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    Thermal Effect of a Woolen Cap in Low Birth Weight Infants During Kangaroo Care. Cavallin Francesco,Segafredo Giulia,Pizzol Damiano,Massavon William,Lusiani Marta,Wingi Olivier,De Vivo Manuela,Da Dalt Liviana,Boscardin Chiara,Manenti Fabio,Putoto Giovanni,Trevisanuto Daniele, Pediatrics BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:World Health Organization guidelines recommend covering the head during kangaroo mother care (KMC), but the effect of a cap on neonatal thermal control during KMC remains to be defined. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness and safety of a woolen cap in maintaining low birth weight infants (LBWIs) in normal thermal range during KMC. METHODS:Three hundred LBWI candidates for KMC in 3 African hospitals were randomly assigned to KMC with (CAP group) or without (NOCAP group) a woolen cap in a 1:1 ratio during the first week after birth. Axillary temperature was measured every 6 hours. Maternal and room temperature and adherence to skin-to-skin contact were registered at the same time points. RESULTS:A total number of 5064 measurements were recorded (median 19 measurements per subject; interquartile range: 10-25). Mean time spent in normal temperature range was 55% (SD 24) in CAP and 56% (SD 24) in NOCAP groups. Multivariable analysis estimated a rate ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 1.00; = .06) for the effect of the cap versus no cap on time spent in the normal temperature range. CONCLUSIONS:In these 3 African, low-resource settings and so many days post birth, the use of a woolen cap was safe but provided no advantages in maintaining LBWI in the normal thermal range while being in a KMC ward. LBWIs spent only half of the time in the normal temperature range despite warm rooms and skin-to-skin contact. Maintaining normothermia in LBWIs remains an unfinished challenge in low-resource settings. 10.1542/peds.2017-3073