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    Minimum effective volume of lidocaine for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block. Tran De Q H,Dugani Shubada,Correa José A,Dyachenko Alina,Alsenosy Nafa,Finlayson Roderick J Regional anesthesia and pain medicine BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective volume of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL in 90% of patients (MEV90) for double-injection ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block (SCB). METHODS:Using an in-plane technique and a lateral to medial direction, a double-injection ultrasound-guided SCB was performed. A 17-gauge, 8-cm Tuohy needle was initially advanced until its tip was positioned at the intersection of the first rib and subclavian artery ("corner pocket"). Half the volume of lidocaine was injected in this location. Subsequently, the needle was redirected toward the neural cluster formed by the trunks and divisions of the brachial plexus. The remaining volume of lidocaine was deposited in this location. Volume assignment was carried out using a biased coin design up-and-down sequential method, where the total volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one. In case of failure, the next subject received a higher volume (defined as the previous volume with an increment of 2.5 mL). If the previous patient had a successful block, the next subject was randomized to a lower volume (defined as the previous volume with a decrement of 2.5 mL), with a probability of b = 0.11, or the same volume, with a probability of 1 - b = 0.89. Each increment or decrement was evenly distributed between the "corner pocket" (1.25 mL) and neural cluster (1.25 mL). Lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL was used in all subjects. Success was defined, at 30 minutes, as a minimal score of 14 of 16 points using a composite scale encompassing sensory and motor block. Patients undergoing surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand were prospectively enrolled until 45 successful blocks were obtained. RESULTS:Fifty-four patients were included in the study. Using isotonic regression and bootstrap confidence interval, the MEV90 for double-injection ultrasound-guided SCB was estimated to be 32 mL (95% confidence interval, 30-34 mL). All patients with a minimal composite score of 14 points at 30 minutes achieved surgical anesthesia intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:For double-injection ultrasound-guided SCB, the MEV90 of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL is 32 mL. Further dose finding studies are required for other concentrations of lidocaine, other local anesthetic agents and single-injection techniques. 10.1097/AAP.0b013e3182289f59
    Minimum effective volume of lidocaine for double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block. González Andrea P,Bernucci Francisca,Pham Kevin,Correa José A,Finlayson Roderick J,Tran De Q H Regional anesthesia and pain medicine BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective volume of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL in 90% of patients (MEV90) for double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block (AXB). METHODS:All subjects received a double-injection ultrasound-guided AXB with lidocaine 1.5% and epinephrine 5 μg/mL. A 17-gauge, 8-cm Tuohy needle was initially advanced until its tip was positioned next to the musculocutaneous nerve. Volume assignment was carried out using a biased coin design up-and-down sequential method, where the volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one. In case of failure, the next subject received a higher volume (defined as the previous volume with an increment of 1.0 mL). If the previous patient had a successful block, the next subject was randomized to a lower volume (defined as the previous volume with a decrement of 1.0 mL), with a probability of b = 0.11, or the same volume, with a probability of 1 - b = 0.89. After injection of the musculocutaneous nerve, the needle was redirected toward the dorsal aspect of the axillary artery. For this second injection, volume assignment was carried out in a similar fashion; however, volume increments/decrements were 3.0 instead of 1.0 mL. Using a composite scale encompassing sensory and motor block, success was defined, at 30 minutes, as a composite score of 4 points (out of 4 points), and 10 points (out of 12 points) for the musculocutaneous and perivascular injection, respectively. Patients undergoing surgery of the forearm, wrist, or hand were prospectively enrolled until 45 successful musculocutaneous blocks or 45 successful perivascular injections were obtained. RESULTS:Fifty patients were included in the study. Using isotonic regression and bootstrap confidence interval (CI), the MEV90 was estimated to be 5.5 mL (95% CI, 3.0-6.7 mL) and 23.5 mL (95% CI, 23.1-23.9 mL) for the musculocutaneous and perivascular injection, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:For double-injection ultrasound-guided AXB, the MEV90 of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL is 5.5 and 23.5 mL for the musculocutaneous nerve and perivascular injection, respectively. Further dose-finding studies are required for other concentrations of lidocaine, other local anesthetic agents, and other techniques for ultrasound-guided AXB. 10.1097/AAP.0b013e3182707176
    Minimum effective volume of combined lidocaine-bupivacaine for analgesic subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve block. Techasuk Wallaya,Bernucci Francisca,Cupido Tracy,González Andrea P,Correa José A,Finlayson Roderick J,Tran De Q H Regional anesthesia and pain medicine BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective volume (MEV) of combined lidocaine 1.0%-bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL in 90% of patients (MEV90) for ultrasound-guided subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve block. METHODS:All subjects received an ultrasound-guided subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve block (at the neural bifurcation) with combined lidocaine 1.0%-bupivacaine 0.25% and epinephrine 5 μg/mL. Using an out-of-plane technique, a 17-gauge, 8-cm Tuohy needle was advanced until its tip was positioned between the tibial and peroneal nerves inside the paraneural sheath. Volume assignment was carried out using a biased coin design, up-and-down sequential method, where the volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one. In case of failure, the next subject received a higher volume (defined as the previous volume with an increment of 3.0 mL). If the previous patient had a successful block, the next subject was randomized to a lower volume (defined as the previous volume with a decrement of 3.0 mL), with a probability of b = 0.11, or the same volume, with a probability of 1 - b = 0.89. Using a composite scale encompassing sensory and motor block, success was defined, at 30 minutes, as a minimal score of 6 points (out of 8 points). The 6-point score was intended to mirror successful postoperative analgesia. Patients undergoing surgery of the leg, ankle, or foot were prospectively enrolled until 45 successful blocks were obtained. RESULTS:Fifty-two patients were recruited for this study. Using isotonic regression and bootstrap confidence interval, the MEV90 of combined lidocaine 1.0%-bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL was estimated to be 13.3 mL (95% confidence interval, 10.2-16.4 mL). CONCLUSIONS:For ultrasound-guided subparaneural (analgesic) popliteal sciatic nerve block, the MEV90 of combined lidocaine 1.0%-bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL is 13.3 mL (95% confidence interval, 10.2-16.4 mL). 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000051
    Minimum Effective Volume of Lidocaine for Ultrasound-Guided Costoclavicular Block. Sotthisopha Thitipan,Elgueta Maria Francisca,Samerchua Artid,Leurcharusmee Prangmalee,Tiyaprasertkul Worakamol,Gordon Aida,Finlayson Roderick J,Tran De Q Regional anesthesia and pain medicine BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:This dose-finding study aimed to determine the minimum effective volume in 90% of patients (MEV90) of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL for ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block. METHODS:Using an in-plane technique and a lateral-to-medial direction, the block needle was positioned in the middle of the 3 cords of the brachial plexus in the costoclavicular space. The entire volume of lidocaine was deposited in this location. Dose assignment was carried out using a biased-coin-design up-and-down sequential method, where the total volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one. In case of failure, the next subject received a higher volume (defined as the previous volume with an increment of 2.5 mL). If the previous patient had a successful block, the next subject was randomized to a lower volume (defined as the previous volume with a decrement of 2.5 mL), with a probability of b = 0.11, or the same volume, with a probability of 1 - b = 0.89. Success was defined, at 30 minutes, as a minimal score of 14 of 16 points using a sensorimotor composite scale. Patients undergoing surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand were prospectively enrolled until 45 successful blocks were obtained. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02932670). RESULTS:Fifty-seven patients were included in the study. Using isotonic regression and bootstrap confidence interval, the MEV90 for ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block was estimated to be 34.0 mL (95% confidence interval, 33.4-34.4 mL). All patients with a minimal composite score of 14 points at 30 minutes achieved surgical anesthesia intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:For ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block, the MEV90 of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL is 34 mL. Further dose-finding studies are required for other concentrations of lidocaine, other local anesthetic agents, and multiple-injection techniques. 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000629
    An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. O'Donnell Brian D,Iohom Gabrielle Anesthesiology BACKGROUND:Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. METHODS:After ethical approval and informed consent, patients undergoing hand surgery of less than 90 min duration were recruited. A step-up/step-down study model was used with nonprobability sequential dosing based on the outcome of the previous patient. The starting dose of 2% LidoEpi was 4 ml per nerve. Block failure resulted in a dose increase of 0.5 ml; block success in a reduction of 0.5 ml.A blinded assistant assessed sensory and motor blockade at 5-min intervals up to 30 min. Block performance time and duration were measured. Two predetermined stopping points were used; a minimum of five consecutive block success/failures and five consecutive successful blocks at 1 ml per nerve. RESULTS:The study was terminated when five consecutive patients had successful blocks using 1 ml of 2% LidoEpi per nerve (overall group n = 11). All five patients had surgical anesthesia within 10 min. The mean (SD) block performance time was 445 (100) s, and block duration was 190 min (range 120-310 min). All surgical procedures were performed under regional anesthesia with anxiolytic sedation provided in 3 of 11 cases. CONCLUSION:Successful ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block may be performed with 1 ml per nerve of 2% LidoEpi. 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181a915c7
    Minimum effective volume of lidocaine for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. Tran De Q H,Dugani Shubada,Dyachenko Alina,Correa José A,Finlayson Roderick J Regional anesthesia and pain medicine BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the minimum effective volume of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL in 90% of patients (MEV(90)) for single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block (ICB). METHODS:Using an in-plane technique, a single-injection ultrasound-guided ICB was performed: a 17-gauge, 8-cm Tuohy needle was advanced until the tip was located dorsal to the axillary artery. Volume assignment was carried out using a biased coin design up-and-down sequential method, where the volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one. In case of failure, the next subject received a higher volume (defined as the previous volume with an increment of 2.5 mL). If the previous patient had a successful block, the next subject was randomized to a lower volume (defined as the previous volume with a decrement of 2.5 mL), with a probability of b=0.11, or the same volume, with a probability of 1-b=0.89. Lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL was used in all subjects. Success was defined, at 30 mins, as a minimal score of 14 of 16 points using a composite scale encompassing sensory and motor block. Patients undergoing surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand were prospectively enrolled until 45 successful blocks were obtained. RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were included in the study. Using isotonic regression and bootstrap confidence interval (CI), the MEV(90) for single-injection ultrasound-guided ICB was estimated to be 35 mL (95% CI, 30-37.5 mL). The probability of a successful response at 35 mL was estimated to be 0.91 (95% CI, 0.8-1.0). All patients with a minimal composite score of 14 points at 30 mins achieved surgical anesthesia intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:For single-injection ultrasound-guided ICB, the MEV(90) of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL is 35 mL. Further dose-finding studies are required for other concentrations of lidocaine, other local anesthetic agents as well as techniques involving multiple injections, a more medial approach to ICB, or precise location of all 3 cords of the brachial plexus. 10.1097/AAP.0b013e31820d4266