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    Analysis of epidemiology, clinical features and management of erysipelas. Krasagakis Konstantin,Valachis Antonios,Maniatakis Panagiotis,Krüger-Krasagakis Sabine,Samonis George,Tosca Androniki D International journal of dermatology BACKGROUND:Erysipelas is a superficial form of cellulitis affecting the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics. The widespread use of antibiotics may affect clinical findings and response to therapy of infectious disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of erysipelas and to compare the results of treatment with penicillin vs. other antibiotic regimens. METHODS:All charts of erysipelas patients treated at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece from 1994 to 2002 were retrospectively studied. RESULTS:Median age of the 99 patients was 54.5 years; 59% were females. The most frequent site involved was the lower extremity (76%), followed by the face (17%) and upper extremity (6%). In 61 patients (62%), a possible entry portal was identified. The most common manifestation of erysipelas was local symptoms and signs (pain, erythema, and swelling) in all patients, together with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (60%). Fever was present in 25% of patients. The most commonly used antibiotic was intravenous penicillin G (64%). In the penicillin group, mean duration of fever after treatment initiation was shorter than in the nonpenicillin group (1.7 vs. 4.5 days, P = 0.002). Both treatment failures and recurrences were the same between the two groups. DISCUSSION:The diagnosis of erysipelas can be based on careful examination for local signs and symptoms. The role of ESR in primary diagnosis needs further investigation. Penicillin seems to preserve its fundamental role in the treatment of disease. 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04464.x
    A systematic review of bacteremias in cellulitis and erysipelas. Gunderson Craig G,Martinello Richard A The Journal of infection OBJECTIVES:Because of the difficulty of obtaining bacterial cultures from patients with cellulitis and erysipelas, the microbiology of these common infections remains incompletely defined. Given the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) over the past decade the proportion of infections due to S. aureus has become particularly relevant. METHODS:OVID was used to search Medline using the focused subject headings "cellulitis", "erysipelas" and "soft tissue infections". All references that involved adult patients with cellulitis or erysipelas and reported associated bacteremias and specific pathogens were included in the review. RESULTS:For erysipelas, 4.6% of 607 patients had positive blood cultures, of which 46% were Streptococcus pyogenes, 29% were other β-hemolytic streptococci, 14% were Staphylococcus aureus, and 11% were Gram-negative organisms. For cellulitis, 7.9% of 1578 patients had positive blood cultures of which 19% were Streptococcus pyogenes, 38% were other β-hemolytic streptococci, 14% were Staphylococcus aureus, and 28% were Gram-negative organisms. CONCLUSIONS:Although the strength of our conclusions are somewhat limited by the heterogeneity of included cases, our results support the traditional view that cellulitis and erysipelas are primarily due to streptococcal species, with a smaller proportion due to S. aureus. Our results also argue against the current distinction between cellulitis and erysipelas in terms of the relative proportion of infections due to S. aureus. 10.1016/j.jinf.2011.11.004
    [Recurrent erysipelas and cellulitis: management]. Zürcher Sven,Trellu Laurence Toutous Revue medicale suisse Erysipelas and infectious cellulitis are skin infections that develop following the entry of bacteria through gaps in the skin. The most common complication is recurrence. Control of predisposing factors remains essential to prevent it. Prophylactic antibiotics are sometimes prescribed, but this approach is based on small studies and expert opinion. This article reflects the current state of knowledge and the standard of care.
    Erysipelas, a large retrospective study of aetiology and clinical presentation. Bläckberg Anna,Trell Kristina,Rasmussen Magnus BMC infectious diseases BACKGROUND:Erysipelas is a common and severe infection where the aetiology and optimal management is not well-studied. Here, we investigate the clinical features, bacteriological aetiology, and treatment of erysipelas. METHODS:Episodes of erysipelas in a seven-years period in our institution were studied retrospectively using a pre-specified protocol and is presented with descriptive and comparative statistics. RESULTS:1142 episodes of erysipelas were identified in 981 patients. Patients had a median age of 61 years, 59 % were male, a majority had underlying diseases or predisposing conditions, and the leg was most often affected. Wound cultures were taken in 343 episodes and 56 grew group A streptococci (GAS), 53 grew group G streptococci (GGS), 11 grew group C streptococci (GCS), and 153 grew Staphylococcus aureus. Blood cultures were drawn in 49 % of episodes and 50 cultures were positive with GGS as the most common finding (21 cultures) followed by GAS in 13, group B streptococci in 5, S. aureus in 4, and GCS in 3 cultures. In 45 % of episodes, patients received antibiotics with activity against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS:GGS is the most common streptococcus isolated in erysipelas and the role of S. aureus in erysipelas remains elusive. 10.1186/s12879-015-1134-2
    Use of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count to distinguish between lower limb erysipelas and deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department: A prospective observational study. Rast Anna C,Knobel Demian,Faessler Lukas,Kutz Alexander,Felder Susan,Laukemann Svenja,Steiner Deborah,Haubitz Sebastian,Fux Christoph A,Huber Andreas,Mueller Beat,Schuetz Philipp The Journal of dermatology Early differentiation of erysipelas from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based solely on clinical signs and symptoms is challenging. There is a lack of data regarding the usefulness of the inflammatory biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count in the diagnosis of localized cutaneous infections. Herein, we investigated the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers in a prospective at-risk patient population. This is an observational quality control study including consecutive patients presenting with a final diagnosis of either erysipelas or DVT. The association of PCT (μg/L) and CRP (mg/L) levels and WBC counts (g/L) with the primary outcome was assessed using logistic regression models with area under the receiver-operator curve. Forty-eight patients (erysipelas, n = 31; DVT, n = 17) were included. Compared with patients with DVT, those with erysipelas had significantly higher PCT concentrations. No significant differences in CRP concentrations and WBC counts were found between the two groups. At a PCT threshold of 0.1 μg/L or more, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) for erysipelas were 82.4% and 85.7%, respectively, and increased to 100% and 100% at a threshold of more than 0.25 μg/L. Levels of PCT also correlated with the severity of erysipelas, with a stepwise increase according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. We found a high discriminatory value of PCT for differentiation between erysipelas and DVT, in contrast to other commonly used inflammatory biomarkers. Whether the use of PCT levels for early differentiation of erysipelas from DVT reduces unnecessary antibiotic exposure needs to be assessed in an interventional trial. 10.1111/1346-8138.12922
    Risk factors associated with local complications of erysipelas: a retrospective study of 152 cases. Titou Hicham,Ebongo Christelle,Bouati Elarbi,Boui Mohammed The Pan African medical journal Erysipelas is a common skin infection. Hemorrhagic, bullous, abcessing and necrotic lesions are the major local complications. However, their occurrence factors are not clearly known. The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of local complications of Erysipelas. Medical records from all patients hospitalized with local complications of erysipelas admitted to the Military Hospital of Rabat between 2005 and 2015, were retrospectively studied. Using an univariate and multivariate statistical study, the main characteristics were compared with those from patients with erysipelas without local complications. In total, 152 patients were analysed, of whom 72 had local disease complications. Using univariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with disease complications were found to be: age ≤ 50 years, female gender, heart disease, smoking, taking antibiotics or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug before hospitalization, and accelerated sedimentation rate. However, in multivariate analysis, taking antibiotics before hospitalization (OR 5.15, 95% CI 1.28 to 20.72, P = 0.01) and accelerated sedimentation rate (OR 5, 15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06, P = 0.001) were the only independent factors associated with complicated erysipelas. Our study showed that prior antibiotics taking and higher sedimentation rate are independent risk factors for local complications of erysipelas. Patients with these characteristics should be carefully evaluated and monitored. 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.66.11096
    Local complications of erysipelas: a study of associated risk factors. Krasagakis K,Samonis G,Valachis A,Maniatakis P,Evangelou G,Tosca A Clinical and experimental dermatology BACKGROUND:Local complications of erysipelas include haemorrhagic, bullous, abscessing and necrotic lesions. The risk factors predisposing patients to local complications are not fully known. AIM:To examine local complications of erysipelas and to identify possible risk factors predisposing to their appearance. METHODS:Medical records from all patients hospitalized with complications of erysipelas (purpura, bullae, abscesses and necrosis), admitted to the University Hospital of Heraklion between 1994 and 2002, were retrospectively studied. Clinical and laboratory data were compared with those from patients with erysipelas without local complications. RESULTS:In total, 145 patients were analysed, of whom 46 had local disease complications. Using bivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with disease complications were found to be age ≥ 51 years, obesity, longer duration of local symptoms, and fever on admission. During hospitalization, increased C-reactive protein level, isolation of pathogens, longer duration of fever and/or presence of leucocytosis, absence of response to initial antibiotic therapy, and longer length of hospitalization were also associated with complications in the bivariate analysis. However, in the multivariate analysis, obesity (OR 4.489, 95% CI 1.719-11.725, P = 0.002) was the only independent factor associated with complicated erysipelas. CONCLUSIONS:This study found obesity to be an independent risk factor for local complications, of erysipelas. Hence, obese patients with erysipelas are prone to complications, and should be carefully evaluated because of the potential severity of disease and the increased risk of failure of empirical antimicrobial therapy. 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2010.03978.x
    Risk factors associated with a reduced response in the treatment of erysipelas. Linke Miriam,Booken Nina Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG BACKGROUND:In most cases, erysipelas may be adequately treated using first-line antibiotic therapy. However, clinicians are sometimes confronted with complicated cases, in which patients do not respond to initial antibiotic therapy. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with a reduced response to antibiotic therapy and, thus, a more complicated disease course. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the clinical course of 98 patients with erysipelas treated with standard antibiotic therapy. Patient groups showing different therapeutic responses were compared with respect to clinical data, medical history, and laboratory parameters. RESULTS:Patients with bullous or hemorrhagic erysipelas (p = 0.0008), stasis dermatitis (p = 0.01) or chronic venous insufficiency (p = 0.0004) showed a significantly reduced response to initial therapy with cefuroxime or clindamycin, respectively. Furthermore, the response to initial therapy significantly depended on C-reactive protein (p = 0.007) and neutrophil (p = 0.02) levels. CONCLUSION:In erysipelas patients with clinical complications, abnormal laboratory parameters or preexisting local skin damage, an intensified antibiotic regimen should be considered. 10.1111/ddg.12575