A Review of the Inhibition of the Mitochondrial ATP Synthase by IF1 : Reprogramming Energy Metabolism and Inducing Mitohormesis.
García-Aguilar Ana,Cuezva José M
Frontiers in physiology
The ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) is the physiological inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. Herein, we summarize the regulation of the expression and activity of IF1 as a main driver of the activity of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mammalian tissues. We emphasize that the expression of IF1, which is a mitochondrial protein with very short half-life, is tissue-specifically expressed and primarily controlled at posttranscriptional levels. Inhibition of the activity of IF1 as inhibitor of the ATP synthase under normal physiological conditions is exerted by phosphorylation of S39 by a cAMP-dependent PKA-like activity of mitochondria in response to different physiological cues. Conditional tissue-specific transgenic mice overexpressing IF1 in colon, or a mutant active version of IF1 (IF1-H49K) in liver or in neurons, revealed the inhibition of the ATP synthase and the reprograming of energy metabolism to an enhanced glycolysis. In the IF1-H49K models, the assembly/activity of complex IV and the superassembly of complex V are also affected. Moreover, the IF1-mediated inhibition of the ATP synthase generates a reactive oxygen species (mtROS) signal that switches on the expression of nuclear genes that facilitate adaptation to a restrained OXPHOS. In contrast to normal mice, metabolically preconditioned animals are partially protected from the action of cytotoxic agents by upgrading the activation of stress kinases and transcription factors involved in resolving metabolic adaptation, the antioxidant response, cell survival, and the immune response of the tissue microenvironment. Altogether, we stress a fundamental physiological function for the ATP synthase and its inhibitor in mitohormesis.
Mitochondrial ROS Production Protects the Intestine from Inflammation through Functional M2 Macrophage Polarization.
Formentini Laura,Santacatterina Fulvio,Núñez de Arenas Cristina,Stamatakis Konstantinos,López-Martínez David,Logan Angela,Fresno Manuel,Smits Ron,Murphy Michael P,Cuezva José M
Mitochondria are signaling hubs in cellular physiology that play a role in inflammatory diseases. We found that partial inhibition of the mitochondrial ATP synthase in the intestine of transgenic mice triggers an anti-inflammatory response through NFκB activation mediated by mitochondrial mtROS. This shielding phenotype is revealed when mice are challenged by DSS-induced colitis, which, in control animals, triggers inflammation, recruitment of M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages, and the activation of the pro-oncogenic STAT3 and Akt/mTOR pathways. In contrast, transgenic mice can polarize macrophages to the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. Using the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to quench mtROS in vivo, we observe decreased NFκB activation, preventing its cellular protective effects. These findings stress the relevance of mitochondrial signaling to the innate immune system and emphasize the potential role of the ATP synthase as a therapeutic target in inflammatory and other related diseases.
HIF1-Induced Glycolysis in Macrophage Is Essential for the Protective Effect of Ouabain during Endotoxemia.
Shao Chao,Lin Shengwei,Liu Sudan,Jin Peipei,Lu Wenbin,Li Na,Zhang Yan,Bo Lulong,Bian Jinjun
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Ouabain, a steroid binding to the Na/K-ATPase, has several pharmacological effects. In addition to the recognized effects of blood pressure, there is more convincing evidence suggesting that ouabain is involved in immunologic functions and inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a metabolic regulator which plays a considerable role in immune responses. Previous studies had shown that HIF-1-induced glycolysis results in functional reshaping in macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of glycolytic pathway activation in the anti-inflammatory effect of ouabain. We found that ouabain is involved in anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, ouabain can inhibit LPS-induced upregulation of GLUT1 and HK2 at the transcriptional level. GM-CSF pretreatment almost completely reversed the inhibitory effect of ouabain on LPS-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines. Alterations in glycolytic pathway activation were required for the anti-inflammatory effect of ouabain. Ouabain can significantly inhibit the upregulation of HIF-1 at the protein level. Our results also revealed that the overexpression of HIF-1 can reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of ouabain. Thus, we conclude that the HIF-1-dependent glycolytic pathway is essential for the anti-inflammatory effect of ouabain.
Sex specific effect of ATPase inhibitory factor 1 on body weight: studies in high fat diet induced obese mice and genetic association studies in humans.
Kwak So-Young,Chung InHyeok,Kang Joon,Perakakis Nikolaos,Yoo Eun Hye,Lee Juhee,Jung Hun Taek,Mun Bo-Ram,Choi Won-Seok,Kim Oh Yoen,Kim Seolsong,Kim Eun-Kyoung,Oh Hannah,Mantzoros Christos S,Chung Ji Hyung,Kim Hyeon Soo,Shin Min-Jeong
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
BACKGROUND:Based on the metabolic effect of exogenous ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) on glucose metabolism, we tested whether IF1 treatment is effective in ameliorating weight gain and whether its effects are sex specific. METHODS:HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were treated with IF1 (5 mg/kg body weight, injected intraperitoneally). The underlying mechanisms of effect of IF1 on body weight were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Associations between genotypes of IF1 and obesity and relevant phenotype were further tested at the population level. RESULTS:Chronic treatment with IF1 significantly decreased body weight gain by regulating food intake of HFD-fed male mice. IF1 activated the AKT/mTORC pathway and modulated the expression of appetite genes in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed male mice and its effect was confirmed in hypothalamic cell lines as well as hypothalamic primary cells. This required the interaction of IF1 with β-F1-ATPase on the plasma membrane of hypothalamic cells, which led to an increase in extracellular ATP production. In addition, IF1 treatment showed sympathetic nerve activation as measured by serum norepinephrine levels and UCP-1 expression in the subcutaneous fat of HFD-fed male mice. Notably, administration of recombinant IF1 to HFD-fed ovariectomized female mice showed remarkable reductions in food intake as well as body weight, which was not observed in wild-type 5-week female mice. Lastly, sex-specific genotype associations of IF1 with obesity prevalence and metabolic traits were demonstrated at the population level in humans. IF1 genetic variant (rs3767303) was significantly associated with lower prevalence of obesity and lower levels of body mass index, waist circumference, hemoglobin A, and glucose response area only in male participants. CONCLUSION:IF1 is involved in weight regulation by controlling food intake and potentially sympathetic nerve activation in a sex-specific manner.
The mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory factor 1 triggers a ROS-mediated retrograde prosurvival and proliferative response.
Formentini Laura,Sánchez-Aragó María,Sánchez-Cenizo Laura,Cuezva José M
Recent findings indicate that prevalent human carcinomas overexpress the mitochondrial ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1). Overexpression of IF1 inhibits the synthase activity of the mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase and plays a crucial role in metabolic adaptation of cancer cells to enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Herein, we demonstrate that IF1 overexpression in colon cancer cells triggers mitochondrial hyperpolarization and the subsequent production of superoxide radical, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are required to promote the transcriptional activation of the NFκB pathway via phosphorylation-dependent IκBα degradation. Activation of NFκB results in a cellular adaptive response that includes proliferation and Bcl-xL mediated resistance to drug-induced cell death. Quenching the mitochondrial production of ROS prevents the activation of NFκB and abolishes the IF1-mediated cellular adaptive response. Overall, our findings provide evidence linking the activity of a mitochondrial protein with retrograde signaling to the nucleus to promote cellular proliferation and survival.
ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression After Insufficient Radiofrequency Ablation, and Attenuates Cell Sensitivity to Sorafenib Therapy.
Kong Jian,Yao Changyu,Ding Xuemei,Dong Shuying,Wu Shilun,Sun Wenbing,Zheng Lemin
Frontiers in oncology
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis is involved in tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a bad predictor of prognosis. Sorafenib inhibited EMT of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after RFA. Whether IF1 promotes the EMT and angiogenesis of HCC and attenuates the effect of sorafenib after insufficient RFA is investigated. In this study, higher expression of IF1 was found in residual tumor after insufficient RFA. Hep3B or Huh7 cells after insufficient RFA were designated as Hep3B-H or Huh7-H cells . Hep3B-H or Huh7-H cells exhibited enhanced capacities of colony formation, migration, and increased expression of EMT associated markers and IF1 compared with Hep3B or Huh7 cells. IF1 knockdown in Hep3B-H or Huh7-H cells decreased the colony formation and migratory capacity, and IF1 overexpression in Hep3B or Huh7 cells increased these capacities. IF1 in HCC cells directly and indirectly affected angiogenesis of TAECs after insufficient RFA. IF1 promoted HCC cells growth and metastasis after insufficient RFA. IF1 increased HCC cells resistance after insufficient RFA to sorafenib. Higher IF1 expression indicated poor disease survival in HCC patients after sorafenib therapy. NF-κB activation induced by IF1 attenuated the effect of sorafenib on HCC cells after insufficient RFA. Our results demonstrated that IF1 promotes the EMT and angiogenesis, and attenuates HCC cell sensitivity to sorafenib after insufficient RFA through NF-κB signal pathway.
Reciprocal activation between ATPase inhibitory factor 1 and NF-κB drives hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis and metastasis.
Song Ruipeng,Song Huiwen,Liang Yingjian,Yin Dalong,Zhang Heng,Zheng Tongsen,Wang Jiabei,Lu Zhaoyang,Song Xuan,Pei Tiemin,Qin Youyou,Li Yuejin,Xie Changming,Sun Boshi,Shi Huawen,Li Shuai,Meng Xianzhi,Yang Guangchao,Pan Shangha,Zhu Jiyuan,Qi Shuyi,Jiang Hongchi,Zhang Zhiyong,Liu Lianxin
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
UNLABELLED:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascularized tumor with frequent extrahepatic metastasis. Active angiogenesis and metastasis are responsible for rapid recurrence and poor survival of HCC. However, the mechanisms that contribute to tumor metastasis remain unclear. Here we evaluate the effects of ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial H(+)-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, on HCC angiogenesis and metastasis. We found that increased expression of IF1 in human HCC predicts poor survival and disease recurrence after surgery. Patients with HCC who have large tumors, with vascular invasion and metastasis, expressed high levels of IF1. Invasive tumors overexpressing IF1 were featured by active epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased angiogenesis, whereas silencing IF1 expression attenuated EMT and invasion of HCC cells. Mechanistically, IF1 promoted Snai1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by way of activating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, which depended on the binding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) to NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) and the disruption of NIK association with the TRAF2-cIAP2 complex. Suppression of the NF-κB pathway interfered with IF1-mediated EMT and invasion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB can bind to the Snai1 promoter and trigger its transcription. IF1 was directly transcribed by NF-κB, thus forming a positive feedback signaling loop. There was a significant correlation between IF1 expression and pp65 levels in a cohort of HCC biopsies, and the combination of these two parameters was a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis. CONCLUSION:IF1 promotes HCC angiogenesis and metastasis by up-regulation of Snai1 and VEGF transcription, thereby providing new insight into HCC progression and IF1 function. (Hepatology 2014;60:1659-1673).
Mutations in COA7 cause spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy.
Higuchi Yujiro,Okunushi Ryuta,Hara Taichi,Hashiguchi Akihiro,Yuan Junhui,Yoshimura Akiko,Murayama Kei,Ohtake Akira,Ando Masahiro,Hiramatsu Yu,Ishihara Satoshi,Tanabe Hajime,Okamoto Yuji,Matsuura Eiji,Ueda Takehiro,Toda Tatsushi,Yamashita Sumimasa,Yamada Kenichiro,Koide Takashi,Yaguchi Hiroaki,Mitsui Jun,Ishiura Hiroyuki,Yoshimura Jun,Doi Koichiro,Morishita Shinichi,Sato Ken,Nakagawa Masanori,Yamaguchi Masamitsu,Tsuji Shoji,Takashima Hiroshi
Brain : a journal of neurology
Several genes related to mitochondrial functions have been identified as causative genes of neuropathy or ataxia. Cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor 7 (COA7) may have a role in assembling mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that function in oxidative phosphorylation. Here we identified four unrelated patients with recessive mutations in COA7 among a Japanese case series of 1396 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) or other inherited peripheral neuropathies, including complex forms of CMT. We also found that all four patients had characteristic neurological features of peripheral neuropathy and ataxia with cerebellar atrophy, and some patients showed leukoencephalopathy or spinal cord atrophy on MRI scans. Validated mutations were located at highly conserved residues among different species and segregated with the disease in each family. Nerve conduction studies showed axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. Sural nerve biopsies showed chronic axonal degeneration with a marked loss of large and medium myelinated fibres. An immunohistochemical assay with an anti-COA7 antibody in the sural nerve from the control patient showed the positive expression of COA7 in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells. We also observed mildly elevated serum creatine kinase levels in all patients and the presence of a few ragged-red fibres and some cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibres in a muscle biopsy obtained from one patient, which was suggestive of subclinical mitochondrial myopathy. Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assay in skin fibroblasts from the three patients showed a definitive decrease in complex I or complex IV. Immunocytochemical analysis of subcellular localization in HeLa cells indicated that mutant COA7 proteins as well as wild-type COA7 were localized in mitochondria, which suggests that mutant COA7 does not affect the mitochondrial recruitment and may affect the stability or localization of COA7 interaction partners in the mitochondria. In addition, Drosophila COA7 (dCOA7) knockdown models showed rough eye phenotype, reduced lifespan, impaired locomotive ability and shortened synaptic branches of motor neurons. Our results suggest that loss-of-function COA7 mutation is responsible for the phenotype of the presented patients, and this new entity of disease would be referred to as spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy type 3.
Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush.
Morrison Brett M,Tsingalia Akivaga,Vidensky Svetlana,Lee Youngjin,Jin Lin,Farah Mohamed H,Lengacher Sylvain,Magistretti Pierre J,Pellerin Luc,Rothstein Jeffrey D
Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous null mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21 days in wild-type mice to greater than 38 days in MCT1 heterozygote null mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote null mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42 days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42 days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote null mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote null mice at 4 weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3 weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.
Blocking mitochondrial calcium release in Schwann cells prevents demyelinating neuropathies.
Gonzalez Sergio,Berthelot Jade,Jiner Jennifer,Perrin-Tricaud Claire,Fernando Ruani,Chrast Roman,Lenaers Guy,Tricaud Nicolas
The Journal of clinical investigation
Schwann cells produce myelin sheath around peripheral nerve axons. Myelination is critical for rapid propagation of action potentials, as illustrated by the large number of acquired and hereditary peripheral neuropathies, such as diabetic neuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, that are commonly associated with a process of demyelination. However, the early molecular events that trigger the demyelination program in these diseases remain unknown. Here, we used virally delivered fluorescent probes and in vivo time-lapse imaging in a mouse model of demyelination to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the demyelination process. We demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium released by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) after sciatic nerve injury triggers Schwann cell demyelination via ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and c-JUN activation. In diabetic mice, VDAC1 activity was altered, resulting in a mitochondrial calcium leak in Schwann cell cytoplasm, thereby priming the cell for demyelination. Moreover, reduction of mitochondrial calcium release, either by shRNA-mediated VDAC1 silencing or pharmacological inhibition, prevented demyelination, leading to nerve conduction and neuromuscular performance recovery in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. Therefore, this study identifies mitochondria as the early key factor in the molecular mechanism of peripheral demyelination and opens a potential opportunity for the treatment of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies.
Mitochondrial Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns of Injured Axons Induce Outgrowth of Schwann Cell Processes.
Korimová Andrea,Klusáková Ilona,Hradilová-Svíženská Ivana,Kohoutková Marcela,Joukal Marek,Dubový Petr
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Activated Schwann cells put out cytoplasmic processes that play a significant role in cell migration and axon regeneration. Following nerve injury, axonal mitochondria release mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs), including formylated peptides and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We hypothesize that mtDAMPs released from disintegrated axonal mitochondria may stimulate Schwann cells to put out cytoplasmic processes. We investigated RT4-D6P2T schwannoma cells (RT4) treated with N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or cytosine-phospho-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) for 1, 6 and 24 h. We also used immunohistochemical detection to monitor the expression of formylpeptide receptor 2 (FPR2) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), the canonical receptors for formylated peptides and mtDNA, in RT4 cells and Schwann cells distal to nerve injury. RT4 cells treated with fMLP put out a significantly higher number of cytoplasmic processes compared to control cells. Preincubation with PBP10, a selective inhibitor of FPR2 resulted in a significant reduction of cytoplasmic process outgrowth. A significantly higher number of cytoplasmic processes was also found after treatment with CpG ODN compared to control cells. Pretreatment with inhibitory ODN (INH ODN) resulted in a reduced number of cytoplasmic processes after subsequent treatment with CpG ODN only at 6 h, but 1 and 24 h treatment with CpG ODN demonstrated an additive effect of INH ODN on the development of cytoplasmic processes. Immunohistochemistry and western blot detected increased levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin in RT4 cells associated with cytoplasmic process outgrowth after fMLP or CpG ODN treatment. We found increased immunofluorescence of FPR2 and TLR9 in RT4 cells treated with fMLP or CpG ODN as well as in activated Schwann cells distal to the nerve injury. In addition, activated Schwann cells displayed FPR2 and TLR9 immunostaining close to GAP43-immunopositive regenerated axons and their growth cones after nerve crush. Increased FPR2 and TLR9 immunoreaction was associated with activation of p38 and NFkB, respectively. Surprisingly, the growth cones displayed also FPR2 and TLR9 immunostaining. These results present the first evidence that potential mtDAMPs may play a key role in the induction of Schwann cell processes. This reaction of Schwann cells can be mediated via FPR2 and TLR9 that are canonical receptors for formylated peptides and mtDNA. The possible role for FPR2 and TLR9 in growth cones is also discussed.
Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Signaling during Myelination.
Ino Daisuke,Sagara Hiroshi,Suzuki Junji,Kanemaru Kazunori,Okubo Yohei,Iino Masamitsu
Schwann cells (SCs) myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca(2+) increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination.
The TWIK2 Potassium Efflux Channel in Macrophages Mediates NLRP3 Inflammasome-Induced Inflammation.
Di Anke,Xiong Shiqin,Ye Zhiming,Malireddi R K Subbarao,Kometani Satoshi,Zhong Ming,Mittal Manish,Hong Zhigang,Kanneganti Thirumala-Devi,Rehman Jalees,Malik Asrar B
Potassium (K) efflux across the plasma membrane is thought to be an essential mechanism for ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, yet the identity of the efflux channel has remained elusive. Here we identified the two-pore domain K channel (K) TWIK2 as the K efflux channel triggering NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Deletion of Kcnk6 (encoding TWIK2) prevented NLRP3 activation in macrophages and suppressed sepsis-induced lung inflammation. Adoptive transfer of Kcnk6 macrophages into mouse airways after macrophage depletion also prevented inflammatory lung injury. The K efflux channel TWIK2 in macrophages has a fundamental role in activating the NLRP3 inflammasome and consequently mediates inflammation, pointing to TWIK2 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapies.
Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization.
Li Chunmei,Levin Michael,Kaplan David L
Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells' resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.
Intraneural Injection of ATP Stimulates Regeneration of Primary Sensory Axons in the Spinal Cord.
Wu Dongsheng,Lee Sena,Luo Juan,Xia Haijian,Gushchina Svetlana,Richardson Peter M,Yeh John,Krügel Ute,Franke Heike,Zhang Yi,Bo Xuenong
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Injury to the peripheral axons of sensory neurons strongly enhances the regeneration of their central axons in the spinal cord. It remains unclear on what molecules that initiate such conditioning effect. Because ATP is released extracellularly by nerve and other tissue injury, we hypothesize that injection of ATP into a peripheral nerve might mimic the stimulatory effect of nerve injury on the regenerative state of the primary sensory neurons. We found that a single injection of 6 μl of 150 μm ATP into female rat sciatic nerve quadrupled the number of axons growing into a lesion epicenter in spinal cord after a concomitant dorsal column transection. A second boost ATP injection 1 week after the first one markedly reinforced the stimulatory effect of a single injection. Single ATP injection increased expression of phospho-STAT3 and GAP43, two markers of regenerative activity, in sensory neurons. Double ATP injections sustained the activation of phospho-STAT3 and GAP43, which may account for the marked axonal growth across the lesion epicenter. Similar studies performed on P2X7 or P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice indicate P2Y2 receptors are involved in the activation of STAT3 after ATP injection or conditioning lesion, whereas P2X7 receptors are not. Injection of ATP at 150 μm caused little Wallerian degeneration and behavioral tests showed no significant long-term adverse effects on sciatic nerve functions. The results in this study reveal possible mechanisms underlying the stimulation of regenerative programs and suggest a practical strategy for stimulating axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury. Injury of peripheral axons of sensory neurons has been known to strongly enhance the regeneration of their central axons in the spinal cord. In this study, we found that injection of ATP into a peripheral nerve can mimic the effect of peripheral nerve injury and significantly increase the number of sensory axons growing across lesion epicenter in the spinal cord. ATP injection increased expression of several markers for regenerative activity in sensory neurons, including phospho-STAT3 and GAP43. ATP injection did not cause significant long-term adverse effects on the functions of the injected nerve. These results may lead to clinically applicable strategies for enhancing neuronal responses that support regeneration of injured axons.