Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies.
Kwon Myoung Soo,Hämäläinen Heikki
For the last two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human brain and cognition using behavioral or neurophysiological measurements. This review evaluated previous findings with respect to study design and data analysis. Provocation studies found no evidence of subjective symptoms attributed to mobile phone radiation, suggesting psychological reasons for inducing such symptoms in hypersensitive people. Behavioral studies previously reported improved cognitive performance under exposure, but it was likely to have occurred by chance due to multiple comparisons. Recent behavioral studies and replication studies with more conservative statistics found no significant effects compared with original studies. Neurophysiological studies found no significant effects on cochlear and brainstem auditory processing, but only inconsistent results on spontaneous and evoked brain electrical activity. The inconsistent findings suggest possible false positives due to multiple comparisons and thus replication is needed. Other approaches such as brain hemodynamic response measurements are promising but the findings are few and not yet conclusive. Rigorous study design and data analysis considering multiple comparisons and effect size are required to reduce controversy in this important field of research.
Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder.
Bauer M,Glenn T,Alda M,Aleksandrovich M A,Andreassen O A,Angelopoulos E,Ardau R,Ayhan Y,Baethge C,Bharathram S R,Bauer R,Baune B T,Becerra-Palars C,Bellivier F,Belmaker R H,Berk M,Bersudsky Y,Bicakci Ş,Birabwa-Oketcho H,Bjella T D,Bossini L,Cabrera J,Cheung E Y W,Del Zompo M,Dodd S,Donix M,Etain B,Fagiolini A,Fountoulakis K N,Frye M A,Gonzalez-Pinto A,Gottlieb J F,Grof P,Harima H,Henry C,Isometsä E T,Janno S,Kapczinski F,Kardell M,Khaldi S,Kliwicki S,König B,Kot T L,Krogh R,Kunz M,Lafer B,Landén M,Larsen E R,Lewitzka U,Licht R W,Lopez-Jaramillo C,MacQueen G,Manchia M,Marsh W,Martinez-Cengotitabengoa M,Melle I,Meza-Urzúa F,Yee Ming M,Monteith S,Morken G,Mosca E,Munoz R,Mythri S V,Nacef F,Nadella R K,Nery F G,Nielsen R E,O'Donovan C,Omrani A,Osher Y,Østermark Sørensen H,Ouali U,Pica Ruiz Y,Pilhatsch M,Pinna M,da Ponte F D R,Quiroz D,Ramesar R,Rasgon N,Reddy M S,Reif A,Ritter P,Rybakowski J K,Sagduyu K,Scippa Â M,Severus E,Simhandl C,Stein D J,Strejilevich S,Subramaniam M,Sulaiman A H,Suominen K,Tagata H,Tatebayashi Y,Tondo L,Torrent C,Vaaler A E,Veeh J,Vieta E,Viswanath B,Yoldi-Negrete M,Zetin M,Zgueb Y,Whybrow P C
Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica
OBJECTIVE:To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder. METHOD:Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57 countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density. RESULTS:There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect was reduced in those without a family history of mood disorders and with a first episode of mania rather than depression. The maximum monthly increase occurred in springtime. The youngest birth-cohort had the youngest age of onset. All prior relationships were confirmed using both the entire sample, and only the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:A large increase in springtime solar insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit with LEDs) may influence adaptability to a springtime circadian challenge.
Psychological consideration in patients with cerebral gliomas candidates for intra-operative radiation therapy based on tumor location.
Seddighi Afsoun,Akbari Mohammad Esmaeil,Seddighi Amir Saied,Nikouei Amir
Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
OBJECTIVE:Intra-operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is gaining popularity as an adjuvant option to surgical resection, in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for increasing survival rate, which a highly aggressive cerebral tumor with poor prognosis. Τhe authors plan to investigate the effects of IORT combined with surgical resection on the psychological status of these patients based on tumor location. SUBJECT AND METHODS:From December 2013 to February 2017, we have enrolled 109 patients with high grade cerebral gliomas, documented by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Patients with previous history of brain surgery or radiation, altered mental status and psychological content and patients diagnosed with metastases were excluded. Demographic data, tumor volume based on pre-operative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and psychological status were recorded based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The remaining 56 patients, were equally randomized into conventional (surgical resection-group A), and trial (surgical resection with IORT-group B) who underwent IORT using the 50kV INTRABEAM® system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany). Psychological profiles of both groups were re-evaluated in the 3 post-operative month. RESULTS:Group A consisted of 18 males and 10 females with mean age of 54.4 years, while group B consisted of 16 males and 12 females with mean age of 57.8 years. Tumor volumetry revealed mean 81.52cc and 82.8cc for group A and B respectively. (P value 0.14) Patients were classified based on glioma location on pre-operative MRI: a) left parietal lobe (6 in group A, 5 in group B); b) left temporal lobe (7 in group A, 5 in group B); c) right parietal lobe (5 in group A, 6 in group B); d) left fronto-temporal lobe (4 in group A, 6 in group B); e) left parieto-temporal lobe (4 in group A, 5 in group B); and, f) right frontal lobe (2 in group A, 1 in group B). Group B received mean 8.05 Gy radiation for mean 11.2 minutes. Post-operative psychological in the 3 month evaluation revealed the following in each class: a) Group A: 1 mild depression, Group B: 1 mild depression and 2 major depression; b) Group A: no disorder, Group B: 1 mild depression; c) no disorders in both groups; d) Group A: no disorder, Group B: 1 mild depression, 1 major depression and 1 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Conclusion: Utilization of IORT is shown to improve survival rate of patients suffering from GBM. However, the psychological status is a major determinating factor for the quality of life of these patients. Our study showed that IORT increased psychological disorders in patients with gliomas located in left parietal, left fronto-temporal and left parieto-temporal lobes and should be considered in pre-operative strategy selection.
Phantom pain reduction by low-frequency and low-intensity electromagnetic fields.
Bókkon István,Till Attila,Grass Friedrich,Erdöfi Szabó Attila
Electromagnetic biology and medicine
Although various treatments have been presented for phantom pain, there is little proof supporting the benefits of pharmacological treatments, surgery or interventional techniques, electroconvulsive therapy, electrical nerve stimulation, far infrared ray therapy, psychological therapies, etc. Here, we report the preliminary results for phantom pain reduction by low-frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields under clinical circumstances. Our method is called as Electromagnetic-Own-Signal-Treatment (EMOST). Fifteen people with phantom limb pain participated. The patients were treated using a pre-programmed, six sessions. Pain intensity was quantified upon admission using a 0-10 verbal numerical rating scale. Most of the patients (n = 10) reported a marked reduction in the intensity of phantom limb pain. Several patients also reported about improvement in their sleep and mood quality, or a reduction in the frequency of phantom pain after the treatments. No improvements in the reduction of phantom limb pain or sleep and mood improvement were reported in the control group (n = 5). Our nonlinear electromagnetic EMOST method may be a possible therapeutic application in the reduction of phantom limb pain. Here, we also suggest that some of the possible effects of the EMOST may be achieved via the redox balance of the body and redox-related neural plasticity.
[The reaction of the circulatory system to stress and electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones - 24-h monitoring of ECG and blood pressure].
Szyjkowska Agata,Gadzicka Elzbieta,Szymczak Wiesław,Bortkiewicz Alicja
BACKGROUND:Experimental studies have shown cardiovascular effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones (e.g., prolonged QTc interval and abnormal blood pressure [BP] values). Also, stress may have an impact on the cardiovascular function. However, there are practically no data regarding the joint effect of exposure to stress and EMF, with both factors pertaining, e.g., to employees of mobile network operators. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Out of 208 subjects who had taken part in survey research, 55 workers agreed to undergo resting ECG, 24-h ECG and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Their health condition, occupational and life-stress levels and EMF exposure were also assessed. RESULTS:Among the workers using mobile phones for more than 60 min daily, the systolic BP values in office measurement and at night-time in ABPM were significantly higher than among the workers spending less time talking on mobile phones (p = 0.04 and p = 0.036, respectively). The workers with the highest level of occupational stress showed significantly higher systolic 24-h BP (p = 0.007) and at day-time (p = 0.002), both during work (p = 0.010) and after work (p = 0.005), and higher diastolic BP values at day-time (p = 0.028). Cardiovascular response was strongly gender-related: males showed more BP abnormalities while females displayed more impairments in ECG records. The heart rate from 24 h was significantly correlated with the level of occupational stress, after adjusting for gender, life-stress and EMF. CONCLUSIONS:The findings obtained thus far have indicated the need to conduct in-depth studies on the impact of stress and EMF emitted by mobile phones on the health effects, in order to clarify the observed gender-related differences in cardiovascular response to the combined exposure to stress and EMF. Med Pr. 2019;70(4):411-24.
Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.
Alsaeed Ibrahim,Al-Somali Faisal,Sakhnini Lama,Aljarallah Omar S,Hamdan Rayan M M,Bubishate Saleh A,Sarfaraz Ziyab Khan,Kamal Amer
International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
The incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rising, but the causes of ASD remain largely unidentified. Collective data have implicated the increased human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the increasing incidence of ASD. There are established biological effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF, but the relation to ASD is not investigated enough. In this study we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to ELF EMF on some ASD-relevant behavioral parameters in mice. The EMF was delivered via a Helmholtz coil pair. Male BALB/C mice were used and divided into exposed and control groups (n=8 and n=9, respectively). Tests were used to assess sociability, preference for social novelty, locomotion, anxiety, exploratory behavior, motor coordination, and olfaction. The examined mice were all males and exposed to EMF during the last week of gestation and for 7 days after delivery. The exposed mice demonstrated a lack of normal sociability and preference for social novelty while maintaining normal anxiety-like behavior, locomotion, motor coordination, and olfaction. Exposed mice also demonstrated decreased exploratory activity. We concluded that these results are supportive of the hypothesis of a causal link between exposure to ELF-EMF and ASD; however, replications of the study with further tests are recommended.
Actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: an epidemiological study based on self-reported data and electronic medical records.
Baliatsas Christos,Bolte John,Yzermans Joris,Kelfkens Gert,Hooiveld Mariette,Lebret Erik,van Kamp Irene
International journal of hygiene and environmental health
BACKGROUND:There is continuing scientific debate and increasing public concern regarding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on general population's health. To date, no epidemiological study has investigated the possible association between actual and perceived EMF exposure and non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and sleep quality, using both self-reported and general practice (GP)-registered data. METHODS:A health survey of adult (≥ 18) participants (n=5933) in the Netherlands was combined with the electronic medical records (EMRs) of NSPS as registered by general practitioners. Characterization of actual exposure was based on several proxies, such as prediction models of radiofrequency (RF)-EMF exposure, geo-coded distance to high-voltage overhead power lines and self-reported use/distance of/to indoor electrical appliances. Perceived exposure and the role of psychological variables were also examined. RESULTS:Perceived exposure had a poor correlation with the actual exposure estimates. No significant association was found between modeled RF-EMF exposure and the investigated outcomes. Associations with NSPS were observed for use of an electric blanket and close distance to an electric charger during sleep. Perceived exposure, perceived control and avoidance behavior were associated with the examined outcomes. The association between perceived exposure was stronger for self-reported than for GP-registered NSPS. There was some indication, but no consistent pattern for an interaction between idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI-EMF) and the association between actual exposure and NSPS. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence for an association between everyday life RF-EMF exposure and NSPS and sleep quality in the population. Better exposure characterization, in particular with respect to sources of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is needed to draw more solid conclusions. We argue that perceived exposure is an independent determinant of NSPS.
Revisiting the health effects of psychological stress-its influence on susceptibility to ionizing radiation: a mini-review.
Wang Bing,Katsube Takanori,Begum Nasrin,Nenoi Mitsuru
Journal of radiation research
Both psychological stress (PS) and ionizing radiation (IR) cause varied detrimental effects on humans. There has been no direct evidence so far showing PS alone could cause cancer; however, long-lasting PS may affect our overall health and ability to cope with cancer. Due to their living conditions and occupations, some people may encounter concurrent exposure to both PS and IR to a high extent. In addition to possible health effects resulting directly from exposure to IR on these people, fear of IR exposure is also a cause of PS. The question of whether PS would influence susceptibility to IR, radiocarcinogenesis in particular, is of great concern by both the academic world and the public. Recently, investigations using animal PS models demonstrated that PS could modulate susceptibility to IR, causing increased susceptibility to radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous mice, hematological toxicity in peripheral blood and elevated chromosome aberration (dicentrics) frequency in splenocytes of Trp53-wild-type mice. To actively reduce health risk from exposure to IR, further studies are needed to cumulate more evidence and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the alterations in susceptibility due to PS modulation. This mini-review gives a general overview of the significance of PS effects on humans and experimental animals, with a special focus on summarizing the latest weight-of-evidence approaches to radiobiological studies on PS-induced alterations in susceptibility in experimental animal models. The susceptibility being investigated is mainly in the context of the impact of the modulatory effect of PS on radiocarcinogenesis; we seek to improve understanding of the combined effects of exposure to both PS and IR in order to facilitate, via active intervention, strategies for radiation risk reduction.
Evaluation of the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologist members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG).
Mampuya Wambaka Ange,Matsuo Yukinori,Nakamura Akira,Hiraoka Masahiro
Journal of radiation research
This study aimed to evaluate the self-reported prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG) and to identify factors contributing to burnout. We mailed an anonymous survey to 125 radiation oncologists members of the KROSG. The survey included; the demographic data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). There were 87 responses out of 125 eligible respondents (69.6% response rate). In terms of burnout, three participants (3.4%) fulfilled the MBI-HSS criteria of having simultaneously high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP) and low sense of personal accomplishment (PA). Eighteen (20.6%) reported a high score for either EE or DP meeting the alternative criteria for burnout with three of these simultaneously having high EE and high DP. The prevalence of psychological morbidity estimated using GHQ-12 was 32%. A high level of EE and low level of PA significantly correlated with high level of psychological morbidity with P < 0.001 and <0.01 respectively. Having palliative care activities other than radiotherapy and number of patients treated per year were the only factors associated with burnout. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists in Japan. Compared with other studies involving radiation oncologists, the prevalence of low personal accomplishment was particularly high in the present study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was almost the double that of the Japanese general population and was significantly associated with low PA and high EE.
RT Prepare: a radiation therapist-delivered intervention reduces psychological distress in women with breast cancer referred for radiotherapy.
Halkett Georgia,O'Connor Moira,Jefford Michael,Aranda Sanchia,Merchant Susan,Spry Nigel,Kane Robert,Shaw Thérèse,Youens David,Moorin Rachael,Schofield Penelope,
British journal of cancer
BACKGROUND:The aims of this study were to determine whether a radiation therapist-led patient education intervention (RT Prepare) reduced breasts cancer patients' psychological distress (primary endpoint); anxiety, depression and concerns about radiotherapy, and increased knowledge of radiotherapy and preparedness (secondary endpoints). Patient health system usage and costs were also assessed. METHODS:A multiple-baseline study across three sites. The RT Prepare intervention comprised two consultations with a radiation therapist: prior to treatment planning and on the first day of treatment. Radiation therapists focused on providing sensory and procedural information and addressing patients' pre-treatment anxiety. Usual care data were collected prior to intervention commencement. Data collection occurred: after meeting their radiation oncologist, prior to treatment planning, first day of treatment and after treatment completion. Multilevel mixed effects regression models were used. RESULTS:In total, 218 usual care and 190 intervention patients participated. Compared with usual care, intervention participants reported lower psychological distress at treatment commencement (p = 0.01); lower concerns about radiotherapy (p < 0.01); higher patient knowledge (p < 0.001); higher preparedness for procedural concerns (p < 0.001) and higher preparedness for sensory-psychological concerns at treatment planning (p < 0.001). Mean within-trial costs per patient were estimated at $AU159 (US$120); mean ongoing costs at $AU35 (US$26). CONCLUSION:The RT Prepare intervention was effective in reducing breast cancer patients' psychological distress and preparing patients for treatment. This intervention provides an opportunity for radiation therapists to extend their role into providing patients with information and support prior to treatment to reduce psychological distress.
Are media reports able to cause somatic symptoms attributed to WiFi radiation? An experimental test of the negative expectation hypothesis.
Bräscher Anne-Kathrin,Raymaekers Koen,Van den Bergh Omer,Witthöft Michael
People suffering from idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) experience numerous non-specific symptoms that they attribute to EMF. The cause of this condition remains vague and evidence shows that psychological rather than bioelectromagnetic mechanisms are at work. We hypothesized a role of media reports in the etiology of IEI-EMF and investigated how somatosensory perception is affected. 65 healthy participants were instructed that EMF exposure can lead to enhanced somatosensory perception. Participants were randomly assigned to watch either a television report on adverse health effects of EMF or a neutral report. During the following experiment, participants rated stimulus intensities of tactile (electric) stimuli while being exposed to a sham WiFi signal in 50% of the trials. Sham WiFi exposure led to increased intensity ratings of tactile stimuli in the WiFi film group, especially in participants with higher levels of somatosensory amplification. Participants of the WiFi group reported more anxiety concerning WiFi exposure than the Control group and tended to perceive themselves as being more sensitive to EMF after the experiment compared to before. Sensational media reports can facilitate enhanced perception of tactile stimuli in healthy participants. People tending to perceive bodily symptoms as intense, disturbing, and noxious seem most vulnerable. Receiving sensational media reports might sensitize people to develop a nocebo effect and thereby contribute to the development of IEI-EMF. By promoting catastrophizing thoughts and increasing symptom-focused attention, perception might more readily be enhanced and misattributed to EMF.
The degree of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is altered by acute sleep deprivation and psychological stress and is associated with cognitive performance in humans.
Moreno-Villanueva Maria,von Scheven Gudrun,Feiveson Alan,Bürkle Alexander,Wu Honglu,Goel Namni
Study Objectives:Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA damage in humans. It remains unknown whether sleep deprivation or psychological stress in humans affects DNA damage response from environmental stressors, and whether these responses predict cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. Methods:Sixteen healthy adults (ages 29-52 years; mean age ± SD, 36.4 ± 7.1 years; seven women) participated in a 5-day experiment involving two 8 hr time-in-bed (TIB) baseline nights, followed by 39 hr total sleep deprivation (TSD), and two 8-10 hr TIB recovery nights. A modified Trier Social Stress Test was conducted on the day after TSD. The Psychomotor Vigilance Test measured behavioral attention. DNA damage was assessed in blood cells collected at 5 time points, and blood cells were irradiated ex vivo. Results:TSD, alone or in combination with psychological stress, did not induce significant increases in DNA damage. By contrast, radiation-induced DNA damage decreased significantly in response to TSD, but increased back to baseline when combined with psychological stress. Cognitively vulnerable individuals had more radiation-induced DNA strand breaks before TSD, indicating their greater sensitivity to DNA damage from environmental stressors. Conclusions:Our results provide novel insights into the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, psychological stress, and performance vulnerability. They are important for fields involving sleep loss, radiation exposure, and cognitive deficits, including cancer therapy, environmental toxicology, and space medicine.
Relationships between radiation risk perception and health anxiety, and contribution of mindfulness to alleviating psychological distress after the Fukushima accident: Cross-sectional study using a path model.
Kashiwazaki Yuya,Takebayashi Yoshitake,Murakami Michio
One of biggest public health impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident is psychosocial. Anxiety about radiation is still present, and radiation risk perception, particularly with regard to genetic effects, is known to affect mental health. However, roles of other risk factors such as health anxiety and of mindfulness remain to be proved. Here, we examined how radiation risk perception (genetic effects) mediates in health anxiety and psychological distress, and how mindfulness influences those variables. Seven years after the accident, we commissioned a self-reported online survey with 832 participants, 416 each from Fukushima and Tokyo, and modeled the relationship between those variables using Structural Equation Modeling. Health anxiety had a much stronger influence on psychological distress than radiation risk perception. Mindfulness was significantly correlated with both health anxiety and psychological distress, but not with radiation risk perception. The total effects on psychological distress were -0.38 by mindfulness and +0.38 by health anxiety. These results suggest the potential application of mindfulness-based interventions to alleviate health anxiety and psychological distress rather than therapy focused on radiation anxiety. The results underline the effectiveness of community support efforts in Fukushima and highlight the importance of enhancing mindfulness during the chronic phase following a disaster.
Environmental radiation level, radiation anxiety, and psychological distress of non-evacuee residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Multilevel analyses.
Fukasawa Maiko,Kawakami Norito,Umeda Maki,Miyamoto Karin,Akiyama Tsuyoshi,Horikoshi Naoko,Yasumura Seiji,Yabe Hirooki,Bromet Evelyn J
SSM - population health
The present study aimed to clarify the associations among radiation exposure or psychological exposure to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (i.e., fear/anxiety immediately after the accident), current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress among non-evacuee community residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of non-evacuee community residents from 49 municipalities of Fukushima prefecture from February to April 2016, and data from 1684 respondents (34.4%) were analyzed. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident were ascertained from survey meter data, while environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were ascertained from monitoring post data. In the questionnaire, immediate fear/anxiety after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress were measured using a single-item question, a 7-item scale, and K6, respectively. Multilevel linear or logistic regression models were applied to analyze the determinants of radiation anxiety and psychological distress. The findings showed that environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were more strongly associated with radiation anxiety than radiation levels immediately after the accident. Disaster-related experiences, such as direct damage, disaster-related family stress, and fear/anxiety after the accident, and demographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, being married, low socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with radiation anxiety. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident or survey were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Radiation anxiety largely mediated the association between fear/anxiety after the accident and psychological distress. In addition to environmental radiation levels, respondents' radiation anxiety was affected by multiple factors, such as disaster-related experiences and demographic characteristics. Radiation levels were not associated with psychological distress in non-evacuee community residents. Rather, fear/anxiety after the nuclear power plant accident may be a determinant of psychological distress, mediated by radiation anxiety.
Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
Tuengler Andreas,von Klitzing Lebrecht
Electromagnetic biology and medicine
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is an ill-defined term to describe the fact that people who experience health symptoms in the vicinity of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) regard them as causal for their complaints. Up to now most scientists assume a psychological cause for the suffering of electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals. This paper addresses reasons why most provocation studies could not find any association between EMF exposure and EHS and presents a hypothesis on diagnosis and differentiation of this condition. Simultaneous recordings of heart rate variability, microcirculation and electric skin potentials are used for classification of EHS. Thus, it could be possible to distinguish "genuine" electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals from those who suffer from other conditions.
The psychological consequences of (perceived) ionizing radiation exposure: a review on its role in radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction.
Collett George,Craenen Kai,Young William,Gilhooly Mary,Anderson Rhona M
International journal of radiation biology
PURPOSE:Exposure to ionizing radiation following environmental contamination (e.g., the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents), radiotherapy and diagnostics, occupational roles and space travel has been identified as a possible risk-factor for cognitive dysfunction. The deleterious effects of high doses (≥1.0 Gy) on cognitive functioning are fairly well-understood, while the consequences of low (≤0.1 Gy) and moderate doses (0.1-1.0 Gy) have been receiving more research interest over the past decade. In addition to any impact of actual exposure on cognitive functioning, the persistent psychological stress arising from perceived exposure, particularly following nuclear accidents, may itself impact cognitive functioning. In this review we offer a novel interdisciplinary stance on the cognitive impact of radiation exposure, considering psychological and epidemiological observations of different exposure scenarios such as atomic bombings, nuclear accidents, occupational and medical exposures while accounting for differences in dose, rate of exposure and exposure type. The purpose is to address the question that perceived radiation exposure - even where the actual absorbed dose is 0.0 Gy above background dose - can result in psychological stress, which could in turn lead to cognitive dysfunction. In addition, we highlight the interplay between the mechanisms of perceived exposure (i.e., stress) and actual exposure (i.e., radiation-induced cellular damage), in the generation of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. In all, we offer a comprehensive and objective review addressing the potential for cognitive defects in the context of low- and moderate-dose IR exposures. CONCLUSIONS:Overall the evidence shows prenatal exposure to low and moderate doses to be detrimental to brain development and subsequent cognitive functioning, however the evidence for adolescent and adult low- and moderate-dose exposure remains uncertain. The persistent psychological stress following accidental exposure to low-doses in adulthood may pose a greater threat to our cognitive functioning. Indeed, the psychological implications for instructed cohorts (e.g., astronauts and radiotherapy patients) is less clear and warrants further investigation. Nonetheless, the psychosocial consequences of low- and moderate-dose exposure must be carefully considered when evaluating radiation effects on cognitive functioning, and to avoid unnecessary harm when planning public health response strategies.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) reduces oxidative stress and improves functional and psychological status in ischemic stroke patients.
Cichoń Natalia,Bijak Michał,Miller Elżbieta,Saluk Joanna
As a result of ischaemia/reperfusion, massive generation of reactive oxygen species occurs, followed by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients. Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an ELF-EMF field of 40 Hz, 7 mT for 15 min/day for 4 weeks (5 days a week). The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was measured in hemolysates, and total antioxidant status (TAS) determined in plasma. Functional status was assessed before and after the series of treatments using Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Applied ELF-EMF significantly increased enzymatic antioxidant activity; however, TAS levels did not change in either group. Results show that ELF-EMF induced a significant improvement in functional (ADL) and mental (MMSE, GDS) status. Clinical parameters had positive correlation with the level of enzymatic antioxidant protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:386-396, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Quality of Life, Psychological Burden, and Sleep Quality in Patients With Brain Metastasis Undergoing Whole Brain Radiation Therapy.
Teke Fatma,Bucaktepe Pakize,Kıbrıslı Erkan,Demir Melike,Ibiloglu Aslıhan,Inal Ali
Clinical journal of oncology nursing
BACKGROUND:Patients with brain metastasis (BM) usually suffer from poor quality of life (QOL), anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in their reduced lifespan. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL, anxiety, depression, and sleep characteristics in patients with BM at the beginning and end of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and three months after treatment. METHODS:Thirty-three patients undergoing WBRT for BM were featured in this study. The authors used the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale to measure performance status, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate anxiety and depression, the SF-36® to evaluate health-related QOL, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to evaluate sleep disorders at the start of WBRT, the end of WBRT, and three months after WBRT. FINDINGS:Statistically significant improvements were noted in KPS scores from baseline evaluation to the end of WBRT and to three months after WBRT. No significant differences were observed in SF-36 and HADS scores between the start and the end of WBRT. Anxiety scores were negatively correlated with survival at the end of WBRT. Overall survival was better in those who reported better sleep. WBRT improves KPS scores and does not worsen sleep quality or mood, even in patients with poor performance status. When changes in mood and sleep quality are observed, survival and QOL may improve in patients with BM; consequently, nurses should be responsive to these changes.
Exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields elicits an HSP-related stress response in rat hippocampus.
Yang Xue-Sen,He Gen-Lin,Hao Yu-Tong,Xiao Yang,Chen Chun-Hai,Zhang Guang-Bin,Yu Zheng-Ping
Brain research bulletin
The issue of possible neurobiological effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is highly controversial. To determine whether electromagnetic field exposure could act as an environmental stimulus capable of producing stress responses, we employed the hippocampus, a sensitive target of electromagnetic radiation, to assess the changes in its stress-related gene and protein expression after EMF exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with body restrained were exposed to a 2.45 GHz EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 6 W/kg or sham conditions. cDNA microarray was performed to examine the changes of gene expression involved in the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. Of 2048 candidate genes, 23 upregulated and 18 downregulated genes were identified. Of these differential expression genes, two heat shock proteins (HSP), HSP27 and HSP70, are notable because expression levels of both proteins are increased in the rat hippocampus. Result from immunocytochemistry revealed that EMF caused intensive staining for HSP27 and HSP70 in the hippocampus, especially in the pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and granular cells of dentate gyrus (DG). The gene and protein expression profiles of HSP27 and HSP70 were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data provide direct evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields elicits a stress response in the rat hippocampus.
Effects of 7 Hz-modulated 450 MHz electromagnetic radiation on human performance in visual memory tasks.
Lass J,Tuulik V,Ferenets R,Riisalo R,Hinrikus H
International journal of radiation biology
PURPOSE:The aim was to examine low-level 7 Hz-modulated 450 MHz radiation effects on human performance in visually presented neuropsychological tasks associated with attention and short-term memory. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A homogeneous group of 100 subjects (37 female, 63 male) were randomly assigned to either the exposed (10-20 min, 0.158 mW cm(-2)) or the sham-exposed group. A battery of three different tests measured attention and short-term memory. Task 1 involved alternately selecting black digits from 1 to 25 in ascending order and white digits from 24 to 1 in descending order. The time spent on the task and the number of errors were recorded and analysed. Task 2 involved viewing a picture of 12 objects during 3 s, followed by a list of 24 words. The subject was required to select words representing previously presented objects. In task 3, an array of letters in 10 rows (60 in each row) was presented, and the subject was required to identify all examples of a particular two-letter combination. RESULTS:The results of tasks 1 and 3 showed a significant increase in variances of errors (p<0.05) in the exposed versus the sham-exposed group. The results of task 2 indicated a significant decrease in errors (p<0.05) in the exposed group. CONCLUSIONS:The data provide additional evidence that acute low-level exposure to microwaves modulated at 7 Hz can affect cognitive processes such as attention and short-term memory.
Effects of whole body (56)Fe radiation on contextual freezing and Arc-positive cells in the dentate gyrus.
Raber Jacob,Allen Antiño R,Rosi Susanna,Sharma Sourabh,Dayger Catherine,Davis Matthew J,Fike John R
Behavioural brain research
The space radiation environment contains high-energy charged particles such as (56)Fe, which could pose a significant hazard to hippocampal function in astronauts during and after the mission(s). The mechanisms underlying impairments in cognition are not clear but might involve alterations in the percentage of neurons in the dentate gyrus expressing the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc. Previously, we showed effects of cranial (56)Fe irradiation on hippocampus-dependent contextual freezing and on the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed, but not free, blade. Because it is unclear whether whole body (56)Fe irradiation causes similar effects on these markers of hippocampal function, in the present study we quantified the effects of whole body (56)Fe irradiation (600MeV, 0.5 or 1Gy) on hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent cognitive performance and determined whether these effects were associated with changes in Arc expression in the enclosed and free blades of the dentate gyrus. Whole body (56)Fe irradiation impacted contextual but not cued fear freezing and the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In mice tested for contextual freezing, there was a correlation between Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In addition, in mice irradiated with 0.5Gy, contextual freezing in the absence of aversive stimuli correlated with the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed blade. In mice tested for cued freezing, there was no correlation between Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In contrast, cued freezing in the presence or absence of aversive stimuli correlated with Arc-positive cells in the free blade. In addition, in mice irradiated with 1Gy cued freezing in the absence of aversive stimuli correlated with the percentage of Arc-positive neurons in the free blade. These data indicate that while whole body (56)Fe radiation affects contextual freezing and Arc-positive cells in the dentate gyrus, the enclosed blade might be more important for contextual freezing while the free blade might be more important for cued freezing.
Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.
Kim Kyunghee,Kim Hae-Joon,Song Dae Jong,Cho Yong Min,Choi Jae Wook
In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones.
Effects of (56)Fe radiation on hippocampal function in mice deficient in chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2).
Raber Jacob,Allen Antiño R,Rosi Susanna,Sharma Sourabh,Dayger Catherine,Davis Matthew J,Fike John R
Behavioural brain research
(56)Fe irradiation affects hippocampus-dependent cognition. The underlying mechanisms may involve alterations in neurogenesis, expression of the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc, and inflammation. Chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), which mediates the recruitment of infiltrating and resident microglia to sites of CNS inflammation, is upregulated by (56)Fe irradiation. CCR2 KO and wild-type mice were used to compare effects of (56)Fe radiation (600MeV, 0.25Gy) on hippocampal function using contextual fear conditioning involving tone shock pairing during training (+/+) and exposure to the same environment without tone shock pairings (-/-). In the -/- condition, irradiation enhanced habituation in WT mice, but not CCR2 KO mice, suggesting that a lack of CCR2 was associated with reduced cognitive performance. In the +/+ condition, irradiation reduced freezing but there was no genotype differences. There were no significant correlations between the number of Arc-positive cells in the dentate gyrus and freezing in either genotype. While measures of neurogenesis and gliogenesis appeared to be modulated by CCR2, there were no effects of genotype on the total numbers of newly born activated microglia before or after irradiation, indicating that other mechanisms are involved in the genotype-dependent radiation response.
The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.
Hassanshahi Amin,Shafeie Seyed Ali,Fatemi Iman,Hassanshahi Elham,Allahtavakoli Mohammad,Shabani Mohammad,Roohbakhsh Ali,Shamsizadeh Ali
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) electromagnetic waves (2.45 GHz) have widespread usage almost everywhere, especially in our homes. Considering the recent reports about some hazardous effects of Wi-Fi signals on the nervous system, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats. This experimental study was done on 80 male Wistar rats that were allocated into exposure and sham groups. Wi-Fi exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves [in Service Set Identifier mode (23.6 dBm and 3% for power and duty cycle, respectively)] was done for 30 days (12 h/day). Cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. A discrimination ratio was calculated to assess the preference of animal to the novel object. The expression levels of M1 and GAT1 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. The expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.
The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat.
Daniels Willie M U,Pitout Ianthe L,Afullo Thomas J O,Mabandla Musa V
Metabolic brain disease
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is emitted from electromagnetic fields that surround power lines, household appliances and mobile phones. Research has shown that there are connections between EMR exposure and cancer and also that exposure to EMR may result in structural damage to neurons. In a study by Salford et al. (Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883, 2003) the authors demonstrated the presence of strongly stained areas in the brains of rats that were exposed to mobile phone EMR. These darker neurons were particularly prevalent in the hippocampal area of the brain. The aim of our study was to further investigate the effects of EMR. Since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and emotional states, we hypothesised that EMR will have a negative impact on the subject's mood and ability to learn. We subsequently performed behavioural, histological and biochemical tests on exposed and unexposed male and female rats to determine the effects of EMR on learning and memory, emotional states and corticosterone levels. We found no significant differences in the spatial memory test, and morphological assessment of the brain also yielded non-significant differences between the groups. However, in some exposed animals there were decreased locomotor activity, increased grooming and a tendency of increased basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggested that EMR exposure may lead to abnormal brain functioning.
Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats.
Gupta Sukesh Kumar,Patel Shishir Kumar,Tomar Munendra Singh,Singh Shio Kumar,Mesharam Manoj Kumar,Krishnamurthy Sairam
Long term exposure of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from cell phones and Wi-Fi hold greater propensity to cause anxiety disorders. However, the studies investigating the effects of repeated exposure of EMR are limited. Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated exposure of discrete frequencies of EMR in experimental animals. Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) for 28 (1 h/day) days. Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats.
Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.
Júnior Luiz Carlos de Caires,Guimarães Ernesto da Silveira Goulart,Musso Camila Manso,Stabler Collin Turner,Garcia Raúl Marcel González,Mourão-Júnior Carlos Alberto,Andreazzi Ana Eliza
BACKGROUND:The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. OBJECTIVE:To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. METHODS:Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. RESULTS:Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. CONCLUSION:Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.