocyte count. The determinants of disease severity seemed to stem mostly from host factors such as age and lymphocytopenia (and its associated cytokine storm), whereas viral genetic variation did not significantly affect outcomes. 10.1038/s41586-020-2355-0
    Factors Associated With Death in Critically Ill Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the US. Gupta Shruti,Hayek Salim S,Wang Wei,Chan Lili,Mathews Kusum S,Melamed Michal L,Brenner Samantha K,Leonberg-Yoo Amanda,Schenck Edward J,Radbel Jared,Reiser Jochen,Bansal Anip,Srivastava Anand,Zhou Yan,Sutherland Anne,Green Adam,Shehata Alexandre M,Goyal Nitender,Vijayan Anitha,Velez Juan Carlos Q,Shaefi Shahzad,Parikh Chirag R,Arunthamakun Justin,Athavale Ambarish M,Friedman Allon N,Short Samuel A P,Kibbelaar Zoe A,Abu Omar Samah,Admon Andrew J,Donnelly John P,Gershengorn Hayley B,Hernán Miguel A,Semler Matthew W,Leaf David E, JAMA internal medicine Importance:The US is currently an epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, yet few national data are available on patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of critical illness from COVID-19. Objectives:To assess factors associated with death and to examine interhospital variation in treatment and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants:This multicenter cohort study assessed 2215 adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 65 hospitals across the US from March 4 to April 4, 2020. Exposures:Patient-level data, including demographics, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction, and hospital characteristics, including number of ICU beds. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with death and to examine interhospital variation in treatment and outcomes. Results:A total of 2215 patients (mean [SD] age, 60.5 [14.5] years; 1436 [64.8%] male; 1738 [78.5%] with at least 1 chronic comorbidity) were included in the study. At 28 days after ICU admission, 784 patients (35.4%) had died, 824 (37.2%) were discharged, and 607 (27.4%) remained hospitalized. At the end of study follow-up (median, 16 days; interquartile range, 8-28 days), 875 patients (39.5%) had died, 1203 (54.3%) were discharged, and 137 (6.2%) remained hospitalized. Factors independently associated with death included older age (≥80 vs <40 years of age: odds ratio [OR], 11.15; 95% CI, 6.19-20.06), male sex (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.19-1.90), higher body mass index (≥40 vs <25: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25), coronary artery disease (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.02), active cancer (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.35-3.43), and the presence of hypoxemia (Pao2:Fio2<100 vs ≥300 mm Hg: OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 2.11-4.08), liver dysfunction (liver Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 2 vs 0: OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.30-5.25), and kidney dysfunction (renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 4 vs 0: OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46-4.05) at ICU admission. Patients admitted to hospitals with fewer ICU beds had a higher risk of death (<50 vs ≥100 ICU beds: OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 2.16-4.99). Hospitals varied considerably in the risk-adjusted proportion of patients who died (range, 6.6%-80.8%) and in the percentage of patients who received hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and other treatments and supportive therapies. Conclusions and Relevance:This study identified demographic, clinical, and hospital-level risk factors that may be associated with death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and can facilitate the identification of medications and supportive therapies to improve outcomes. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3596
    COVID-19 and coagulation: bleeding and thrombotic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Al-Samkari Hanny,Karp Leaf Rebecca S,Dzik Walter H,Carlson Jonathan C T,Fogerty Annemarie E,Waheed Anem,Goodarzi Katayoon,Bendapudi Pavan K,Bornikova Larissa,Gupta Shruti,Leaf David E,Kuter David J,Rosovsky Rachel P Blood Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have elevated D-dimer levels. Early reports describe high venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rates, but data are limited. This multicenter retrospective study describes the rate and severity of hemostatic and thrombotic complications of 400 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients (144 critically ill) primarily receiving standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation. Coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared between patients with and without coagulation-associated complications. Multivariable logistic models examined the utility of these markers in predicting coagulation-associated complications, critical illness, and death. The radiographically confirmed VTE rate was 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.3), and the overall thrombotic complication rate was 9.5% (95% CI, 6.8-12.8). The overall and major bleeding rates were 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9-7.3) and 2.3% (95% CI, 1.0-4.2), respectively. In the critically ill, radiographically confirmed VTE and major bleeding rates were 7.6% (95% CI, 3.9-13.3) and 5.6% (95% CI, 2.4-10.7), respectively. Elevated D-dimer at initial presentation was predictive of coagulation-associated complications during hospitalization (D-dimer >2500 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio [OR] for thrombosis, 6.79 [95% CI, 2.39-19.30]; adjusted OR for bleeding, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.01-12.66]), critical illness, and death. Additional markers at initial presentation predictive of thrombosis during hospitalization included platelet count >450 × 109/L (adjusted OR, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.27-9.97]), C-reactive protein (CRP) >100 mg/L (adjusted OR, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.26-5.86]), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >40 mm/h (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.07-6.51]). ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, and procalcitonin were higher in patients with thrombotic complications than in those without. DIC, clinically relevant thrombocytopenia, and reduced fibrinogen were rare and were associated with significant bleeding manifestations. Given the observed bleeding rates, randomized trials are needed to determine any potential benefit of intensified anticoagulant prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients. 10.1182/blood.2020006520
    Development of a clinical decision support system for severity risk prediction and triage of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission: an international multicentre study. Wu Guangyao,Yang Pei,Xie Yuanliang,Woodruff Henry C,Rao Xiangang,Guiot Julien,Frix Anne-Noelle,Louis Renaud,Moutschen Michel,Li Jiawei,Li Jing,Yan Chenggong,Du Dan,Zhao Shengchao,Ding Yi,Liu Bin,Sun Wenwu,Albarello Fabrizio,D'Abramo Alessandra,Schininà Vincenzo,Nicastri Emanuele,Occhipinti Mariaelena,Barisione Giovanni,Barisione Emanuela,Halilaj Iva,Lovinfosse Pierre,Wang Xiang,Wu Jianlin,Lambin Philippe The European respiratory journal BACKGROUND:The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has globally strained medical resources and caused significant mortality. OBJECTIVE:To develop and validate a machine-learning model based on clinical features for severity risk assessment and triage for COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. METHOD:725 patients were used to train and validate the model. This included a retrospective cohort from Wuhan, China of 299 hospitalised COVID-19 patients from 23 December 2019 to 13 February 2020, and five cohorts with 426 patients from eight centres in China, Italy and Belgium from 20 February 2020 to 21 March 2020. The main outcome was the onset of severe or critical illness during hospitalisation. Model performances were quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and metrics derived from the confusion matrix. RESULTS:In the retrospective cohort, the median age was 50 years and 137 (45.8%) were male. In the five test cohorts, the median age was 62 years and 236 (55.4%) were male. The model was prospectively validated on five cohorts yielding AUCs ranging from 0.84 to 0.93, with accuracies ranging from 74.4% to 87.5%, sensitivities ranging from 75.0% to 96.9%, and specificities ranging from 55.0% to 88.0%, most of which performed better than the pneumonia severity index. The cut-off values of the low-, medium- and high-risk probabilities were 0.21 and 0.80. The online calculators can be found at www.covid19risk.ai. CONCLUSION:The machine-learning model, nomogram and online calculator might be useful to access the onset of severe and critical illness among COVID-19 patients and triage at hospital admission. 10.1183/13993003.01104-2020
    Haematological characteristics and risk factors in the classification and prognosis evaluation of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Liao Danying,Zhou Fen,Luo Lili,Xu Min,Wang Hongbo,Xia Jiahong,Gao Yong,Cai Liqiong,Wang Zhihui,Yin Ping,Wang Yadan,Tang Lu,Deng Jun,Mei Heng,Hu Yu The Lancet. Haematology BACKGROUND:COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic. Changes in haematological characteristics in patients with COVID-19 are emerging as important features of the disease. We aimed to explore the haematological characteristics and related risk factors in patients with COVID-19. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to three designated sites of Wuhan Union Hospital (Wuhan, China). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between patients with moderate, severe, and critical disease (defined according to the diagnosis and treatment protocol for novel coronavirus pneumonia, trial version 7, published by the National Health Commission of China). We assessed the risk factors associated with critical illness and poor prognosis. Dynamic haematological and coagulation parameters were investigated with a linear mixed model, and coagulopathy screening with sepsis-induced coagulopathy and International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt disseminated intravascular coagulation scoring systems was applied. FINDINGS:Of 466 patients admitted to hospital from Jan 23 to Feb 23, 2020, 380 patients with COVID-19 were included in our study. The incidence of thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100 × 10 cells per L) in patients with critical disease (42 [49%] of 86) was significantly higher than in those with severe (20 [14%] of 145) or moderate (nine [6%] of 149) disease (p<0·0001). The numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils were significantly lower in patients with critical disease than those with severe or moderate disease (p<0·0001), and prothrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products significantly increased with increasing disease severity (p<0·0001). In multivariate analyses, death was associated with increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (≥9·13; odds ratio [OR] 5·39 [95% CI 1·70-17·13], p=0·0042), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100 × 10 per L; OR 8·33 [2·56-27·15], p=0·00045), prolonged prothrombin time (>16 s; OR 4·94 [1·50-16·25], p=0·0094), and increased D-dimer (>2 mg/L; OR 4·41 [1·06-18·30], p=0·041). Thrombotic and haemorrhagic events were common complications in patients who died (19 [35%] of 55). Sepsis-induced coagulopathy and International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt disseminated intravascular coagulation scores (assessed in 12 patients who survived and eight patients who died) increased over time in patients who died. The onset of sepsis-induced coagulopathy was typically before overt disseminated intravascular coagulation. INTERPRETATION:Rapid blood tests, including platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimer, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio can help clinicians to assess severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. The sepsis-induced coagulopathy scoring system can be used for early assessment and management of patients with critical disease. FUNDING:National Key Research and Development Program of China. 10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30217-9
    IL-6-based mortality risk model for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Laguna-Goya Rocio,Utrero-Rico Alberto,Talayero Paloma,Lasa-Lazaro Maria,Ramirez-Fernandez Angel,Naranjo Laura,Segura-Tudela Alejandro,Cabrera-Marante Oscar,Rodriguez de Frias Edgar,Garcia-Garcia Rocio,Fernández-Ruiz Mario,Aguado Jose Maria,Martinez-Lopez Joaquin,Lopez Elena Ana,Catalan Mercedes,Serrano Antonio,Paz-Artal Estela The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic. Because the severity of the disease is highly variable, predictive models to stratify patients according to their mortality risk are needed. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to develop a model able to predict the risk of fatal outcome in patients with COVID-19 that could be used easily at the time of patients' arrival at the hospital. METHODS:We constructed a prospective cohort with 611 adult patients in whom COVID-19 was diagnosed between March 10 and April 12, 2020, in a tertiary hospital in Madrid, Spain. The analysis included 501 patients who had been discharged or had died by April 20, 2020. The capacity of several biomarkers, measured at the beginning of hospitalization, to predict mortality was assessed individually. Those biomarkers that independently contributed to improve mortality prediction were included in a multivariable risk model. RESULTS:High IL-6 level, C-reactive protein level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, ferritin level, d-dimer level, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were all predictive of mortality (area under the curve >0.70), as were low albumin level, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and ratio of peripheral blood oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO/FiO). A multivariable mortality risk model including the SpO/FiO ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, LDH level, IL-6 level, and age was developed and showed high accuracy for the prediction of fatal outcome (area under the curve 0.94). The optimal cutoff reliably classified patients (including patients with no initial respiratory distress) as survivors and nonsurvivors with 0.88 sensitivity and 0.89 specificity. CONCLUSION:This mortality risk model allows early risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 before the appearance of obvious signs of clinical deterioration, and it can be used as a tool to guide clinical decision making. 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.07.009
    Impaired type I interferon activity and inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients. Hadjadj Jérôme,Yatim Nader,Barnabei Laura,Corneau Aurélien,Boussier Jeremy,Smith Nikaïa,Péré Hélène,Charbit Bruno,Bondet Vincent,Chenevier-Gobeaux Camille,Breillat Paul,Carlier Nicolas,Gauzit Rémy,Morbieu Caroline,Pène Frédéric,Marin Nathalie,Roche Nicolas,Szwebel Tali-Anne,Merkling Sarah H,Treluyer Jean-Marc,Veyer David,Mouthon Luc,Blanc Catherine,Tharaux Pierre-Louis,Rozenberg Flore,Fischer Alain,Duffy Darragh,Rieux-Laucat Frédéric,Kernéis Solen,Terrier Benjamin Science (New York, N.Y.) Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by distinct patterns of disease progression that suggest diverse host immune responses. We performed an integrated immune analysis on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients with various disease severity. A distinct phenotype was observed in severe and critical patients, consisting of a highly impaired interferon (IFN) type I response (characterized by no IFN-β and low IFN-α production and activity), which was associated with a persistent blood viral load and an exacerbated inflammatory response. Inflammation was partially driven by the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB and characterized by increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production and signaling. These data suggest that type I IFN deficiency in the blood could be a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and provide a rationale for combined therapeutic approaches. 10.1126/science.abc6027
    Determinants of COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer. Robilotti Elizabeth V,Babady N Esther,Mead Peter A,Rolling Thierry,Perez-Johnston Rocio,Bernardes Marilia,Bogler Yael,Caldararo Mario,Figueroa Cesar J,Glickman Michael S,Joanow Alexa,Kaltsas Anna,Lee Yeon Joo,Lucca Anabella,Mariano Amanda,Morjaria Sejal,Nawar Tamara,Papanicolaou Genovefa A,Predmore Jacqueline,Redelman-Sidi Gil,Schmidt Elizabeth,Seo Susan K,Sepkowitz Kent,Shah Monika K,Wolchok Jedd D,Hohl Tobias M,Taur Ying,Kamboj Mini Nature medicine As of 10 April 2020, New York State had 180,458 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 9,385 reported deaths. Patients with cancer comprised 8.4% of deceased individuals. Population-based studies from China and Italy suggested a higher coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) death rate in patients with cancer, although there is a knowledge gap as to which aspects of cancer and its treatment confer risk of severe COVID-19. This information is critical to balance the competing safety considerations of reducing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and cancer treatment continuation. From 10 March to 7 April 2020, 423 cases of symptomatic COVID-19 were diagnosed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (from a total of 2,035 patients with cancer tested). Of these, 40% were hospitalized for COVID-19, 20% developed severe respiratory illness (including 9% who required mechanical ventilation) and 12% died within 30 d. Age older than 65 years and treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were predictors for hospitalization and severe disease, whereas receipt of chemotherapy and major surgery were not. Overall, COVID-19 in patients with cancer is marked by substantial rates of hospitalization and severe outcomes. The association observed between ICI and COVID-19 outcomes in our study will need further interrogation in tumor-specific cohorts. 10.1038/s41591-020-0979-0
    Characterization of the Inflammatory Response to Severe COVID-19 Illness. McElvaney Oliver J,McEvoy Natalie L,McElvaney Oisín F,Carroll Tomás P,Murphy Mark P,Dunlea Danielle M,Ní Choileáin Orna,Clarke Jennifer,O'Connor Eoin,Hogan Grace,Ryan Daniel,Sulaiman Imran,Gunaratnam Cedric,Branagan Peter,O'Brien Michael E,Morgan Ross K,Costello Richard W,Hurley Killian,Walsh Seán,de Barra Eoghan,McNally Cora,McConkey Samuel,Boland Fiona,Galvin Sinead,Kiernan Fiona,O'Rourke James,Dwyer Rory,Power Michael,Geoghegan Pierce,Larkin Caroline,O'Leary Ruth Aoibheann,Freeman James,Gaffney Alan,Marsh Brian,Curley Gerard F,McElvaney Noel G American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global threat to health. Its inflammatory characteristics are incompletely understood. To define the cytokine profile of COVID-19 and to identify evidence of immunometabolic alterations in those with severe illness. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and sTNFR1 (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1) were assessed in plasma from healthy volunteers, hospitalized but stable patients with COVID-19 (COVID patients), patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission (COVID patients), and patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring ICU support (CAP patients). Immunometabolic markers were measured in circulating neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19. The acute phase response of AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) to COVID-19 was also evaluated. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and sTNFR1 were all increased in patients with COVID-19. COVID patients could be clearly differentiated from COVID patients, and demonstrated higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and sTNFR1 but lower IL-10 than CAP patients. COVID-19 neutrophils displayed altered immunometabolism, with increased cytosolic PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2), phosphorylated PKM2, HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α), and lactate. The production and sialylation of AAT increased in COVID-19, but this antiinflammatory response was overwhelmed in severe illness, with the IL-6:AAT ratio markedly higher in patients requiring ICU admission ( < 0.0001). In critically unwell patients with COVID-19, increases in IL-6:AAT predicted prolonged ICU stay and mortality, whereas improvement in IL-6:AAT was associated with clinical resolution ( < 0.0001). The COVID-19 cytokinemia is distinct from that of other types of pneumonia, leading to organ failure and ICU need. Neutrophils undergo immunometabolic reprogramming in severe COVID-19 illness. Cytokine ratios may predict outcomes in this population. 10.1164/rccm.202005-1583OC
    Longitudinal hematologic and immunologic variations associated with the progression of COVID-19 patients in China. Chen Ruchong,Sang Ling,Jiang Mei,Yang Zhaowei,Jia Nan,Fu Wanyi,Xie Jiaxing,Guan Weijie,Liang Wenhua,Ni Zhengyi,Hu Yu,Liu Lei,Shan Hong,Lei Chunliang,Peng Yixiang,Wei Li,Liu Yong,Hu Yahua,Peng Peng,Wang Jianming,Liu Jiyang,Chen Zhong,Li Gang,Zheng Zhijian,Qiu Shaoqin,Luo Jie,Ye Changjiang,Zhu Shaoyong,Zheng Jinping,Zhang Nuofu,Li Yimin,He Jianxing,Li Jing,Li Shiyue,Zhong Nanshan, The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:Crucial roles of hematologic and immunologic responses in progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain largely unclear. OBJECTIVE:We sought to address the dynamic changes in hematologic and immunologic biomarkers and their associations with severity and outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS:A retrospective study including 548 patients with COVID-19 with clarified outcome (discharged or deceased) from a national cohort in China was performed. Cross-sectional and longitudinal variations were compared and the associations with different severity and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS:On admission, the counts of lymphocytes, T-cell subsets, eosinophils, and platelets decreased markedly, especially in severe/critical and fatal patients. Increased neutrophil count and neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio were predominant in severe/critical cases or nonsurvivors. During hospitalization, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and platelets showed an increasing trend in survivors, but maintained lower levels or dropped significantly afterwards in nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors kept a high level or showed an upward trend for neutrophils, IL-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer, amyloid A protein, and C-reactive protein, which were kept stable or showed a downward trend in survivors. Positive correlation between CD8 T-cell and lymphocytes count was found in survivors but not in nonsurvivors. A multivariate Cox regression model suggested that restored levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and platelets could serve as predictors for recovery, whereas progressive increases in neutrophils, basophils, and IL-6 were associated with fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Hematologic and immunologic impairment showed a significantly different profile between survivors and nonsurvivors in patients with COVID-19 with different severity. The longitudinal variations in these biomarkers could serve to predict recovery or fatal outcome. 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.05.003
    Early triage of critically ill COVID-19 patients using deep learning. Liang Wenhua,Yao Jianhua,Chen Ailan,Lv Qingquan,Zanin Mark,Liu Jun,Wong SookSan,Li Yimin,Lu Jiatao,Liang Hengrui,Chen Guoqiang,Guo Haiyan,Guo Jun,Zhou Rong,Ou Limin,Zhou Niyun,Chen Hanbo,Yang Fan,Han Xiao,Huan Wenjing,Tang Weimin,Guan Weijie,Chen Zisheng,Zhao Yi,Sang Ling,Xu Yuanda,Wang Wei,Li Shiyue,Lu Ligong,Zhang Nuofu,Zhong Nanshan,Huang Junzhou,He Jianxing Nature communications The sudden deterioration of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into critical illness is of major concern. It is imperative to identify these patients early. We show that a deep learning-based survival model can predict the risk of COVID-19 patients developing critical illness based on clinical characteristics at admission. We develop this model using a cohort of 1590 patients from 575 medical centers, with internal validation performance of concordance index 0.894 We further validate the model on three separate cohorts from Wuhan, Hubei and Guangdong provinces consisting of 1393 patients with concordance indexes of 0.890, 0.852 and 0.967 respectively. This model is used to create an online calculation tool designed for patient triage at admission to identify patients at risk of severe illness, ensuring that patients at greatest risk of severe illness receive appropriate care as early as possible and allow for effective allocation of health resources. 10.1038/s41467-020-17280-8
    Plasma IP-10 and MCP-3 levels are highly associated with disease severity and predict the progression of COVID-19. Yang Yang,Shen Chenguang,Li Jinxiu,Yuan Jing,Wei Jinli,Huang Fengmin,Wang Fuxiang,Li Guobao,Li Yanjie,Xing Li,Peng Ling,Yang Minghui,Cao Mengli,Zheng Haixia,Wu Weibo,Zou Rongrong,Li Delin,Xu Zhixiang,Wang Haiyan,Zhang Mingxia,Zhang Zheng,Gao George F,Jiang Chengyu,Liu Lei,Liu Yingxia The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first reported in Wuhan, December 2019, and continuously poses a serious threat to public health, highlighting the urgent need of identifying biomarkers for disease severity and progression. OBJECTIVE:We sought to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19. METHODS:Forty-eight cytokines in the plasma samples from 50 COVID-19 cases including 11 critically ill, 25 severe, and 14 moderate patients were measured and analyzed in combination with clinical data. RESULTS:Levels of 14 cytokines were found to be significantly elevated in COVID-19 cases and showed different expression profiles in patients with different disease severity. Moreover, expression levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, hepatocyte growth factor, monokine-induced gamma IFN, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, which were shown to be highly associated with disease severity during disease progression, were remarkably higher in critically ill patients, followed by severe and then the moderate patients. Serial detection of the 5 cytokines in 16 cases showed that continuously high levels were associated with deteriorated progression of disease and fatal outcome. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 were excellent predictors for the progression of COVID-19, and the combination of the 2 cytokines showed the biggest area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics calculations with a value of 0.99. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we report biomarkers that are highly associated with disease severity and progression of COVID-19. These findings add to our understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies. 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.027
    Elevated levels of IL-6 and CRP predict the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19. Herold Tobias,Jurinovic Vindi,Arnreich Chiara,Lipworth Brian J,Hellmuth Johannes C,von Bergwelt-Baildon Michael,Klein Matthias,Weinberger Tobias The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest as a viral-induced hyperinflammation with multiorgan involvement. Such patients often experience rapid deterioration and need for mechanical ventilation. Currently, no prospectively validated biomarker of impending respiratory failure is available. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to identify and prospectively validate biomarkers that allow the identification of patients in need of impending mechanical ventilation. METHODS:Patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized from February 29 to April 9, 2020, were analyzed for baseline clinical and laboratory findings at admission and during the disease. Data from 89 evaluable patients were available for the purpose of analysis comprising an initial evaluation cohort (n = 40) followed by a temporally separated validation cohort (n = 49). RESULTS:We identified markers of inflammation, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine as the variables most predictive of respiratory failure in the evaluation cohort. Maximal IL-6 level before intubation showed the strongest association with the need for mechanical ventilation, followed by maximal CRP level. The respective AUC values for IL-6 and CRP levels in the evaluation cohort were 0.97 and 0.86, and they were similar in the validation cohort (0.90 and 0.83, respectively). The calculated optimal cutoff values during the course of disease from the evaluation cohort (IL-6 level > 80 pg/mL and CRP level > 97 mg/L) both correctly classified 80% of patients in the validation cohort regarding their risk of respiratory failure. CONCLUSION:The maximal level of IL-6, followed by CRP level, was highly predictive of the need for mechanical ventilation. This suggests the possibility of using IL-6 or CRP level to guide escalation of treatment in patients with COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory syndrome. 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.05.008
    Development and Validation of a Clinical Risk Score to Predict the Occurrence of Critical Illness in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19. Liang Wenhua,Liang Hengrui,Ou Limin,Chen Binfeng,Chen Ailan,Li Caichen,Li Yimin,Guan Weijie,Sang Ling,Lu Jiatao,Xu Yuanda,Chen Guoqiang,Guo Haiyan,Guo Jun,Chen Zisheng,Zhao Yi,Li Shiyue,Zhang Nuofu,Zhong Nanshan,He Jianxing, JAMA internal medicine Importance:Early identification of patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who may develop critical illness is of great importance and may aid in delivering proper treatment and optimizing use of resources. Objective:To develop and validate a clinical score at hospital admission for predicting which patients with COVID-19 will develop critical illness based on a nationwide cohort in China. Design, Setting, and Participants:Collaborating with the National Health Commission of China, we established a retrospective cohort of patients with COVID-19 from 575 hospitals in 31 provincial administrative regions as of January 31, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables ascertained at hospital admission were screened using Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and logistic regression to construct a predictive risk score (COVID-GRAM). The score provides an estimate of the risk that a hospitalized patient with COVID-19 will develop critical illness. Accuracy of the score was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Data from 4 additional cohorts in China hospitalized with COVID-19 were used to validate the score. Data were analyzed between February 20, 2020 and March 17, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures:Among patients with COVID-19 admitted to the hospital, critical illness was defined as the composite measure of admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death. Results:The development cohort included 1590 patients. the mean (SD) age of patients in the cohort was 48.9 (15.7) years; 904 (57.3%) were men. The validation cohort included 710 patients with a mean (SD) age of 48.2 (15.2) years, and 382 (53.8%) were men and 172 (24.2%). From 72 potential predictors, 10 variables were independent predictive factors and were included in the risk score: chest radiographic abnormality (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.14-5.38), age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05), hemoptysis (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 1.36-15.15), dyspnea (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.18-3.01), unconsciousness (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.39-15.98), number of comorbidities (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.27-2.00), cancer history (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.23-13.43), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10), lactate dehydrogenase (OR, 1.002; 95% CI, 1.001-1.004) and direct bilirubin (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24). The mean AUC in the development cohort was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85-0.91) and the AUC in the validation cohort was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93). The score has been translated into an online risk calculator that is freely available to the public (http://118.126.104.170/). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, a risk score based on characteristics of COVID-19 patients at the time of admission to the hospital was developed that may help predict a patient's risk of developing critical illness. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2033