Intensive exercise reduces the fear of additional falls in elderly people: findings from the Korea falls prevention study.
Oh Dong Hyun,Park Ji Eun,Lee Eon Sook,Oh Sang Woo,Cho Sung Il,Jang Soong Nang,Baik Hyun Wook
The Korean journal of internal medicine
BACKGROUND/AIMS:Falls among older people are a major public health problem and may result in fracture, medical complications that require hospitalization, and fear of additional falls. Given the prevalence and impact of the fear of falling again, reducing the incidence of falls is important to prevent additional falls. This study analyzed whether exercise programs decrease the fear of future falls in elderly patients who have fallen previously. METHODS:A randomized controlled study was performed that included 65 elderly community-dwelling subjects who had fallen in the previous year. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an exercise group (EG, n = 36) and a control group (CG, n = 29). The EG participated in three exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Muscle strength, balance, agility, flexibility, and muscular endurance were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS:After the 12-week exercise program, the subjects in the EG demonstrated remarkable improvement in their walking speed, balance (p = 0.003), back strength (p = 0.08), lower extremity strength (p = 0.004), and flexibility (p < 0.001). When asked whether they were afraid of falling, more participants in the EG than in the CG responded "not at all" or "a little." CONCLUSIONS:The 12-week exercise program described here reduced the fear of falling (p = 0.02). It also improved the balance, flexibility, and muscle strength of the participants and was associated with improved quality of life.
Fear of falling after hip fracture: a systematic review of measurement instruments, prevalence, interventions, and related factors.
Visschedijk Jan,Achterberg Wilco,Van Balen Romke,Hertogh Cees
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
The objective of this review was to systematically describe and analyze fear of falling (FoF) in patients after a hip fracture, focusing on measurement instruments for FoF, the prevalence of FoF, factors associated with FoF, and interventions that may reduce FoF. Fifteen relevant studies were found through a systematic literature review, in which the PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched. Some of these studies indicated that 50% or more of patients with a hip fracture suffer from FoF, although adequate instruments still have to be validated for this specific group. FoF was associated with several negative rehabilitation outcomes, such as loss of mobility, institutionalization, and mortality. FoF was also related to less time spent on exercise and an increase in falls, although knowledge about risk factors, the prevalence over a longer time period, and the exact causal relations with important health outcomes is limited. Most studies suffer from selection bias by excluding patients with physical and cognitive disorders. Hence, more research is required, including in patients who are frail and have comorbidities. Only when knowledge such as this becomes available can interventions be implemented to address FoF and improve rehabilitation outcomes after a hip fracture.
Educational intervention to reduce falls and fear of falling in patients after fragility fracture: results of a controlled pilot study.
Rucker Diana,Rowe Brian H,Johnson Jeffrey A,Steiner Ivan P,Russell Anthony S,Hanley David A,Maksymowych Walter P,Holroyd Brian R,Harley Charles H,Morrish Donald W,Wirzba Brian J,Majumdar Sumit R
OBJECTIVES:Falls and fear of falling are a major health problem. We sought to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention in reducing fear of falling and preventing recurrent falls in community-dwelling patients after a fragility fracture. METHODS:One hundred two community-dwelling patients aged 50 years or older who fell and sustained a wrist fracture and were treated at Emergency Departments in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (2001-2002) were allocated to either standardized educational leaflets and post-discharge telephone counseling regarding fall prevention strategies ("intervention") or attention-controls ("controls"). Main outcomes were fear of falling and recurrent falls 3 months after fracture. RESULTS:Mean age was 67 years and most patients were female (80%). The majority of falls (76%) leading to fracture occurred outdoors. Three months post-fracture, almost half of patients (48%) reported increased fear of falling and 11 of 102 (11%) reported falling again. The intervention did not reduce the fear of falling (43% had increased fear vs. 53% of controls, adjusted P value=0.55) or decrease recurrent falls (17% fell vs. 5% of controls, adjusted P value=0.059) within 3 months of fracture. CONCLUSIONS:An educational intervention undertaken in the Emergency Department was no more effective than usual care in reducing fear of falling or recurrent falls in community-dwelling patients. Future strategies must address a number of dimensions beyond simple education.
Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy-based multicomponent interventions on fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Chua Claris Hui Min,Jiang Ying,Lim Der Shin,Wu Vivien Xi,Wang Wenru
Journal of advanced nursing
AIMS:To systematically review the evidence and determine the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy-based multicomponent interventions on fear of falling and falls among community-dwelling older adults who are at risk of falling. DESIGN:A systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:Six electronic databases, including CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus, were searched. Studies published in English from January 1998-July 2018 were included in this review. REVIEW METHODS:Only randomized controlled trials addressing fear of falling and/or the occurrence of falls using cognitive behaviour therapy-based multicomponent interventions were included. A standard procedure based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to assess the risk of bias of the selected studies. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy-based multicomponent interventions on fear of falling immediately after the interventions, at ≤6 months and >6 months postinterventions. RESULTS:This review included 15 randomized controlled trials involving 3,165 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older. The pooled results showed that the intervention effects, including immediate, short-term (i.e., ≤6 months postintervention) and long-term (i.e., >6 months postintervention) effects, favoured the intervention group. CONCLUSION:Cognitive behaviour therapy-based multicomponent interventions are effective at reducing fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults who are at risk of falling. IMPACT:Fear of falling has been implicated in activity restriction among older adults and fall prevention interventions need to be multifaceted. Understanding and attending to individual psychological needs are as important as exercise training.
Effects of the implementation of an evidence-based program to manage concerns about falls in older adults.
Zijlstra G A Rixt,van Haastregt Jolanda C M,Du Moulin Monique F M T,de Jonge Martha C,van der Poel Agnes,Kempen Gertrudis I J M
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:Concerns about falls and related activity avoidance are common in older people. A multicomponent program reduced these concerns and increased daily activity among older people in a randomized controlled trial. This study explored whether the effects and acceptability of the program maintain after its implementation into home care organizations. DESIGN AND METHODS:In a pretest-post-test study, the effects and acceptability of the 8-week cognitive behavioral program was evaluated in 125 community-living older adults. Data on concerns about falls, related avoidance behavior, falls, fall-related medical attention, feelings of loneliness and anxiety, and symptoms of depression were collected prior to the start of the program and at 2 and 4 months. RESULTS:Pretest-post-test analyses showed significant improvements at 4 months for concerns about falls, activity avoidance, number of falls in the past 2 months, feelings of anxiety, and symptoms of depression. No significant differences were shown for daily activity, feelings of loneliness, and fall-related medical attention. IMPLICATIONS:After implementation in home care organizations, the program reduced concerns about falls, avoidance behavior, and falls in community-living older adults. These findings are highly consistent with the outcomes of a previously performed randomized controlled trial, indicating that the program can be successfully implemented in practice. Further dissemination of the program is recommended to reduce concerns about falls and related activity avoidance in community-living older people.
The complex interplay of depression and falls in older adults: a clinical review.
Iaboni Andrea,Flint Alastair J
The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Depression and falls have a significant bidirectional relationship. Excessive fear of falling, which is frequently associated with depression, also increases the risk of falls. Both depression and fear of falling are associated with impairment of gait and balance, an association that is mediated through cognitive, sensory, and motor pathways. The management of depression in fall-prone individuals is challenging, since antidepressant medications can increase the risk of falls, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may increase the risk of fragility fractures, and data are lacking about the effect of fall rehabilitation programs on clinically significant depression. Based on the current state of knowledge, exercise (particularly Tai Chi) and cognitive-behavioral therapy should be considered for the first-line treatment of mild depression in older fallers. Antidepressant medications are indicated to treat moderate to severe depression in fall-prone individuals, but with appropriate precautions including low starting dose and slow dose titration, use of psychotropic monotherapy whenever possible, and monitoring for orthostatic hypotension and hyponatremia. To date, there have been no recommendations for osteoporosis monitoring and treatment in individuals prescribed antidepressant medications, beyond the usual clinical guidelines. However, treatment of the older depressed person who is at risk of falls provides the opportunity to inquire about his or her adherence with osteoporosis and fracture prevention guidelines.
Anxiety Disorders in Older Patients.
Pary Raymond,Sarai Simrat Kaur,Micchelli Anthony,Lippmann Steven
The primary care companion for CNS disorders
Anxiety complaints are common among older people. Specific phobia is characterized by exaggerated fear to a specific object or situation. Fear of falling is one example and occurs in about 50% of older persons who have fallen recently. Polypharmacy heightens fall risks. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by chronic uncontrollable worry that interferes with functioning and is accompanied by restlessness and disturbed sleep. Panic disorder refers to recurrent, unexpected surges of intense fear that evidence physical and cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive behavior therapy has efficacy among psychotherapies for older anxious adults. In treating anxiety, medications that might be anxiogenic are reduced in dosage or discontinued. It is essential to monitor for suicidal ideation and symptom change. The first-selected pharmacotherapy for people with most anxiety disorders is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The risk-benefit ratio of benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy in elderly patients is not favorable.
Conscious Movement Processing, Fall-Related Anxiety, and the Visuomotor Control of Locomotion in Older Adults.
Ellmers Toby J,Cocks Adam J,Kal Elmar C,Young William R
The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
OBJECTIVES:Older adults anxious about falling will often consciously process walking movements in an attempt to avoid falling. They also fixate their gaze on the present step rather than looking ahead to plan future actions. The present work examined whether conscious movement strategies result in such restricted visual planning. METHODS:A total of 18 community-dwelling older adults (agemean = 71.22; SD = 5.75) walked along a path and stepped into two raised targets. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare gaze behavior and movement kinematics when participants walked: (a) at baseline (ground level); (b) under conditions designed to induce fall-related anxiety (walkway elevated 0.6 m); and (c) in the absence of anxiety (ground level), but with explicit instructions to consciously process movements. RESULTS:Participants reported increased conscious movement processing when walking both on the elevated walkway (fall-related anxiety condition) and at ground level when instructed to consciously process gait. During both conditions, participants altered their gaze behavior, visually prioritizing the immediate walkway 1-2 steps ahead (areas needed for the on-line visual control of individual steps) at the expense of previewing distal areas of the walking path required to plan future steps. These alterations were accompanied by significantly slower gait and increased stance durations prior to target steps. CONCLUSIONS:Consciously processing movement (in the relative absence of anxiety) resulted in gaze behavior comparable to that observed during conditions of fall-related anxiety. As anxious participants also self-reported directing greater attention toward movement, this suggests that fall-related anxiety may disrupt the visual control of gait through increased conscious movement processing.
Effectiveness of a home-based cognitive behavioral program to manage concerns about falls in community-dwelling, frail older people: results of a randomized controlled trial.
Dorresteijn Tanja A C,Zijlstra G A Rixt,Ambergen Antonius W,Delbaere Kim,Vlaeyen Johan W S,Kempen Gertrudis I J M
BACKGROUND:Concerns about falls are common among older people. These concerns, also referred to as fear of falling, can have serious physical and psychosocial consequences, such as functional decline, increased risk of falls, activity restriction, and lower social participation. Although cognitive behavioral group programs to reduce concerns about falls are available, no home-based approaches for older people with health problems, who may not be able to attend such group programs are available yet. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a home-based cognitive behavioral program on concerns about falls, in frail, older people living in the community. METHODS:In a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, 389 people aged 70 years and older, in fair or poor perceived health, who reported at least some concerns about falls and related activity avoidance were allocated to a control (n = 195) or intervention group (n = 194). The intervention was a home-based, cognitive behavioral program consisting of seven sessions including three home visits and four telephone contacts. The program aims to instill adaptive and realistic views about fall risks via cognitive restructuring and to increase activity and safe behavior using goal setting and action planning and was facilitated by community nurses. Control group participants received usual care. Outcomes at 5 and 12 months follow-up were concerns about falls, activity avoidance due to concerns about falls, disability and falls. RESULTS:At 12 months, the intervention group showed significant lower levels of concerns about falls compared to the control group. Furthermore, significant reductions in activity avoidance, disability and indoor falls were identified in the intervention group compared with the control group. Effect sizes were small to medium. No significant difference in total number of falls was noted between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:The home-based, cognitive behavioral program significantly reduces concerns about falls, related activity avoidance, disability and indoor falls in community-living, frail older people. The program may prolong independent living and provides an alternative for those people who are not able or willing to attend group programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01358032. Registered 17 May 2011.
[Effects of a Thera-Band Exercise Program on Pain, Knee Flexion ROM, and Psychological Parameters Following Total Knee Arthroplasty].
Yun Ji Yeong,Lee Jong Kyung
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
PURPOSE:The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the Thera-Band exercise program following total knee arthroplasty. METHODS:The research design for this study was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 30 patients for the experimental group and 30 patients for the control group. The experimental group participated in the Thera- Band exercise program in addition to conventional CPM (continuous passive motion) exercise. The control group received conventional CPM exercise only. Outcome measures were pain, knee flexion range of motion, CRP, and psychological parameters (self-efficacy and fear of falling). Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA with SPSS/PC version 21.0. RESULTS:There were significant improvement in self-efficacy, and decreases in pain, and fear of falling in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups for CRP and knee flexion ROM. CONCLUSION:The Thera-Band exercise program gave an additional benefit over the conventional CPM exercise for patients following total knee arthroplasty, and is recommended for use as an effective nursing intervention for patients after total knee arthroplasty.
[Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality, cost to society and the individual, and main causes for falls].
Bulletin de l'Academie nationale de medecine
Falls are the leading cause of accidental death among the elderly, accounting for about 12 000 deaths per year. The risk of falls increases with age: one-third of subjects over 65 years old living in the community and half of those over 85 fall at least once a year. Despite their frequency, falls should not be trivialized, as they are associated with significant morbidity and care expenditure: 10% of falls have severe traumatic consequences, and30 % of hospital admissions for traumatic injury among elderly individuals are due to falls. Even when they have no physical repercussions, falls can have psychological effects (anxiety while walking, fear of falling), and can be complicated by a psychomotor disadaptation syndrome with voluntary restriction of activities of daily living in 30% of cases. Risk factors for falls are numerous, and falls are rarely due a single, precise reason. Recurrent falls are associated with balance and gait impairment and decreased muscle strength, sometimes due to a latent pathological condition. Factors that may favor falls in the home must be taken into account through targeted prevention actions. Among institutionalized populations, the risk of falls increases with the severity of dementia, the use of certain drugs (particularly psycho tropics) and the existence of wasting, which leads to a decline in quadriceps strength. About 1.5% of all health expenditure is related to falls. The majority of these costs are due to hospitalization, fractures of the proximal femur being the most costly complication. In recent years, thanks to the prevention of both osteoporosis and falls, the annual number of hip fractures has been stable at about 79,500 cases per year, standardized hospitalization rates have declined, and the average length of stay has decreased. With the increasing number of elderly people, one priority to reduce healthcare costs is to identify and correct factors of frailty in midlife, using a preventive approach.
A risk profile for identifying community-dwelling elderly with a high risk of recurrent falling: results of a 3-year prospective study.
Pluijm S M F,Smit J H,Tromp E A M,Stel V S,Deeg D J H,Bouter L M,Lips P
Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA
INTRODUCTION:The aim of the prospective study reported here was to develop a risk profile that can be used to identify community-dwelling elderly at a high risk of recurrent falling. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The study was designed as a 3-year prospective cohort study. A total of 1365 community-dwelling persons, aged 65 years and older, of the population-based Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam participated in the study. During an interview in 1995/1996, physical, cognitive, emotional and social aspects of functioning were assessed. A follow-up on the number of falls and fractures was conducted during a 3-year period using fall calendars that participants filled out weekly. Recurrent fallers were identified as those who fell at least twice within a 6-month period during the 3-year follow-up. RESULTS:The incidence of recurrent falls at the 3-year follow-up point was 24.9% in women and 24.4% in men. Of the respondents, 5.5% reported a total of 87 fractures that resulted from a fall, including 20 hip fractures, 21 wrist fractures and seven humerus fractures. Recurrent fallers were more prone to have a fall-related fracture than those who were not defined as recurrent fallers (11.9% vs. 3.4%; OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.3-6.1). Backward logistic regression analysis identified the following predictors in the risk profile for recurrent falling: two or more previous falls, dizziness, functional limitations, weak grip strength, low body weight, fear of falling, the presence of dogs/cats in the household, a high educational level, drinking 18 or more alcoholic consumptions per week and two interaction terms (high education x 18 or more alcohol consumptions per week and two or more previous falls x fear of falling) (AUC=0.71). DISCUSSION:At a cut-off point of 5 on the total risk score (range 0-30), the model predicted recurrent falling with a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 71%. At a cut-off point of 10, the sensitivity and specificity were 31% and 92%, respectively. A risk profile including nine predictors that can easily be assessed seems to be a useful tool for the identification of community-dwelling elderly with a high risk of recurrent falling.
Cost Effectiveness of Falls and Injury Prevention Strategies for Older Adults Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities.
Church Jody L,Haas Marion R,Goodall Stephen
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the cost effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent falls and fall-related injuries among older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) from an Australian health care perspective. METHODS:A decision analytic Markov model was developed that stratified individuals according to their risk of falling and accounted for the risk of injury following a fall. The effectiveness of the interventions was derived from two Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials for falls/fall-related injury prevention in RACFs. Interventions were considered effective if they reduced the risk of falling or reduced the risk of injury following a fall. The interventions that were modelled included vitamin D supplementation, annual medication review, multifactorial intervention (a combination of risk assessment, medication review, vision assessment and exercise) and hip protectors. The cost effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost relative to the incremental benefit, in which the benefit was estimated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Uncertainty was explored using univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. RESULTS:Vitamin D supplementation and medication review both dominated 'no intervention', as these interventions were both more effective and cost saving (because of healthcare costs avoided). Hip protectors are dominated (less effective and more costly) by vitamin D and medication review. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication review relative to vitamin D supplementation is AU$2442 per QALY gained, and the ICER for multifactorial intervention relative to medication review is AU$1,112,500 per QALY gained. The model is most sensitive to the fear of falling and the cost of the interventions. CONCLUSION:The model suggests that vitamin D supplementation and medication review are cost-effective interventions that reduce falls, provide health benefits and reduce health care costs in older adults living in RACFs.
Rehabilitation Utilization for Falls Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in the United States in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.
Moreland Briana L,Durbin Laura L,Kasper Judith D,Mielenz Thelma J
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
OBJECTIVE:To determine the characteristics of community-dwelling older adults receiving fall-related rehabilitation. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth round (2015) of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Fall-related rehabilitation utilization was analyzed using weighted multinomial logistic regression with SEs adjusted for the sample design. SETTING:In-person interviews of a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS:Medicare beneficiaries from NHATS (N=7062). INTERVENTIONS:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:Rehabilitation utilization categorized into fall-related rehabilitation, other rehabilitation, or no rehabilitation. RESULTS:Fall status (single fall: odds ratio [OR]=2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-5.77; recurrent falls: OR=14.21; 95% CI, 7.45-27.10), fear of falling (OR=3.11; 95% CI, 1.90-5.08), poor Short Physical Performance Battery scores (score 0: OR=6.62; 95% CI, 3.31-13.24; score 1-4: OR=4.65; 95% CI, 2.23-9.68), and hip fracture (OR=3.24; 95% CI, 1.46-7.20) were all associated with receiving fall-related rehabilitation. Lower education level (less than high school diploma compared with 4-y college degree: OR=.21; 95% CI, .11-.40) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR=.37; 95% CI, .15-.87) were associated with not receiving fall-related rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS:Hispanic older adults and older adults who are less educated are less likely to receive fall-related rehabilitation. Recurrent fallers followed by those who fell once in the past year were more likely to receive fall-related rehabilitation than are older adults who have not had a fall in the past year.
Recurrent and injurious falls in the year following hip fracture: a prospective study of incidence and risk factors from the Sarcopenia and Hip Fracture study.
Lloyd Bradley D,Williamson Dominique A,Singh Nalin A,Hansen Ross D,Diamond Terrence H,Finnegan Terence P,Allen Barry J,Grady Jodie N,Stavrinos Theodora M,Smith Emma U R,Diwan Ashish D,Fiatarone Singh Maria A
The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
BACKGROUND:The incidence and etiology of falls in patients following hip fracture remains poorly understood. METHODS:We prospectively investigated the incidence of, and risk factors for, recurrent and injurious falls in community-dwelling persons admitted for surgical repair of minimal-trauma hip fracture. Fall surveillance methods included phone calls, medical records, and fall calendars. Potential predictors of falls included health status, quality of life, nutritional status, body composition, muscle strength, range of motion, gait velocity, balance, walking endurance, disability, cognition, depression, fear of falling, self-efficacy, social support, physical activity level, and vision. RESULTS:193 participants enrolled in the study (81 +/- 8 years, 72% women, gait velocity 0.3 +/- 0.2 m/s). We identified 227 falls in the year after hip fracture for the 178 participants with fall surveillance data. Fifty-six percent of participants fell at least once, 28% had recurrent falls, 30% were injured, 12% sustained a new fracture, and 5% sustained a new hip fracture. Age-adjusted risk factors for recurrent and injurious falls included lower strength, balance, range of motion, physical activity level, quality of life, depth perception, vitamin D, and nutritional status, and greater polypharmacy, comorbidity, and disability. Multivariate analyses identified older age, congestive heart failure, poorer quality of life, and nutritional status as independent risk factors for recurrent and injurious falls. CONCLUSIONS:Recurrent and injurious falls are common after hip fracture and are associated with multiple risk factors, many of which are treatable. Interventions should therefore be tailored to alleviating or reversing any nutritional, physiological, and psychosocial risk factors of individual patients.
Reliability and fall experience discrimination of Cross Step Moving on Four Spots Test in the elderly.
Yamaji Shunsuke,Demura Shinichi
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
OBJECTIVES:To examine the reliability and fall experience discrimination of the Cross Step Moving on Four Spots Test (CSFT) and the relationship between CSFT and fall-related physical function. DESIGN:The reliability of the CSFT was examined in a test-retest format with the same tester. Fall history, fall risk, fear of falling, activities of daily living (ADL), and various physical parameters were measured for all participants. SETTING:A community center and university medical school. PARTICIPANTS:Elderly community-dwelling subjects (N=533; 62 men, 471 women) aged 65 to 94 years living independently. INTERVENTIONS:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Time to complete all the CSFT steps required, fall risk score, ADL score, and fall-related physical function (isometric muscle strength: toe grip, plantar flexion, knee extension, hip flexion, hand grip; balance: 1-leg standing time with eyes open, functional reach test using an elastic stick; and gait: 10-m maximal walking speed). RESULTS:The trial-to-trial reliability test indicated good reliability of the CSFT in both sexes (intraclass correlation coefficient =.833 in men, .825 in women). However, trial-to-trial errors increased with an increase in the CSFT values in both sexes. Significant correlations were observed between the CSFT values and scores for most fall-related physical function tests in both sexes. However, the correlation coefficient for all significant correlations was <0.5. Two-way analysis of variance (sex × fall experience) revealed that the fall experience is a significant factor affecting CSFT values; values in fallers were significantly lower than those in nonfallers. The odds ratios in logistic regression analysis were significant in both sexes (men, 1.35; women, 1.48). As determined by the Youden index, the optimal cutoff value for identifying fall experience was 7.32 seconds, with an area under the curve of .676. CONCLUSIONS:The CSFT can detect fall experience and is useful in the evaluation of different fall-related physical functions including muscle strength, balance, and mobility.
Pre-operative predictors of post-operative falls in people undergoing total hip and knee replacement surgery: a prospective study.
Levinger Pazit,Wee Elin,Margelis Soula,Menz Hylton B,Bartlett John R,Bergman Neil R,McMahon Stephen,Hill Keith D
Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
INTRODUCTION:Pain and disability often persist following hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR) surgery predisposing patients to increased risk of falling. This study identified pre-operative predictors for post-operative falls in TKR and THR patients, and the incidence and circumstances of falls in the 12 months post-surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A survey was undertaken of patients before THR and TKR, and was repeated 12 months post-operation. The survey included (1) medical history and medications usage, (2) pain and function, (3) health-related and physical activity and (4) fear of falls and history of falls questionnaires. Patients were classified as 'fallers' (≥1 fall) or 'non-fallers' based on prospectively documented falls in the 12 months post-surgery. Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify independent pre-operative predictors of incident falls status. RESULTS:Eighty-two of the 243 participants (33.7%) reported ≥1 fall in the 12 months post-operatively [60 (34.1%) patients following TKR and 22 (32.8%) following THR]. The logistic regression model was statistically significant, χ = 24.731, p < 0.001, the model explaining 22% of the variance in falls, and correctly classifying 73.7% of cases as fallers or non-fallers. Reduced SF-36v2 general health sub-scale, increased planned physical activity and previous falls in the preceding year were predictors of falls. Those reporting ≥1 fall pre-operatively were three times more likely to fall post-operatively. CONCLUSION:People awaiting hip or knee joint replacement surgery might present with complex conditions that predispose them to greater risk of falling post-operation. Review of general health and history of falling is recommended pre-operatively to identify patients at risk.
Interventions to reduce fear of falling in community-living older people: a systematic review.
Zijlstra G A Rixt,van Haastregt Jolanda C M,van Rossum Erik,van Eijk Jacques Th M,Yardley Lucy,Kempen Gertrudis I J M
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
The objective was to assess which interventions effectively reduce fear of falling in community-living older people. An extensive search for relevant literature comprised a database search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; expert consultation; and manually searching reference lists from potentially relevant papers. Randomized, controlled trials that assessed fear of falling in community-living older people were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data from full papers on study characteristics, methodological quality, outcomes, and process characteristics of the intervention. The search identified 599 abstracts, and 19 papers met the inclusion criteria. Seven of those papers were identified using expert consultation. Fifty-five percent of all validity items and 39% of process characteristic items were fulfilled across the 19 trials. Twelve of the 19 papers were of higher methodological quality. In 11 of these trials, fear of falling was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventions that showed effectiveness were fall-related multifactorial programs (n=5), tai chi interventions (n=3), exercise interventions (n=2), and a hip protector intervention (n=1). Three of these interventions explicitly aimed to reduce fear of falling. Several interventions, including interventions not explicitly aimed at fear of falling, resulted in a reduction of fear of falling in community-living older people. Limited but fairly consistent findings in trials of higher methodological quality showed that home-based exercise and fall-related multifactorial programs and community-based tai chi delivered in group format have been effective in reducing fear of falling in community-living older people.
Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community.
Kendrick Denise,Kumar Arun,Carpenter Hannah,Zijlstra G A Rixt,Skelton Dawn A,Cook Juliette R,Stevens Zoe,Belcher Carolyn M,Haworth Deborah,Gawler Sheena J,Gage Heather,Masud Tahir,Bowling Ann,Pearl Mirilee,Morris Richard W,Iliffe Steve,Delbaere Kim
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
BACKGROUND:Fear of falling is common in older people and associated with serious physical and psychosocial consequences. Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive and purposive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness) may reduce fear of falling by improving strength, gait, balance and mood, and reducing the occurrence of falls. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects (benefits, harms and costs) of exercise interventions for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (July 2013), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 3 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 Week 30), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), AMED (1985 to August 2013), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (accessed 7 August 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (accessed 7 August 2013). We applied no language restrictions. We handsearched reference lists and consulted experts. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that recruited community-dwelling people (where the majority were aged 65 and over) and were not restricted to specific medical conditions (e.g. stroke, hip fracture). We included trials that evaluated exercise interventions compared with no intervention or a non-exercise intervention (e.g. social visits), and that measured fear of falling. Exercise interventions were varied; for example, they could be 'prescriptions' or recommendations, group-based or individual, supervised or unsupervised. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Pairs of review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and extracted data. We combined effect sizes across studies using the fixed-effect model, with the random-effect model used where significant statistical heterogeneity was present. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rate outcomes. We estimated mean differences (MD) where studies used the same continuous measures and standardised mean differences (SMD) where different measures or different formats of the same measure were used. Where possible, we performed various, usually prespecified, sensitivity and subgroup analyses. MAIN RESULTS:We included 30 studies, which evaluated 3D exercise (Tai Chi and yoga), balance training or strength and resistance training. Two of these were cluster-randomised trials, two were cross-over trials and one was quasi-randomised. The studies included a total of 2878 participants with a mean age ranging from 68 to 85 years. Most studies included more women than men, with four studies recruiting women only. Twelve studies recruited participants at increased risk of falls; three of these recruited participants who also had fear of falling.Poor reporting of the allocation methods in the trials made it difficult to assess the risk of selection bias in most studies. All of the studies were at high risk of performance and detection biases as there was no blinding of participants and outcome assessors and the outcomes were self reported. Twelve studies were at high risk of attrition bias. Using GRADE criteria, we judged the quality of evidence to be 'low' for fear of falling immediately post intervention and 'very low' for fear of falling at short or long-term follow-up and all other outcomes.Exercise interventions were associated with a small to moderate reduction in fear of falling immediately post intervention (SMD 0.37 favouring exercise, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 0.56; 24 studies; 1692 participants, low quality evidence). Pooled effect sizes did not differ significantly between the different scales used to measure fear of falling. Although none of the sensitivity analyses changed the direction of effect, the greatest reduction in the size of the effect was on removal of an extreme outlier study with 73 participants (SMD 0.24 favouring exercise, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.36). None of our subgroup analyses provided robust evidence of differences in effect in terms of either the study primary aim (reduction of fear of falling or other aim), the study population (recruitment on the basis of increased falls risk or not), the characteristics of the study exercise intervention or the study control intervention (no treatment or alternative intervention). However, there was some weak evidence of a smaller effect, which included no reduction, of exercise when compared with an alternative control.There was very low quality evidence that exercise interventions may be associated with a small reduction in fear of falling up to six months post intervention (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.38; four studies, 356 participants) and more than six months post intervention (SMD 0.20, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.41; three studies, 386 participants).Very low quality evidence suggests exercise interventions in these studies that also reported on fear of falling reduced the risk of falling measured either as participants incurring at least one fall during follow-up or the number of falls during follow-up. Very low quality evidence from four studies indicated that exercise interventions did not appear to reduce symptoms of depression or increase physical activity. The only study reporting the effects of exercise interventions on anxiety found no difference between groups. No studies reported the effects of exercise interventions on activity avoidance or costs. It is important to remember that our included studies do not represent the totality of the evidence of the effect of exercise interventions on falls, depression, anxiety or physical activity as our review only includes studies that reported fear of falling. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Exercise interventions in community-dwelling older people probably reduce fear of falling to a limited extent immediately after the intervention, without increasing the risk or frequency of falls. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether exercise interventions reduce fear of falling beyond the end of the intervention or their effect on other outcomes. Although further evidence from well-designed randomised trials is required, priority should be given to establishing a core set of outcomes that includes fear of falling for all trials examining the effects of exercise interventions in older people living in the community.
Effects of an intervention to reduce fear of falling and increase physical activity during hip and pelvic fracture rehabilitation.
Pfeiffer Klaus,Kampe Karin,Klenk Jochen,Rapp Kilian,Kohler Michaela,Albrecht Diana,Büchele Gisela,Hautzinger Martin,Taraldsen Kristin,Becker Clemens
Age and ageing
BACKGROUND:fear of falling and reduced fall-related self-efficacy are frequent consequences of falls and associated with poorer rehabilitation outcomes. To address these psychological consequences, geriatric inpatient rehabilitation was augmented with a cognitive behavioural intervention ("Step by Step") and evaluated in a RCT. METHODS:one hundred fifteen hip and pelvic fracture patients (age = 82.5 years, 70% female) admitted to geriatric inpatient rehabilitation were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of eight additional individual sessions during inpatient rehabilitation, one home visit and four telephone calls delivered over 2 months after discharge. Both groups received geriatric inpatient rehabilitation. Primary outcomes were fall-related self-efficacy (short falls efficacy scale-international) and physical activity as measured by daily walking duration (activPAL3™ sensor) after admission to rehabilitation, before discharge and 1-month post-intervention. RESULTS:in covariance analyses, patients in the intervention group showed a significant improvement in fall-related self-efficacy (P = 0.025, d = -0.42), but no difference in total daily walking duration (P = 0.688, d = 0.07) 1-month post-intervention compared to the control condition. Further significant effects in favour of the intervention group were found in the secondary outcomes "perceived ability to manage falls" (P = 0.031, d = 0.41), "physical performance" (short physical performance battery) (P = 0.002, d = 0.58) and a lower "number of falls" (P = 0.029, d = -0.45). CONCLUSIONS:the intervention improved psychological and physical performance measures but did not increase daily walking duration. For the inpatient part of the intervention further research on the required minimum intensity needed to be effective is of interest. Duration and components used to improve physical activity after discharge should be reconsidered.
Effectiveness of a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and task-oriented balance training in reducing the fear of falling in patients with chronic stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Liu Tai-Wa,Ng Gabriel Y F,Ng Shamay S M
BACKGROUND:The consequences of falls are devastating for patients with stroke. Balance problems and fear of falling are two major challenges, and recent systematic reviews have revealed that habitual physical exercise training alone cannot reduce the occurrence of falls in stroke survivors. However, recent trials with community-dwelling healthy older adults yielded the promising result that interventions with a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) component can simultaneously promote balance and reduce the fear of falling. Therefore, the aim of the proposed clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of CBT and task-oriented balance training (TOBT) in promoting subjective balance confidence, and thereby reducing fear-avoidance behavior, improving balance ability, reducing fall risk, and promoting independent living, community reintegration, and health-related quality of life of patients with stroke. METHODS:The study will constitute a placebo-controlled single-blind parallel-group randomized controlled trial in which patients are assessed immediately, at 3 months, and at 12 months. The selected participants will be randomly allocated into one of two parallel groups (the experimental group and the control group) with a 1:1 ratio. Both groups will receive 45 min of TOBT twice per week for 8 weeks. In addition, the experimental group will receive a 45-min CBT-based group intervention, and the control group will receive 45 min of general health education (GHE) twice per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is subjective balance confidence. The secondary outcome measures are fear-avoidance behavior, balance ability, fall risk, level of activities of daily living, community reintegration, and health-related quality of life. DISCUSSION:The proposed clinical trial will compare the effectiveness of CBT combined with TOBT and GHE combined with TOBT in promoting subjective balance confidence among chronic stroke patients. We hope our results will provide evidence of a safe, cost-effective, and readily transferrable therapeutic approach to clinical practice that reduces fear-avoidance behavior, improves balance ability, reduces fall risk, promotes independence and community reintegration, and enhances health-related quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937532 . Registered on 17 October 2016.
Depressive Symptoms, Falls, and Fear of Falling in Old Korean Adults: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).
Park Y,Paik N-J,Kim K W,Jang H-C,Lim J-Y
The Journal of frailty & aging
Fall is a common cause of disability and death in old adults, and much research has been focused on identifying risk factors and developing preventive measures. Yet the majority of preceding research has been focused on physical performance. This study aims to evaluate the association between fall and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly. Cross-sectional data of 431 men and 546 women was collected from old Korean adults living in Seongnam, Korea. Geriatric fall assessment was conducted by self-report questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with both fall and fear of falling in old adults. A clear gender difference was newly discovered, as depression played a stronger role in women. These results imply that clinicians should consider the negative affect of geriatric patients when assessing fall risk. Also, measures against depression might be effective in reducing falls.
Is quality of life related to risk of falling, fear of falling, and functional status in patients with hip arthroplasty?
Buker Nihal,Eraslan Umut,Kitis Ali,Kiter Ahmet Esat,Akkaya Semih,Sutcu Gulsah
Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between health-related quality of life and risk of falling, fear of falling, and functional status in patients with hip arthroplasty. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, 48 hips of 45 patients who aged between 33 and 79 (53.56 ± 12.50) years and had cementless total hip arthroplasty between 2010 and 2014 were evaluated. Twenty-seven of the patients participated in the study were female (60.0%) and 18 were male (40.0%). Health-related quality of life with Nottingham Health Profile, function of the hip joint with Harris Hip Score, risk of falling with Performance-Oriented Motion Assessment I, and fear of falling with Falls Efficacy Scale were assessed. In addition, chair stand test, 40-m walk test, stair-climb test, and single leg stance test were carried out. In analysing the relationships between these parameters, Pearson correlation analysis was employed. The level of significance was considered as p < 0.05. RESULTS:Among the cases, who were evaluated 87.10 ± 45.22 (22.43-214.71) weeks after the operation, a significant correlation was found between health-related quality of life and risk of falling, function of hip joint, and functional tests (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:The evaluation of the factors related to health-related quality of life in hip arthroplasty patients may help identify patient needs and guide the rehabilitation process.
Factors Associated with Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in the Shih-Pai Study in Taiwan.
Chang Hsiao-Ting,Chen Hsi-Chung,Chou Pesus
BACKGROUND:Fear of falling is an important risk indicator for adverse health related outcomes in older adults. However, factors associated with fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults are not well-explored. OBJECTIVES:To explore the quality of life and associated factors in fear of falling among older people in the Shih-Pai area in Taiwan. METHODS:This community-based survey recruited three thousand eight hundred and twenty-four older adults aged ≥ 65 years. The measurements included a structured questionnaire, including quality of life by using Short-Form 36, and information of fear of falling, fall history, demographics, medical conditions, insomnia, sleep quality, depression and subjective health through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS:A total of 53.4% of participants reported a fear of falling. The rate of fear of falling was higher in female subjects. Subjects with fear of falling had lower Short Form-36 scores both for men and women. Falls in the previous year, older age, insomnia, depression and worse subjective health were correlates of fear of falling for both sexes. Male-specific associations with fear of falling were the accessibility of medical help in an emergency, diabetes mellitus and stroke. In parallel, cardiovascular diseases were a female-specific correlate for fear of falling. CONCLUSIONS:Fear of falling is prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. It is seems that there are gender differences in fear of falling with respect to the prevalence and associated factors in older adults. Gender differences should be considered when planning prevention and intervention strategies for fear of falling among older people.
Evaluation of a combined cognitive-behavioural and exercise intervention to manage fear of falling among elderly residents in nursing homes.
Huang Tzu-Ting,Chung Meng-Ling,Chen Fan-Ru,Chin Yen-Fan,Wang Bi-Hwa
Aging & mental health
OBJECTIVES:Although the fear of falling is common among elderly residents in long-term care facilities, interventions developed for fear of falling management is very rare. Of these limited interventions, most were exercise interventions with only limited testing. The cognitive-behavioural intervention can decrease the fear of falling; however no intervention of the kind was developed and assessed to decrease fear of falling among the elderly in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural strategies either with or without exercise in reducing fear of falling among elderly residents in nursing homes. METHOD:A prospective randomized control trial was conducted in six nursing homes in northern Taiwan. Seventy-five elderly participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: the comparison group, the cognitive-behavioural strategies with or without exercise group. The fear of falling, falls, depressive inclination, mobility, and muscle strength of extremities were collected at the two-month and five-month follow-up sessions, in which the progress of the patients were assessed. RESULTS:The mixed model analysis revealed that elderly adults in the combination experimental group had significant improvements compared with the other two groups on fear of falling, depressive inclination, mobility, and muscle strength at five months. The incidences of falls, post intervention, in both experimental groups were significantly lower than those in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that the combination intervention helped elderly residents manage their fear of falling and falls, decrease their depressive inclination, and enhance their mobility and muscle strength.