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    Increased Expression of Herpes Virus-Encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p in Cancer-Containing Prostate Tissue Compared to That in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Tissue. Yun Seok Joong,Jeong Pildu,Kang Ho Won,Shinn Helen Ki,Kim Ye-Hwan,Yan Chunri,Choi Young-Ki,Kim Dongho,Ryu Dong Hee,Ha Yun-Sok,Kim Tae-Hwan,Kwon Tae Gyun,Kim Jung Min,Suh Sang Heon,Kim Seon-Kyu,Kim Seon-Young,Kim Sang Tae,Kim Won Tae,Lee Ok-Jun,Moon Sung-Kwon,Kim Nam-Hyung,Kim Isaac Yi,Kim Jayoung,Cha Hee-Jae,Choi Yung-Hyun,Cha Eun-Jong,Kim Wun-Jae International neurourology journal PURPOSE:Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP) patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. METHODS:A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. RESULTS:Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001). Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9). CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections. 10.5213/inj.1632552.276