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    From Bully Victimization to Aggressive Behavior: Applying the Problem Behavior Theory, Theory of Stress and Coping, and General Strain Theory to Explore Potential Pathways. Lee Jeoung Min,Kim Jinwon,Hong Jun Sung,Marsack-Topolewski Christina N Journal of interpersonal violence Studies have documented that some bully victims fall into a subcategory of bullying called "bully victims" in which the victim becomes the aggressor. However, studies to date have not examined the pathways linking bully victimization and aggressive behavior. To address this research gap, this study applies the problem behavior theory, theory of stress and coping, and general strain theory to explore possible pathways from bully victimization to aggressive behavior by examining the mediating effects of low life satisfaction, drug use, and exposure to peer deviance. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the path model from a sample of 1,676 adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years. Data were derived from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. Findings revealed that bully victimization was positively associated with aggressive behavior. Moreover, bully victims displayed lower levels of life satisfaction. In addition, bully victims who were frequently exposed to peer deviance and drug use were likely to engage in bullying. These findings support the problem behavior theory and general strain theory and have implications for research, practice, and policy. 10.1177/0886260519884679
    The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Langford Rebecca,Bonell Christopher,Jones Hayley,Pouliou Theodora,Murphy Simon,Waters Elizabeth,Komro Kelli,Gibbs Lisa,Magnus Daniel,Campbell Rona BMC public health BACKGROUND:Healthy children achieve better educational outcomes which, in turn, are associated with improved health later in life. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework is a holistic approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school. The effectiveness of this approach has not yet been rigorously reviewed. METHODS:We searched 20 health, education and social science databases, and trials registries and relevant websites in 2011 and 2013. We included cluster randomised controlled trials. Participants were children and young people aged four to 18 years attending schools/colleges. HPS interventions had to include the following three elements: input into the curriculum; changes to the school's ethos or environment; and engagement with families and/or local communities. Two reviewers identified relevant trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We grouped studies according to the health topic(s) targeted. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS:We identified 67 eligible trials tackling a range of health issues. Few studies included any academic/attendance outcomes. We found positive average intervention effects for: body mass index (BMI), physical activity, physical fitness, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, and being bullied. Intervention effects were generally small. On average across studies, we found little evidence of effectiveness for zBMI (BMI, standardized for age and gender), and no evidence for fat intake, alcohol use, drug use, mental health, violence and bullying others. It was not possible to meta-analyse data on other health outcomes due to lack of data. Methodological limitations were identified including reliance on self-reported data, lack of long-term follow-up, and high attrition rates. CONCLUSION:This Cochrane review has found the WHO HPS framework is effective at improving some aspects of student health. The effects are small but potentially important at a population level. 10.1186/s12889-015-1360-y
    Antibullying legislation: a public health perspective. Srabstein Jorge C,Berkman Benjamin E,Pyntikova Eugenia The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine PURPOSE:To determine the extent to which aspects of public health policy have been incorporated into the antibullying statutes enacted in the United States. METHODS:We reviewed all the state laws dealing with school bullying, harassment, and/or intimidation enacted in the United States as of June 2007. These laws were evaluated using an Antibullying Public Health Policy Criteria Index, designed for the purpose of this study. The criteria included presence of a bullying definition, a prohibition of bullying, a statutory recognition of bullying as a public health threat, and a call for prevention programs. As part of that evaluation, laws were examined to ascertain whether they evidenced essential elements of public health concerns and also the extent to which the U.S. school age population was protected by these laws. RESULTS:As of June 2007, 35 states have enacted antibullying legislation that aims to protect the safety of 77% of U.S. students enrolled in public schools. However, only 16 of those states have enacted statutes that incorporate comprehensive basic public health antibullying principles. CONCLUSIONS:There is an urgent need for implementation of school bullying prevention laws. Such laws should clearly define the problem of bullying in schools and its associated health risks, prohibit bullying, require implementation of prevention programs, provide funding for prevention activities, and confer adequate and appropriate jurisdiction. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.10.007
    Implementing Intervention Research into Public Policy-the "I-Approach". Spiel Christiane,Schober Barbara,Strohmeier Dagmar Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research Evidence-based intervention programs have become highly important in recent years, especially in educational contexts. However, transferring these programs into practice and into the wider field of public policy often fails. As a consequence, the field of implementation research has emerged, several implementation frameworks have been developed, and implementation studies conducted. However, intervention research and implementation research have not yet been connected systematically and different traditions and research groups are involved. Implementation researchers are mostly given mandates by politicians to take on the implementation of already existing interventions. This might be one of the key reasons why there are still many problems in translating programs into widespread community practice. In this paper, we argue for a systematic integration of intervention and implementation research ("I-Approach") and recommend a six-step procedure (PASCIT). This requires researchers to design and develop intervention programs using a field-oriented and participative approach. In particular, the perspective of policymakers has to be included as well as an analysis of which factors support or hinder evidence-based policy in contrast to opinion-based policy. How this systematic connection between intervention and implementation research can be realized, is illustrated by means of the development and implementation of the ViSC school program, which intends to reduce aggressive behavior and bullying and to foster social and intercultural competencies. 10.1007/s11121-016-0638-3
    Bullying in school: evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. Olweus Dan,Limber Susan P The American journal of orthopsychiatry The nature and extent of bullying among school children is discussed, and recent attention to the phenomenon by researchers, the media, and policy makers is noted. The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) is a comprehensive, school-wide program that was designed to reduce bullying and achieve better peer relations among students in elementary, middle, and junior high school grades. Several large-scale studies from Norway are reviewed, which provide compelling evidence of the program's effectiveness in Norwegian schools. Studies that have evaluated the OBPP in diverse settings in the United States have not been uniformly consistent, but they have shown that the OBPP has had a positive impact on students' self-reported involvement in bullying and antisocial behavior. Efforts to disseminate the OBPP in Norway and the United States are discussed. 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01015.x
    Social Media Use and Cyber-Bullying: A Cross-National Analysis of Young People in 42 Countries. Craig Wendy,Boniel-Nissim Meyran,King Nathan,Walsh Sophie D,Boer Maartje,Donnelly Peter D,Harel-Fisch Yossi,Malinowska-Cieślik Marta,Gaspar de Matos Margarida,Cosma Alina,Van den Eijnden Regina,Vieno Alessio,Elgar Frank J,Molcho Michal,Bjereld Ylva,Pickett William The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine PURPOSE:Social media use (SMU) has become an intrinsic part of adolescent life. Negative consequences of SMU for adolescent health could include exposures to online forms of aggression. We explored age, gender, and cross-national differences in adolescents' engagement in SMU, then relationships between SMU and victimization and the perpetration of cyber-bullying. METHODS:We used data on young people aged 11-15 years (weighted n = 180,919 in 42 countries) who participated in the 2017-2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Childrenstudy to describe engagement in the three types of SMU (intense, problematic, and talking with strangers online) by age and gender and then in the perpetration and victimization of cyber-bullying. Relationships between SMU and cyber-bullying outcomes were estimated using Poisson regression (weighted n = 166,647 from 42 countries). RESULTS:Variations in SMU and cyber-bullying follow developmental and gender-based patterns across countries. In pooled analyses, engagement in SMU related to cyber-bullying victimization (adjusted relative risks = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.19] to 1.48 [95% CI: 1.42-1.55]) and perpetration (adjusted relative risk = 1.31 [95% CI: 1.26-1.36] to 1.84 [95% CI: 1.74-1.95]). These associations were stronger for cyber-perpetration versus cyber-victimization and for girls versus boys. Problematic SMU was most strongly and consistently associated with cyber-bullying, both for victimization and perpetration. Stratified analyses showed that SMU related to cyber-victimization in 19%-45% of countries and to cyber-perpetration in 38%-86% of countries. CONCLUSIONS:Accessibility to social media and its pervasive use has led to new opportunities for online aggression. The time adolescents spend on social media, engage in problematic use, and talk to strangers online each relate to cyber-bullying and merit public health intervention. Problematic use of social media poses the strongest and most consistent risk. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.006
    Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Modecki Kathryn L,Minchin Jeannie,Harbaugh Allen G,Guerra Nancy G,Runions Kevin C The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional-cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.06.007
    Structural Determinants of Youth Bullying and Fighting in 79 Countries. Elgar Frank J,McKinnon Britt,Walsh Sophie D,Freeman John,D Donnelly Peter,de Matos Margarida Gaspar,Gariepy Genevieve,Aleman-Diaz Aixa Y,Pickett William,Molcho Michal,Currie Candace The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine PURSPOSE:The prevention of youth violence is a public health priority in many countries. We examined the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting in youths in 79 high- and low-income countries and the relations between structural determinants of adolescent health (country wealth, income inequality, and government spending on education) and international differences in youth violence. METHODS:Cross-sectional surveys were administered in schools between 2003 and 2011. These surveys provided national prevalence rates of bullying victimization (n = 334,736) and four or more episodes of physical fighting in the past year (n = 342,312) in eligible and consenting 11-16 year olds. Contextual measures included per capita income, income inequality, and government expenditures on education. We used meta-regression to examine relations between country characteristics and youth violence. RESULTS:Approximately 30% of adolescents reported bullying victimization and 10.7% of males and 2.7% of females were involved in frequent physical fighting. More youth were exposed to violence in African and Eastern Mediterranean countries than in Europe and Asia. Violence directly related to country wealth; a 1 standard deviation increase in per capita income corresponded to less bullying (-3.9% in males and -4.2% in females) and less fighting (-2.9% in males and -1.0% in females). Income inequality and education spending modified the relation between country wealth and fighting; where inequality was high, country wealth related more closely to fighting if education spending was also high. CONCLUSIONS:Country wealth is a robust determinant of youth violence. Fighting in affluent but economically unequal countries might be reduced through increased government spending on education. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.08.007
    Race, Bullying, and Public Perceptions of School and University Safety. Shelley Walter W,Pickett Justin T,Mancini Christina,McDougle Robyn Diehl,Rissler Grant,Cleary Hayley Journal of interpersonal violence Bullying and school crime are important social problems that are receiving increased attention by scholars and policy makers. However, several critical questions remain unaddressed. First, does the public perceive bullying as a serious problem and judge schools-primary, secondary, and postsecondary-as safe or unsafe? Second, does the public use a "bullying lens" to judge school safety-that is, do citizens understand bullying as a serious threat to students' well-being? Third, are there racial differences in these perceptions? Prior research identifies racial differences in the prevalence of bullying, as well as in students' views of school safety and citizens' fear of crime. Similar racial gaps may characterize public perceptions of bullying and school safety. This study begins to illuminate answers to these questions by analyzing data from a representative sample of Virginians. Multivariate regression analyses produce several notable findings. First, we find that members of the public believe bullying in schools is an increasingly serious problem, and their perceptions of bullying influence their judgments of whether schools and colleges/universities are safe. Second, Black members of the public are more likely than persons from other racial and ethnic backgrounds to perceive that bullying is increasing and is a serious problem in schools, and, in turn, to judge that schools and universities are less safe. Our results indicate that members of the public see bullying as a principal threat to student safety. They suggest there is a strong reservoir of public support for antibullying initiatives and, more broadly, efforts to increase student safety. 10.1177/0886260517736272
    Associations Between Antibullying Policies and Bullying in 25 States. Hatzenbuehler Mark L,Schwab-Reese Laura,Ranapurwala Shabbar I,Hertz Marci F,Ramirez Marizen R JAMA pediatrics IMPORTANCE:Bullying is the most widespread form of peer aggression in schools. In an effort to address school bullying, 49 states have passed antibullying statutes. Despite the ubiquity of these policies, there has been limited empirical examination of their effectiveness in reducing students' risk of being bullied. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of antibullying legislation in reducing students' risk of being bullied and cyberbullied, using data from 25 states in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a population-based survey of 63 635 adolescents in grades 9 to 12 from 25 states participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (September 2010-December 2011). Data on antibullying legislation were obtained from the US Department of Education (DOE), which commissioned a systematic review of state laws in 2011. The report identified 16 key components that were divided into the following 4 broad categories: purpose and definition of the law, district policy development and review, school district policy components (eg, responsibilities for reporting bullying incidents), and additional components (eg, how policies are communicated). Policy variables from 25 states were linked to individual-level data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System on experiencing bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses were conducted between March 1, 2014, and December 1, 2014. EXPOSURE:State antibullying legislation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Exposure to bullying and cyberbullying in the past 12 months. RESULTS:There was substantial variation in the rates of bullying and cyberbullying across states. After controlling for relevant state-level confounders, students in states with at least 1 DOE legislative component in the antibullying law had a 24% (95% CI, 15%-32%) reduced odds of reporting bullying and 20% (95% CI, 9%-29%) reduced odds of reporting cyberbullying compared with students in states whose laws had no DOE legislative components. Three individual components of antibullying legislation were consistently associated with decreased odds of exposure to both bullying and cyberbullying: statement of scope, description of prohibited behaviors, and requirements for school districts to develop and implement local policies. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Antibullying policies may represent effective intervention strategies for reducing students' risk of being bullied and cyberbullied in schools. 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2411
    Public attitudes about different types of anti-bullying laws: results from a national survey. Puhl Rebecca M,Luedicke Joerg,King Kelly M Journal of public health policy State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying. 10.1057/jphp.2014.46
    A meta-analysis of the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. Lee Sunhee,Kim Chun-Ja,Kim Dong Hee Journal of child health care : for professionals working with children in the hospital and community Bullying is a serious public health problem, and many studies have examined the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. However, these programs and those outcomes are complex, broad, and diverse. Research is needed into the optimal strategies for these comprehensive programs, which consider both the effectiveness and cost of programs. We performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package to calculate effect size (ES) and the Q statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses to examine the differences based on student grade level, program duration, and program strategy. The pooled ES calculation indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small to moderate effect on victimization. The results of the Q test indicated significant heterogeneity across studies of victimization (Q = 39.625; I (2) = 69.7%; p < .001). Studies involving training in emotional control (p < .01), peer counseling (p < .05), or the establishment of a school policy on bullying (p < .05) showed significantly larger ESs on victimization than did studies that did not involve these strategies. Effective school-based anti-bullying programs should include training in emotional control, peer counseling, and the establishment of a school policy on bullying. 10.1177/1367493513503581
    Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. Bradshaw Catherine P The American psychologist Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention. 10.1037/a0039114
    School Principals Putting Bullying Policy to Practice. Brown James,Keesler John,Karikari Isaac,Ashrifi Gifty,Kausch Meg Journal of interpersonal violence School principals must rely on state statutes and district policies to navigate reports of school bullying. Investigating reports to determine the outcomes may vary depending upon the districts definition of bullying, the investigation process, and follow through to reporting the findings of the investigation to the involved children and youth's parents. However, investigating reports can be challenging due to the confusion of what constitutes bullying. This confusion can be especially troubling for parents who believe their child is being bullied. In order to understand principals' perspectives on bullying, two focus groups were conducted with nine urban school principals. Researchers examined principals' perceptions of how state- and district-level policies were used within their bully investigation practices. These principals suggest that a clear, specific district wide definition of bullying and step by step procedures to investigate reports, along with the state anti-bullying statute, provide a valuable guide for follow-through and back up in determining cases of school bullying. In addition, they identified how policies and district mandates affected parents, particularly when reporting their investigation findings. Implications for bully prevention policies are discussed. 10.1177/0886260520914553
    The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review. Hall William Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research OBJECTIVE:Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. METHOD:Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. RESULTS:Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators' responsiveness to general bullying. CONCLUSIONS:Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. 10.1086/690565
    School bullying, low self-control, and opportunity. Moon Byongook,Alarid Leanne Fiftal Journal of interpersonal violence The theory of low self-control has been shown to be a valid predictor of a wide variety of criminal and deviant behaviors. However, a limited number of studies were conducted to understand the relationship between low self-control and bullying and the effects of opportunity factors (i.e., parental supervision, association with other bullies, negative school environment, and disciplinary measures used by teachers) on bullying in the context of low self-control theory. The present study, using a sample of nearly 300 youths, examined the effects of low self-control and opportunity factors on various types of bullying behaviors. Results indicated that youths with low self-control were likely to physically and psychologically bully, consistent with the theory's prediction. When opportunity measures were introduced, they were stronger explanations of bullying than low self-control, especially association with other bullies and youth who experienced disciplinary measures by their teacher. Negative school environment was a significant predictor of psychological bullying but not for physical bullying. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. 10.1177/0886260514536281
    Anti-bullying Policies and Disparities in Bullying: A State-Level Analysis. Hatzenbuehler Mark L,Flores Javier E,Cavanaugh Joseph E,Onwuachi-Willig Angela,Ramirez Marizen R American journal of preventive medicine INTRODUCTION:Recent research suggests that anti-bullying laws may be effective in reducing risk of bullying victimization among youth, but no research has determined whether these laws are also effective in reducing disparities in bullying. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-bullying legislation in reducing disparities in sex- and weight-based bullying and cyberbullying victimization. METHODS:Data on anti-bullying legislation were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education, which commissioned a systematic review of 16 key components of state laws in 2011. States were also categorized based on whether their legislation enumerated protected groups and, if so, which groups were enumerated. These policy variables from 28 states were linked to individual-level data on bullying and cyberbullying victimization from students in 9th through 12th grade participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (N=79,577). Analyses were conducted in 2016. RESULTS:There was an absence of any kind of moderating effect of anti-bullying legislation on weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Only state laws with high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines were associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS:Anti-bullying policies were not associated with lower weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization among youth, and only one form of policies (high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines) was associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Results therefore suggest that anti-bullying legislation requires further refinement to protect youth who are vulnerable to bullying victimization. 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.02.004
    The Role of School Context in Implementing a Statewide Anti-Bullying Policy and Protecting Students. Hall William J,Chapman Mimi V Educational policy (Los Altos, Calif.) Bullying is a significant problem in U.S. schools. Policies have been developed to reduce bullying, yet policy implementation by educators is an essential yet difficult and complex process. Few studies have investigated factors that act as barriers to or facilitators of bullying policy implementation and teacher protection of students. This study examined the influence of school context on educators' capacity to implement a statewide bullying law and protect students from bullying following the enactment of the policy. Data were collected from 505 educators in 324 schools. School administrators tended to rate fidelity of policy implementation and teacher protection of students higher than teachers, education support professionals, and student service professionals. Policy implementation fidelity scores were higher in high schools than elementary schools. School size and the prevalence of student suspensions were inversely related to implementation fidelity. Higher levels of teacher protection were reported in elementary schools. 10.1177/0895904816637689
    Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia. Marsh Louise,McGee Rob,Hemphill Sheryl A,Williams Sheila Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals ISSUE ADDRESSED:To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. METHODS:The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. RESULTS:There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. CONCLUSION:This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying. 10.1071/he11172
    Do Anti-Bullying Laws Reduce In-School Victimization, Fear-based Absenteeism, and Suicidality for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth? Seelman Kristie L,Walker Mary Beth Journal of youth and adolescence Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at heightened risk for bullying and other forms of in-school victimization. Anti-bullying laws are a potential policy mechanism for addressing this issue, yet there has been little investigation of the impact of such policies for this population using generalizable samples or quasi-experimental designs. The current study explores whether the presence of state anti-bullying laws predicts lower likelihood of bullying victimization, fear-based absenteeism, in-school threats or injury with a weapon, and suicidality for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning high school students in the United States. Based on Youth Risk Behavior Survey data across 22 states from 2005-2015, coupled with data about the presence of general and enumerated anti-bullying laws that include sexual orientation as a protected class, this study analyzes this topic using a quasi-experimental design (linear difference-in-difference models). The results indicate that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (particularly boys aged 15 or younger) experienced less bullying victimization in states with general or enumerated anti-bullying laws. There was modest evidence of a reduction in fear-based absenteeism among boys in states with such laws. However, there was little evidence of a relationship between such policies and in-school threats or injuries or suicidality. Further, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning girls' likelihood of victimization, absenteeism, or suicidality was generally not related to the presence of anti-bullying laws. The results suggest that general and enumerated anti-bullying laws may help reduce bullying victimization for gay, bisexual, and questioning boys. 10.1007/s10964-018-0904-8
    Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. Cornell Dewey,Limber Susan P The American psychologist The nationwide effort to reduce bullying in U.S. schools can be regarded as part of larger civil and human rights movements that have provided children with many of the rights afforded to adult citizens, including protection from harm in the workplace. Many bullied children find that their schools are hostile environments, but civil rights protections against harassment apply only to children who fall into protected classes, such as racial and ethnic minorities, students with disabilities, and victims of gender harassment or religious discrimination. This article identifies the conceptual challenges that bullying poses for legal and policy efforts, reviews judicial and legislative efforts to reduce bullying, and makes some recommendations for school policy. Recognition that all children have a right to public education would be one avenue for broadening protection against bullying to all children. 10.1037/a0038558
    Leveraging school-based research to inform bullying prevention and policy. Espelage Dorothy L The American psychologist School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the , the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record 10.1037/amp0000095
    A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement. Gower Amy L,Cousin Molly,Borowsky Iris W The Journal of school health BACKGROUND:Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. METHODS:School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). RESULTS:Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. CONCLUSIONS:Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention. 10.1111/josh.12480
    An evaluation of police officers in schools as a bullying intervention. Devlin Deanna N,Santos Mateus Rennó,Gottfredson Denise C Evaluation and program planning Despite existing efforts to prevent bullying, research suggests that bullying remains a serious and common problem across the United States. Therefore, researchers should continuously propose and evaluate alternative policies that may mitigate bullying as a social issue. One such strategy that has been proposed is the use of police officers in schools, best known as School Resource Officers (SROs). The current study evaluated the efficacy of SROs as an intervention against bullying in schools in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample consisting of three years of data from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (n = 480), schools that initiated, discontinued, and continued their use of SROs from one time point to another were compared to a control group of schools. The findings indicate that SROs do not have an effect on bullying in schools. Policy implications of these findings suggest that programs that focus on components such as teaching social and emotional competency skills, improving relationships between students and adults, and creating a positive school environment may be more effective in reducing bullying than a security procedure such as the use of SROs. Alternative programs should be explored to mitigate bullying and improve the well-being of students. 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2018.07.004
    The Impact of State Legislation and Model Policies on Bullying in Schools. Terry Amanda The Journal of school health BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the coverage of state legislation and the expansiveness ratings of state model policies on the state-level prevalence of bullying in schools. METHODS:The state-level prevalence of bullying in schools was based on cross-sectional data from the 2013 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Multiple regression was conducted to determine whether the coverage of state legislation and the expansiveness rating of a state model policy affected the state-level prevalence of bullying in schools. RESULTS:The purpose and definition category of components in state legislation and the expansiveness rating of a state model policy were statistically significant predictors of the state-level prevalence of bullying in schools. The other 3 categories of components in state legislation-District Policy Development and Review, District Policy Components, and Additional Components-were not statistically significant predictors in the model. CONCLUSIONS:Extensive coverage in the purpose and definition category of components in state legislation and a high expansiveness rating of a state model policy may be important in efforts to reduce bullying in schools. Improving these areas may reduce the state-level prevalence of bullying in schools. 10.1111/josh.12610