Role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in a mouse model of endotoxemia.
Pawlinski Rafal,Pedersen Brian,Schabbauer Gernot,Tencati Michael,Holscher Todd,Boisvert William,Andrade-Gordon Patricia,Frank Rolf Dario,Mackman Nigel
Sepsis is associated with a systemic activation of coagulation and an excessive inflammatory response. Anticoagulants have been shown to inhibit both coagulation and inflammation in sepsis. In this study, we used both genetic and pharmacologic approaches to analyze the role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in coagulation and inflammation in a mouse endotoxemia model. We used mice expressing low levels of the procoagulant molecule, tissue factor (TF), to analyze the effects of TF deficiency either in all tissues or selectively in hematopoietic cells. Low TF mice had reduced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality compared with control mice. Similarly, a deficiency of TF expression by hematopoietic cells reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality. Inhibition of the down-stream coagulation protease, thrombin, reduced fibrin deposition and prolonged survival without affecting inflammation. Deficiency of either protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) or protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) alone did not affect inflammation or survival. However, a combination of thrombin inhibition and PAR-2 deficiency reduced inflammation and mortality. These data demonstrate that hematopoietic cells are the major pathologic site of TF expression during endotoxemia and suggest that multiple protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation.
A balance between tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor is required for embryonic development and hemostasis in adult mice.
Pedersen Brian,Holscher Todd,Sato Yuichiro,Pawlinski Rafal,Mackman Nigel
Inactivation of the murine tissue factor (TF) gene or tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI) gene results in embryonic lethality, indicating that both are required for embryonic development. We have shown that expression of low levels of TF from a transgene (hTF) rescues TF-null embryos. However, low-TF mice (mTF(-/-)/hTF+) have hemostatic defects in the uterus, placenta, heart, and lung. In this study, we hypothesized that the death of TFPI-/- embryos was due to unregulated TF/FVIIa activity and that the hemostatic defects in low-TF mice were due to insufficient TF expression. Therefore, we attempted to rescue TFPI-/- embryos by reducing TF expression, and to restore hemostasis in low-TF mice by abolishing TFPI expression. Intercrossing TFPI(+/-)/mTF(+/-)/hTF+/- mice generated close to the expected number of TFPI(-/-)/low-TF mice at weaning age from 128 offspring, indicating rescue of TFPI-/- embryos from embryonic lethality. Conversely, a decrease in TFPI levels dose-dependently prolonged the survival of low-TF mice and rescued the hemorrhagic defects in the lung and placenta but not in the heart or uterus. These results indicate that the correct balance between TF and TFPI in different organs is required to maintain hemostasis during embryonic development and in adult mice.
Tissue-specific hemostasis in mice.
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Blood coagulation is essential to maintain hemostasis in organisms with a vascular network. Formation of a fibrin-rich clot at a site of vessel injury is a highly complex process that is orchestrated by the coagulation protease cascade. This cascade is regulated by 3 major anticoagulant pathways. Removal of a clot is mediated by the fibrinolytic system. Defects in the regulation of clot formation lead to either hemorrhage or thrombosis. Tissue factor, the primary cellular initiator of blood coagulation, is a transmembrane receptor that is expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The 3 major anticoagulants are tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, and protein C, the latter requiring a transmembrane receptor called thrombomodulin for its activation. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thrombomodulin are expressed by endothelial cells in a tissue-specific manner, whereas antithrombin and protein C circulate in the plasma. Fibrinolysis requires the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, which is mediated by tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Interestingly, tissue-type plasminogen activator is expressed by a subset of endothelial cells of discrete size and location. These observations, together with the phenotypes of mice that have defects in the procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic pathways, indicate that hemostasis is regulated in a tissue-specific manner.
Tissue factor deficiency and PAR-1 deficiency are protective against renal ischemia reperfusion injury.
Sevastos Jacob,Kennedy Sean E,Davis Darren R,Sam Melissa,Peake Philip W,Charlesworth John A,Mackman Nigel,Erlich Jonathan H
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a leading cause of acute renal failure and an important contributor to allograft damage. Tissue factor (TF) is up-regulated during IR, and TF inhibition reduces renal injury. However, the underlying mechanisms by which TF contributes to injury have not been elucidated. We postulated that TF contributes to IR injury by production of coagulation proteases and subsequent signaling by protease activated receptor (PARs). We compared renal injury after 25 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia and varying periods of reperfusion in C57BL/6 mice, those expressing low levels of TF (low-TF), hirudin-treated C57BL/6, and mice lacking either PAR-1 or PAR-2. C57BL/6 mice developed severe renal failure and died within 48 hours of reperfusion. In contrast, low-TF, hirudin-treated C57BL/6, and PAR-1-/- mice were protected from renal failure and had reduced mortality, tubular injury, neutrophil accumulation, and lower levels of the chemokines KC and MIP-2. Importantly, PAR-1-/- mice had lower chemokine levels despite up-regulation of TF and fibrin deposition. In addition, treating PAR-1-/- mice with hirudin conferred no additional benefit. Somewhat surprisingly, PAR-2 deficiency did not protect from renal failure. These experiments indicate that increased TF activity after renal IR leads to increased CXC chemokine expression and subsequent neutrophil-mediated injury predominantly by thrombin-dependent PAR-1 signaling.
Lipopolysaccharide inhibition of glucose production through the Toll-like receptor-4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, and nuclear factor kappa b pathway.
Raetzsch Carl F,Brooks Natasha L,Alderman J McKee,Moore Kelli S,Hosick Peter A,Klebanov Simon,Akira Shizuo,Bear James E,Baldwin Albert S,Mackman Nigel,Combs Terry P
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
UNLABELLED:Acute exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can cause hypoglycemia and insulin resistance; the underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear. We set out to determine whether insulin resistance is linked to hypoglycemia through Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), a cell signaling pathway that mediates LPS induction of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). LPS induction of hypoglycemia was blocked in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice but not in TNFalpha(-/-) mice. Both glucose production and glucose utilization were decreased during hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia was associated with the activation of NFkappaB in the liver. LPS inhibition of glucose production was blocked in hepatocytes isolated from TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice and hepatoma cells expressing an inhibitor of NFkappaB (IkappaB) mutant that interferes with NFkappaB activation. Thus, LPS-induced hypoglycemia was mediated by the inhibition of glucose production from the liver through the TLR4, MyD88, and NFkappaB pathway, independent of LPS-induced TNFalpha. LPS suppression of glucose production was not blocked by pharmacologic inhibition of the insulin signaling intermediate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in hepatoma cells. Insulin injection caused a similar reduction of circulating glucose in TLR4(-/-) and TLR4(+/+) mice. These two results suggest that LPS and insulin inhibit glucose production by separate pathways. Recovery from LPS-induced hypoglycemia was linked to glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia in TLR4(+/+) mice, but not in TLR4(-/-) mice. CONCLUSION:Insulin resistance is linked to the inhibition of glucose production by the TLR4, MyD88, and NFkappaB pathway.
Cellular sources of tissue factor in endotoxemia and sepsis.
Pawlinski Rafal,Mackman Nigel
Sepsis is a systemic host response to infection by pathogenic microorganisms. Activation of the coagulation cascade during endotoxemia and sepsis leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation. This review focuses on tissue factor expression by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and its contribution to the activation of coagulation during endotoxemia and sepsis.
Hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell tissue factor activates the coagulation cascade in endotoxemic mice.
Pawlinski Rafal,Wang Jian-Guo,Owens A Phillip,Williams Julie,Antoniak Silvio,Tencati Michael,Luther Thomas,Rowley Jesse W,Low Elizabeth N,Weyrich Andrew S,Mackman Nigel
Tissue factor (TF) is the primary activator of the coagulation cascade. During endotoxemia, TF expression leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, the relative contribution of TF expression by different cell types to the activation of coagulation has not been defined. In this study, we investigated the effect of either a selective inhibition of TF expression or cell type-specific deletion of the TF gene (F3) on activation of coagulation in a mouse model of endotoxemia. We found that inhibition of TF on either hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells reduced plasma thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels 8 hours after administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, plasma TAT levels were significantly reduced in endotoxemic mice lacking the TF gene in either myeloid cells (TF(flox/flox),LysM(Cre) mice) or in both endothelial cells (ECs) and hematopoietic cells (TF(flox/flox),Tie-2(Cre) mice). However, deletion of the TF gene in ECs alone had no effect on LPS-induced plasma TAT levels. Similar results were observed in mice lacking TF in vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, we found that mouse platelets do not express TF pre-mRNA or mRNA. Our data demonstrate that in a mouse model of endotoxemia activation of the coagulation cascade is initiated by TF expressed by myeloid cells and an unidentified nonhematopoietic cell type(s).
Tissue factor and its measurement in whole blood, plasma, and microparticles.
Key Nigel S,Mackman Nigel
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that initiates coagulation following contact with factor VII/VIIa. Recent experimental evidence, in particular from animal models, suggests an important role for circulating TF in thrombosis. This has led to a growing interest in the measurement of TF in whole blood and in cell-free plasma, where functionally active TF is carried on cell-derived microparticles. In this review, we address the range of assays for measuring circulating TF antigen and activity that have been published. We comment on some of the crucial preanalytical and analytical variables that influence the results and their interpretation.
Tissue factor and thrombosis: The clot starts here.
Owens A Phillip,Mackman Nigel
Thrombosis and haemostasis
Thrombosis, or complications from thrombosis, currently occupies the top three positions in the cardiovascular causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. There are a limited number of safe and effective drugs to prevent and treat thrombosis. Animal models of thrombosis are necessary to better understand the complex components and interactions involved in the formation of a clot. Tissue factor (TF) is required for the initiation of blood coagulation and likely plays a key role in both arterial and venous thrombosis. Understanding the role of TF in thrombosis may permit the development of new antithrombotic drugs. This review will focus on the role of TF in in vivo models of thrombosis.
Protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis.
McEachron Troy A,Pawlinski Rafal,Richards Kristy L,Church Frank C,Mackman Nigel
The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems contribute to malignancy by increasing angiogenesis, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. Oncogenic transformation increases the expression of tissue factor (TF) that results in local generation of coagulation proteases and activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2. We compared the PAR-dependent expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in 2 murine mammary adencocarcinoma cell lines: metastatic 4T1 cells and nonmetastatic 67NR cells. 4T1 cells expressed TF, PAR-1 and PAR-2 whereas 67NR cells expressed TF and PAR-1. We also silenced PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression in the 4T1 cells. We discovered 2 distinct mechanisms for PAR-dependent expression of uPA and PAI-1. First, we found that factor Xa or thrombin activation of PAR-1 led to a rapid release of stored intracellular uPA into the culture supernatant. Second, thrombin transactivation of a PAR-1/PAR-2 complex resulted in increases in PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression. Cells lacking PAR-2 failed to express PAI-1 in response to thrombin and factor Xa did not activate the PAR-1/PAR-2 complex. Our results reveal how PAR-1 and PAR-2 on tumor cells mediate crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis.
Monocytic microparticles activate endothelial cells in an IL-1β-dependent manner.
Wang Jian-Guo,Williams Julie C,Davis Beckley K,Jacobson Ken,Doerschuk Claire M,Ting Jenny P-Y,Mackman Nigel
Microparticles (MPs) are shed from activated and dying cells. They can transmit signals from cell to cell, locally or at a distance through the circulation. Monocytic MPs are elevated in different diseases, including bacterial infections. Here, we investigated how monocytic MPs activate endothelial cells. We found that MPs from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated THP-1 monocytic cells bind to and are internalized by human endothelial cells. MPs from LPS-treated THP-1 cells, but not untreated cells, induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway and expression of cell adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin. Similar results were observed using MPs from LPS-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We next investigated the mechanism by which monocytic MPs activated endothelial cells and found that they contain IL-1β and components of the inflammasome, including apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, caspase-1, and NLRP3. Importantly, knockdown of NLRP3 in THP-1 cells reduced the activity of the MPs and blockade of the IL-1 receptor on endothelial cells decreased MP-dependent induction of cell adhesion molecules. Therefore, monocytic MPs contain IL-1β and may amplify inflammation by enhancing the activation of the endothelium.
Monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets cooperate to initiate and propagate venous thrombosis in mice in vivo.
von Brühl Marie-Luise,Stark Konstantin,Steinhart Alexander,Chandraratne Sue,Konrad Ildiko,Lorenz Michael,Khandoga Alexander,Tirniceriu Anca,Coletti Raffaele,Köllnberger Maria,Byrne Robert A,Laitinen Iina,Walch Axel,Brill Alexander,Pfeiler Susanne,Manukyan Davit,Braun Siegmund,Lange Philipp,Riegger Julia,Ware Jerry,Eckart Annekathrin,Haidari Selgai,Rudelius Martina,Schulz Christian,Echtler Katrin,Brinkmann Volker,Schwaiger Markus,Preissner Klaus T,Wagner Denisa D,Mackman Nigel,Engelmann Bernd,Massberg Steffen
The Journal of experimental medicine
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adhering to the venous endothelium provide the initiating stimulus for DVT development. Using conditional mutants and bone marrow chimeras, we show that intravascular activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation via tissue factor (TF) derived from myeloid leukocytes causes the extensive intraluminal fibrin formation characteristic of DVT. We demonstrate that thrombus-resident neutrophils are indispensable for subsequent DVT propagation by binding factor XII (FXII) and by supporting its activation through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Correspondingly, neutropenia, genetic ablation of FXII, or disintegration of NETs each confers protection against DVT amplification. Platelets associate with innate immune cells via glycoprotein Ibα and contribute to DVT progression by promoting leukocyte recruitment and stimulating neutrophil-dependent coagulation. Hence, we identified a cross talk between monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets responsible for the initiation and amplification of DVT and for inducing its unique clinical features.
Hepatocyte tissue factor activates the coagulation cascade in mice.
Sullivan Bradley P,Kopec Anna K,Joshi Nikita,Cline Holly,Brown Juliette A,Bishop Stephanie C,Kassel Karen M,Rockwell Cheryl,Mackman Nigel,Luyendyk James P
In this study, we characterized tissue factor (TF) expression in mouse hepatocytes (HPCs) and evaluated its role in mouse models of HPC transplantation and acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. TF expression was significantly reduced in isolated HPCs and liver homogenates from TF(flox/flox)/albumin-Cre mice (HPC(ΔTF) mice) compared with TF(flox/flox) mice (control mice). Isolated mouse HPCs expressed low levels of TF that clotted factor VII-deficient human plasma. In addition, HPC TF initiated factor Xa generation without exogenous factor VIIa, and TF activity was increased dramatically after cell lysis. Treatment of HPCs with an inhibitory TF antibody or a cell-impermeable lysine-conjugating reagent prior to lysis substantially reduced TF activity, suggesting that TF was mainly present on the cell surface. Thrombin generation was dramatically reduced in APAP-treated HPC(ΔTF) mice compared with APAP-treated control mice. In addition, thrombin generation was dependent on donor HPC TF expression in a model of HPC transplantation. These results suggest that mouse HPCs constitutively express cell surface TF that mediates activation of coagulation during hepatocellular injury.
PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection.
Antoniak Silvio,Owens A Phillip,Baunacke Martin,Williams Julie C,Lee Rebecca D,Weithäuser Alice,Sheridan Patricia A,Malz Ronny,Luyendyk James P,Esserman Denise A,Trejo JoAnn,Kirchhofer Daniel,Blaxall Burns C,Pawlinski Rafal,Beck Melinda A,Rauch Ursula,Mackman Nigel
The Journal of clinical investigation
Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3-induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1(-/-) mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1(+/+) mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1(-/-) mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1(+/+) mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection.
Excess of heme induces tissue factor-dependent activation of coagulation in mice.
Sparkenbaugh Erica M,Chantrathammachart Pichika,Wang Shaobin,Jonas Will,Kirchhofer Daniel,Gailani David,Gruber Andras,Kasthuri Raj,Key Nigel S,Mackman Nigel,Pawlinski Rafal
An excess of free heme is present in the blood during many types of hemolytic anemia. This has been linked to organ damage caused by heme-mediated oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. We investigated the mechanism of heme-induced coagulation activation in vivo. Heme caused coagulation activation in wild-type mice that was attenuated by an anti-tissue factor antibody and in mice expressing low levels of tissue factor. In contrast, neither factor XI deletion nor inhibition of factor XIIa-mediated factor XI activation reduced heme-induced coagulation activation, suggesting that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not involved. We investigated the source of tissue factor in heme-induced coagulation activation. Heme increased the procoagulant activity of mouse macrophages and human PBMCs. Tissue factor-positive staining was observed on leukocytes isolated from the blood of heme-treated mice but not on endothelial cells in the lungs. Furthermore, heme increased vascular permeability in the mouse lungs, kidney and heart. Deletion of tissue factor from either myeloid cells, hematopoietic or endothelial cells, or inhibition of tissue factor expressed by non-hematopoietic cells did not reduce heme-induced coagulation activation. However, heme-induced activation of coagulation was abolished when both non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cell tissue factor was inhibited. Finally, we demonstrated that coagulation activation was partially attenuated in sickle cell mice treated with recombinant hemopexin to neutralize free heme. Our results indicate that heme promotes tissue factor-dependent coagulation activation and induces tissue factor expression on leukocytes in vivo. We also demonstrated that free heme may contribute to thrombin generation in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.
Fas-induced apoptosis increases hepatocyte tissue factor procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo.
Lopez Michelle,Kopec Anna K,Joshi Nikita,Geddings Julia E,Cline Holly,Towery Keara L,Rockwell Cheryl E,Mackman Nigel,Luyendyk James P
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hepatocyte (HPC) apoptosis occurs in association with hepatotoxic responses and chronic liver disease, and is coupled to activation of the blood coagulation cascade. HPCs have been shown to express tissue factor (TF), the primary activator of blood coagulation, in a form that lacks procoagulant activity. In this study, we determined the effect of inducing HPC apoptosis on the procoagulant activity of TF. Treatment of primary mouse HPCs with the Fas death receptor agonist (anti-CD95 antibody, Jo2) triggered apoptosis as shown by cleavage of caspase-3, increased caspase-3 proteolytic activity, and cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS). Jo2-induced apoptosis significantly increased TF-dependent factor Xa generation by HPCs. Moreover, Jo2 treatment was associated with increased levels of microparticle-associated TF procoagulant activity in the culture medium. Pretreatment with a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly reduced Jo2-induced HPC TF activity and prevented the increase in microparticle-associated TF procoagulant activity. Application of the high-affinity PS-binding protein lactadherin inhibited TF-dependent factor Xa generation by Jo2-treated HPCs and dramatically reduced microparticle-associated TF procoagulant activity. Treatment of wild-type mice with a sublethal dose of Jo2 was associated with a robust increase in the activation of coagulation as measured by plasma thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels; whereas mice with liver-specific TF deficiency had significantly lower TAT levels. Overall, the results indicate that Fas-initiated, caspase-3-dependent HPC apoptosis increases TF procoagulant activity through a mechanism involving PS externalization. This suggests that activation of liver TF likely contributes to the procoagulant state associated with HPC apoptosis in liver toxicity and disease.
Wolberg Alisa S,Rosendaal Frits R,Weitz Jeffrey I,Jaffer Iqbal H,Agnelli Giancarlo,Baglin Trevor,Mackman Nigel
Nature reviews. Disease primers
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) encompasses deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. VTE is the leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years and the third leading cause of cardiovascular death in the world. DVT leads to post-thrombotic syndrome, whereas pulmonary embolism can cause chronic pulmonary hypertension, both of which reduce quality of life. Genetic and acquired risk factors for thrombosis include non-O blood groups, factor V Leiden mutation, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, advanced age, surgery, hospitalization and long-haul travel. A combination of blood stasis, plasma hypercoagulability and endothelial dysfunction is thought to trigger thrombosis, which starts most often in the valve pockets of large veins. Animal studies have revealed pathogenic roles for leukocytes, platelets, tissue factor-positive microvesicles, neutrophil extracellular traps and factors XI and XII. Diagnosis of VTE requires testing and exclusion of other pathologies, and typically involves laboratory measures (such as D-dimer) and diagnostic imaging. VTE is treated with anticoagulants and occasionally with thrombolytics to prevent thrombus extension and to reduce thrombus size. Anticoagulants are also used to reduce recurrence. New therapies with improved safety profiles are needed to prevent and treat venous thrombosis. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/8ZyCuY.
Hepatocyte tissue factor contributes to the hypercoagulable state in a mouse model of chronic liver injury.
Rautou Pierre-Emmanuel,Tatsumi Kohei,Antoniak Silvio,Owens A Phillip,Sparkenbaugh Erica,Holle Lori A,Wolberg Alisa S,Kopec Anna K,Pawlinski Rafal,Luyendyk James P,Mackman Nigel
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis have a dysregulated coagulation system and are prone to thrombosis. The basis for this hypercoagulable state is not completely understood. Tissue factor (TF) is the primary initiator of coagulation in vivo. Patients with cirrhosis have increased TF activity in white blood cells and circulating microparticles. The aim of our study was to determine the contribution of TF to the hypercoagulable state in a mouse model of chronic liver injury. METHODS:We measured levels of TF activity in the liver, white blood cells and circulating microparticles, and a marker of activation of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TATc)) in the plasma of mice subjected to bile duct ligation for 12days. We used wild-type mice, mice with a global TF deficiency (low TF mice), and mice deficient for TF in either myeloid cells (TF(flox/flox),LysMCre mice) or in hepatocytes (TF(flox/flox),AlbCre). RESULTS:Wild-type mice with liver injury had increased levels of white blood cell, microparticle TF activity and TATc compared to sham mice. Low TF mice and mice lacking TF in hepatocytes had reduced levels of TF in the liver and in microparticles and exhibited reduced activation of coagulation without a change in liver fibrosis. In contrast, mice lacking TF in myeloid cells had reduced white blood cell TF but no change in microparticle TF activity or TATc. CONCLUSIONS:Hepatocyte TF activates coagulation in a mouse model of chronic liver injury. TF may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with chronic liver diseases in patients.
Myeloid tissue factor does not modulate lung inflammation or permeability during experimental acute lung injury.
Shaver Ciara M,Grove Brandon S,Clune Jennifer K,Mackman Nigel,Ware Lorraine B,Bastarache Julie A
Tissue factor (TF) is a critical mediator of direct acute lung injury (ALI) with global TF deficiency resulting in increased airspace inflammation, alveolar-capillary permeability, and alveolar hemorrhage after intra-tracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the lung, TF is expressed diffusely on the lung epithelium and intensely on cells of the myeloid lineage. We recently reported that TF on the lung epithelium, but not on myeloid cells, was the major source of TF during intra-tracheal LPS-induced ALI. Because of a growing body of literature demonstrating important pathophysiologic differences between ALI caused by different etiologies, we hypothesized that TF on myeloid cells may have distinct contributions to airspace inflammation and permeability between direct and indirect causes of ALI. To test this, we compared mice lacking TF on myeloid cells (TF(∆mye), LysM.Cre(+/-)TF(flox/flox)) to littermate controls during direct (bacterial pneumonia, ventilator-induced ALI, bleomycin-induced ALI) and indirect ALI (systemic LPS, cecal ligation and puncture). ALI was quantified by weight loss, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cell number, cytokine concentration, protein concentration, and BAL procoagulant activity. There was no significant contribution of TF on myeloid cells in multiple models of experimental ALI, leading to the conclusion that TF in myeloid cells is not a major contributor to experimental ALI.
A combined deficiency of tissue factor and PAR-4 is associated with fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in mice.
Bode Michael F,Mackman Nigel
INTRODUCTION:Mice with a complete absence of tissue factor (TF) die during embryonic development whereas mice with low levels of TF (Low-TF mice) survive to adulthood. Low-TF mice exhibit spontaneous hemorrhage in various organs, including the lung. In contrast, mice can survive without protease-activated receptor (PAR)-4, which is the major thrombin receptor on mouse platelets. We determined the effect of combining a deficiency PAR-4 (primary hemostasis) with a deficiency in TF (secondary hemostasis) on embryonic development and survival of adult mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Low-TF mice (mTF, hTF) were crossed with PAR-4 mice to generate heterozygous mice (mTF, hTF, PAR-4). These mice were intercrossed to generate Low-TF mice lacking PAR-4. Mice surviving to wean were genotyped and survival was monitored for 6months. RESULTS:We observed the expected number of Low-TF,PAR-4 mice at wean indicating survival in utero and after birth. However, an absence of PAR-4 was associated with premature death of all Low-TF,PAR-4 mice in the 6month observational period. This compares with 40% death of the Low-TF,PAR-4 mice (p=0.003). Low-TF,PAR-4 mice had an intermediate phenotype with 55% of the mice dying within 6months. The primary cause of mortality of Low-TF,PAR-4 mice was pulmonary hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS:Low-TF,PAR-4 mice survive into adulthood, but combining a deficiency of primary hemostasis (PAR-4 deficiency) with secondary hemostasis (low levels of TF) leads to premature death primarily due to pulmonary hemorrhage.
Methodological Guidelines to Study Extracellular Vesicles.
Coumans Frank A W,Brisson Alain R,Buzas Edit I,Dignat-George Françoise,Drees Esther E E,El-Andaloussi Samir,Emanueli Costanza,Gasecka Aleksandra,Hendrix An,Hill Andrew F,Lacroix Romaric,Lee Yi,van Leeuwen Ton G,Mackman Nigel,Mäger Imre,Nolan John P,van der Pol Edwin,Pegtel D Michiel,Sahoo Susmita,Siljander Pia R M,Sturk Guus,de Wever Olivier,Nieuwland Rienk
Owing to the relationship between extracellular vesicles (EVs) and physiological and pathological conditions, the interest in EVs is exponentially growing. EVs hold high hopes for novel diagnostic and translational discoveries. This review provides an expert-based update of recent advances in the methods to study EVs and summarizes currently accepted considerations and recommendations from sample collection to isolation, detection, and characterization of EVs. Common misconceptions and methodological pitfalls are highlighted. Although EVs are found in all body fluids, in this review, we will focus on EVs from human blood, not only our most complex but also the most interesting body fluid for cardiovascular research.
Thrombin promotes diet-induced obesity through fibrin-driven inflammation.
Kopec Anna K,Abrahams Sara R,Thornton Sherry,Palumbo Joseph S,Mullins Eric S,Divanovic Senad,Weiler Hartmut,Owens A Phillip,Mackman Nigel,Goss Ashley,van Ryn Joanne,Luyendyk James P,Flick Matthew J
The Journal of clinical investigation
Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory and hypercoagulable state that drives cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and several cancers. Elevated thrombin activity underlies obesity-linked thromboembolic events, but the mechanistic links between the thrombin/fibrin(ogen) axis and obesity-associated pathologies are incompletely understood. In this work, immunohistochemical studies identified extravascular fibrin deposits within white adipose tissue and liver as distinct features of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) as well as obese patients. Fibγ390-396A mice carrying a mutant form of fibrinogen incapable of binding leukocyte αMβ2-integrin were protected from HFD-induced weight gain and elevated adiposity. Fibγ390-396A mice had markedly diminished systemic, adipose, and hepatic inflammation with reduced macrophage counts within white adipose tissue, as well as near-complete protection from development of fatty liver disease and glucose dysmetabolism. Homozygous thrombomodulin-mutant ThbdPro mice, which have elevated thrombin procoagulant function, gained more weight and developed exacerbated fatty liver disease when fed a HFD compared with WT mice. In contrast, treatment with dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, limited HFD-induced obesity development and suppressed progression of sequelae in mice with established obesity. Collectively, these data provide proof of concept that targeting thrombin or fibrin(ogen) may limit pathologies in obese patients.
Mouse models of cancer-associated thrombosis.
Hisada Yohei,Mackman Nigel
Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population. Mouse models are used to better understand the mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis. Several mouse models of cancer-associated thrombosis have been developed that use different mouse strains, tumors, tumor sites and thrombosis models. In this review, we summarize these different models. These models have been used to determine the role of different pathways in cancer-associated thrombosis. For instance, they have revealed roles for tumor-derived tissue factor-positive microvesicles and neutrophil extracellular traps in thrombosis in tumor-bearing mice. A better understanding of the mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis may allow the development of new therapies to reduce thrombosis in cancer patients.
The red blood cell death receptor and thrombosis.
The Journal of clinical investigation
RBCs are the most abundant circulating cells in humans and typically comprise 35% to 45% of the blood volume (hematocrit). Anemia is associated with an increase in bleeding, and epidemiological studies have shown an association between an elevated hematocrit and thrombosis. RBCs may contribute to hemostasis and thrombosis via mechanisms that include platelet margination leading to an increase in the near-wall platelet concentration, blood viscosity, thrombin generation, and platelet activation. In this issue of the JCI, Klatt et al. report that binding of the Fas ligand FasL on the surface of platelets to its cognate receptor FasR on the surface of RBCs increases thrombin generation in vitro and thrombosis in mouse models. This represents a new mechanism by which RBCs contribute to thrombosis.
Caspase Inhibition Reduces Hepatic Tissue Factor-Driven Coagulation In Vitro and In Vivo.
Kopec Anna K,Spada Alfred P,Contreras Patricia C,Mackman Nigel,Luyendyk James P
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Tissue factor (TF) is the primary activator of the blood coagulation cascade. Liver parenchymal cells (ie, hepatocytes) express TF in a molecular state that lacks procoagulant activity. Hepatocyte apoptosis is an important feature of acute and chronic liver diseases, and Fas-induced apoptosis increases hepatocyte TF procoagulant activity in vitro. We determined the impact of a pan-caspase inhibitor, IDN-7314, on hepatocyte TF activity in vitro and TF-mediated coagulation in vivo. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with the Fas death receptor ligand (Jo2, 0.5 μg/ml) for 8 h increased hepatocyte TF procoagulant activity and caused release of TF-positive microvesicles. Pretreatment with 100 nM IDN-7314 abolished Jo2-induced caspase-3/7 activity and significantly reduced hepatocyte TF procoagulant activity and release of TF-positive microvesicles. Treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice with a sublethal dose of Jo2 (0.35 mg/kg) for 4.5 h increased coagulation, measured by a significant increase in plasma thrombin-antithrombin and TF-positive microvesicles. Total plasma microvesicle-associated TF activity was reduced in mice lacking hepatocyte TF; suggesting TF-positive microvesicles are released from the apoptotic liver. Fibrin(ogen) deposition increased in livers of Jo2-treated wild-type mice and colocalized primarily with cleaved caspase-3-positive hepatocytes. Pretreatment with IDN-7314 reduced caspase-3 activation, prevented the procoagulant changes in Jo2-treated mice, and reduced hepatocellular injury. Overall, the results indicate a central role for caspase activity in TF-mediated activation of coagulation following apoptotic liver injury. Moreover, the results suggest that liver-selective caspase inhibition may be a putative strategy to limit procoagulant and prothrombotic changes in patients with chronic liver disease.