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    Boswellic acid sensitizes gastric cancer cells to Cisplatin-induced apoptosis via p53-mediated pathway. Al-Bahlani Shadia,Burney Ikram A,Al-Dhahli Buthaina,Al-Kharusi Safiya,Al-Kharousi Fakhra,Al-Kalbani Amani,Ahmed Ikhlas BMC pharmacology & toxicology BACKGROUND:Cisplatin (CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug for Gastric cancer (GC) that induces apoptosis by altering pro- (p53) and anti-apoptotic (Akt and NFkB) proteins; however, chemoresistance remains a big challenge. Additional compounds with promising anticancer effects such as AKBA (Acetyl-keto-beta boswellic acid) may overcome the resistance. However, its role in CDDP-induced apoptosis in GC has not been studied. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of AKBA on p53-mediated, CDDP-induced apoptosis in GC cells. AGS and NCI-N87 cells were treated with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 μM) of CDDP and/or AKBA. METHODS:P53, Akt and NFkB proteins and apoptosis were assessed by Western blot and flow cytometry. The role of p53 was determined by inhibiting its function via the siRNA approach. RESULTS:The results revealed that CDDP and AKBA significantly increased p53 content in both cells, while Akt and NFkB were significantly decreased. Both compounds significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. AKBA sensitized GC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis by altering the protein expression. P53 downregulation affected Akt and NFkB proteins with a slight increase in apoptosis induction in the combination treated groups. CONCLUSIONS:Altogether, our findings suggest that AKBA enhances GC cell sensitivity to CDDP-induced apoptosis via the p53 pathway. 10.1186/s40360-020-00442-1
    Quantitative proteomics profiling reveals activation of mTOR pathway in trastuzumab resistance. Liu Wenhu,Chang Jinxia,Liu Mingwei,Yuan Jiangbei,Zhang Jinqiang,Qin Jun,Xia Xuefeng,Wang Yi Oncotarget Trastuzumab is an antibody-based therapy drug targeting HER2-overexpressing tumors. While it has been proven to be very successful initially, most patients eventually develop resistance to trastuzumab. The mechanism of drug resistance is not well understood. Identifying pathways that mediate trastuzumab resistance will improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism and is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance.Here we report a quantitative proteomics profiling of a trastuzumab-sensitive (T-S) gastric cancer cell line NCI N87 and a trastuzumab-resistant NCI N87 (T-R) subline generated by low-dose, continuous trastuzumab treatment. By identifying proteins differentially expressed in these two cell lines, we show that multiple pathways including mTOR, Wnt, DNA damage response and metabolic pathways are significantly altered. We further confirm by western blotting that protein levels of multiple components of the mTOR pathway, including mTOR, AKT and RPS6KB1, are increased, whereas AKT1S1 is decreased, suggesting the activation of mTOR pathway. Importantly, treatment of AZD8055, an mTOR inhibitor, leads to the decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR downstream molecules RPS6KB1 at Thr421/Ser424 and AKT at Ser473. Furthermore, AZD8055 also preferentially reduces viability, and inhibits migration and invasion abilities of the T-R cells. Together, our findings indicate that mTOR pathway is among multiple signaling pathways that mediate trastuzumab resistance in NCI N87 T-R cells, and that mTOR inhibitors may be used to treat trastuzumab resistant, HER2-positive gastric cancer tumors. 10.18632/oncotarget.17415
    mTOR: Role in cancer, metastasis and drug resistance. Murugan Avaniyapuram Kannan Seminars in cancer biology Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that gets inputs from the amino acids, nutrients, growth factor, and environmental cues to regulate varieties of fundamental cellular processes which include protein synthesis, growth, metabolism, aging, regeneration, autophagy, etc. The mTOR is frequently deregulated in human cancer and activating somatic mutations of mTOR were recently identified in several types of human cancer and hence mTOR is therapeutically targeted. mTOR inhibitors were commonly used as immunosuppressors and currently, it is approved for the treatment of human malignancies. This review briefly focuses on the structure and biological functions of mTOR. It extensively discusses the genetic deregulation of mTOR including amplifications and somatic mutations, mTOR-mediated cell growth promoting signaling, therapeutic targeting of mTOR and the mechanisms of resistance, the role of mTOR in precision medicine and other recent advances in further understanding the role of mTOR in cancer. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.07.003
    Advances in understanding the mechanisms of evasive and innate resistance to mTOR inhibition in cancer cells. Chiarini Francesca,Evangelisti Camilla,Lattanzi Giovanna,McCubrey James A,Martelli Alberto M Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research The development of drug-resistance by neoplastic cells is recognized as a major cause of targeted therapy failure and disease progression. The mechanistic (previously mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved Ser/Thr kinase that acts as the catalytic subunit of two structurally and functionally distinct large multiprotein complexes, referred to as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 play key roles in a variety of healthy cell types/tissues by regulating physiological anabolic and catabolic processes in response to external cues. However, a body of evidence identified aberrant activation of mTOR signaling as a common event in many human tumors. Therefore, mTOR is an attractive target for therapeutic targeting in cancer and this fact has driven the development of numerous mTOR inhibitors, several of which have progressed to clinical trials. Nevertheless, mTOR inhibitors have met with a very limited success as anticancer therapeutics. Among other reasons, this failure was initially ascribed to the activation of several compensatory signaling pathways that dampen the efficacy of mTOR inhibitors. The discovery of these regulatory feedback mechanisms greatly contributed to a better understanding of cancer cell resistance to mTOR targeting agents. However, over the last few years, other mechanisms of resistance have emerged, including epigenetic alterations, compensatory metabolism rewiring and the occurrence of mTOR mutations. In this article, we provide the reader with an updated overview of the mechanisms that could explain resistance of cancer cells to the various classes of mTOR inhibitors. 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2019.03.013
    The role of p53 in cancer drug resistance and targeted chemotherapy. Hientz Karin,Mohr André,Bhakta-Guha Dipita,Efferth Thomas Oncotarget Cancer has long been a grievous disease complicated by innumerable players aggravating its cure. Many clinical studies demonstrated the prognostic relevance of the tumor suppressor protein p53 for many human tumor types. Overexpression of mutated p53 with reduced or abolished function is often connected to resistance to standard medications, including cisplatin, alkylating agents (temozolomide), anthracyclines, (doxorubicin), antimetabolites (gemcitabine), antiestrogenes (tamoxifen) and EGFR-inhibitors (cetuximab). Such mutations in the TP53 gene are often accompanied by changes in the conformation of the p53 protein. Small molecules that restore the wild-type conformation of p53 and, consequently, rebuild its proper function have been identified. These promising agents include PRIMA-1, MIRA-1, and several derivatives of the thiosemicarbazone family. In addition to mutations in p53 itself, p53 activity may be also be impaired due to alterations in p53's regulating proteins such as MDM2. MDM2 functions as primary cellular p53 inhibitor and deregulation of the MDM2/p53-balance has serious consequences. MDM2 alterations often result in its overexpression and therefore promote inhibition of p53 activity. To deal with this problem, a judicious approach is to employ MDM2 inhibitors. Several promising MDM2 inhibitors have been described such as nutlins, benzodiazepinediones or spiro-oxindoles as well as novel compound classes such as xanthone derivatives and trisubstituted aminothiophenes. Furthermore, even naturally derived inhibitor compounds such as α-mangostin, gambogic acid and siladenoserinols have been discovered. In this review, we discuss in detail such small molecules that play a pertinent role in affecting the p53-MDM2 signaling axis and analyze their potential as cancer chemotherapeutics. 10.18632/oncotarget.13475
    Prolonged wild-type p53 protein accumulation and cisplatin resistance. Yazlovitskaya E M,DeHaan R D,Persons D L Biochemical and biophysical research communications The major limitation for the chemotherapeutic use of DNA-damaging agent cisplatin is the development of resistance in initially responsive tumors. One of the main pathways regulating cell survival following DNA damage is the p53 pathway. In this study we compared the cisplatin-induced response of p53 protein and its downstream targets p21WAF-1 and Mdm2 in the cisplatin-sensitive ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant derivative CP70. A higher dose of cisplatin and a longer exposure time was required to achieve the same level of p53, p21WAF-1, and Mdm2 protein accumulation in the cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells versus cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. A significant difference between the two cell lines was observed in cisplatin-induced stabilization of p53 protein. The p53 half-life increased 31-fold in CP70 cells compared to only 6-fold in A2780 cells. In contrast, there was no difference in p21WAF-1 half-life between the two cell lines. These results demonstrate that in A2780 and CP70 cells resistance to cisplatin correlates with prolonged p53 protein stabilization and accumulation. 10.1006/bbrc.2001.4849
    The paradigm of mutant p53-expressing cancer stem cells and drug resistance. Shetzer Yoav,Solomon Hilla,Koifman Gabriela,Molchadsky Alina,Horesh Stav,Rotter Varda Carcinogenesis It is well accepted that expression of mutant p53 involves the gain of oncogenic-specific activities accentuating the malignant phenotype. Depending on the specific cancer type, mutant p53 can contribute to either the early or the late events of the multiphase process underlying the transformation of a normal cell into a cancerous one. This multifactorial system is evident in ~50% of human cancers. Mutant p53 was shown to interfere with a variety of cellular functions that lead to augmented cell survival, cellular plasticity, aberration of DNA repair machinery and other effects. All these effects culminate in the acquisition of drug resistance often seen in cancer cells. Interestingly, drug resistance has also been suggested to be associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs), which reside within growing tumors. The notion that p53 plays a regulatory role in the life of stem cells, coupled with the observations that p53 mutations may contribute to the evolvement of CSCs makes it challenging to speculate that drug resistance and cancer recurrence are mediated by CSCs expressing mutant p53. 10.1093/carcin/bgu073
    Resistance and gain-of-resistance phenotypes in cancers harboring wild-type p53. Martinez-Rivera Michelle,Siddik Zahid H Biochemical pharmacology Chemotherapy is the bedrock for the clinical management of cancer, and the tumor suppressor p53 has a central role in this therapeutic modality. This protein facilitates favorable antitumor drug response through a variety of key cellular functions, including cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. These functions essentially cease once p53 becomes mutated, as occurs in ∼50% of cancers, and some p53 mutants even exhibit gain-of-function effects, which lead to greater drug resistance. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that resistance is also seen in cancers harboring wild-type p53. In this review, we discuss how wild-type p53 is inactivated to render cells resistant to antitumor drugs. This may occur through various mechanisms, including an increase in proteasomal degradation, defects in post-translational modification, and downstream defects in p53 target genes. We also consider evidence that the resistance seen in wild-type p53 cancers can be substantially greater than that seen in mutant p53 cancers, and this poses a far greater challenge for efforts to design strategies that increase drug response in resistant cancers already primed with wild-type p53. Because the mechanisms contributing to this wild-type p53 "gain-of-resistance" phenotype are largely unknown, a concerted research effort is needed to identify the underlying basis for the occurrence of this phenotype and, in parallel, to explore the possibility that the phenotype may be a product of wild-type p53 gain-of-function effects. Such studies are essential to lay the foundation for a rational therapeutic approach in the treatment of resistant wild-type p53 cancers. 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.12.026
    Towards the overcoming of anticancer drug resistance mediated by p53 mutations. Cao Xin,Hou Jiayun,An Quanlin,Assaraf Yehuda G,Wang Xiangdong Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy Cancer continues to be a leading threat to human health and life. Resistance to anti-cancer drugs is a major impediment towards efficacious cancer treatment. p53 mutations play an important role in cancer cell resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The frequency of p53-based chemoresistance is highly associated with the chemical properties of the anticancer drug, the cellular drug target, the biological function being blocked by the chemotherapeutic agent, the genomic instability and alterations of the tumor, as well as its differentiation state. The p53-based molecular mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance are insufficiently understood. With a clear focus on the role of p53 mutations in anticancer drug resistance, the present article reviews the biological structure and function of p53, its regulatory mechanisms, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying p53 mutation-dependent chemoresistance and possible modalities to surmount this drug resistance. We specifically discuss the roles of p53 in the development of chemoresistance to classical cytotoxic agents including for example cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, temozolomide, and paclitaxel. It is expected that the clinical manifestation of drug resistance can be integrated with data obtained from molecular multi-omics analyses addressing the alterations provoked by p53-driven resistance to discover the altered networks in these drug resistant tumors. Thus, novel drugs targeting mutant p53 or mutant p53-based dysregulated pathways, could be developed that may overcome well-defined mutant p53-mediated chemoresistance. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the p53-driven resistance modalities could facilitate the development of novel targeted antitumor drugs and strategies aimed at enhancing the efficacy of current cancer therapeutics. 10.1016/j.drup.2019.100671
    Overexpression of Nitrogen Permease Regulator Like-2 (NPRL2) Enhances Sensitivity to Irinotecan (CPT-11) in Colon Cancer Cells by Activating the DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway. Liu Shasha,Liu Bingrong Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, making it is a serious threat to human health. It is imperative to develop new therapeutics to improve the CRC treatment efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NPRL2 in improving sensitivity to CPT-11 in colon cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS NPRL2 overexpression was established by transfecting the recombinant lentivirus-encoding NPRL2 gene into HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation was identified using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. An immunofluorescence staining assay was conducted to examine the expression of γ-H2AX. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were utilized to show cell migration and invasion capability. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved PARP, BAX, and Bcl-2), invasion-related proteins (MMP2, MMP9, p-PI3K, and p-AKT), and DNA damage checkpoint pathway proteins (p-ATM, p-Chk2, Cdc25C, Cdc2, and Cyclin B1) were quantified by Western blotting. RESULTS A CCK8 assay revealed that the overexpression of NPRL2 improved the sensitivity of CPT-11 in HCT116 cells (P<0.05). Functionally, NPRL2 overexpression elevated the sensitivity of CPT-11 by preventing colon cancer cell proliferation, cell movement, and invasion, and promoting cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, NPRL2 overexpression enhanced CPT-11 sensitivity by activating the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. CONCLUSIONS NPRL2 overexpression enhances sensitivity to CPT-11 treatment in colon cancer cells, and it may serve as a molecular therapeutic agent to treat patients with CRC. 10.12659/msm.909186
    Tumor suppressor NPRL2 induces ROS production and DNA damage response. Ma Yinxing,Silveri Licia,LaCava John,Dokudovskaya Svetlana Scientific reports The SEA/GATOR complex is an essential regulator of the mTORC1 pathway. In mammals the GATOR1 complex is composed of the proteins DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3. GATOR1 serves as an mTORC1 inhibitor and activates the mTORC1-modulating RagA GTPase. However, several GATOR members have mTORC1 independent functions. Here we characterize mammalian cells overexpressing the GATOR1 component NPRL2. We demonstrate that, in the cells with active p53, ectopic expression of NPRL2 induces NOX2-dependent production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Overexpressed NPRL2 accumulates in the nucleus, together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). These events are accompanied by phosphorylation of p53, activation of a DNA-damage response and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, followed by apoptosis. In the cells negative for active p53, NPRL2 ectopic expression leads to activation of CHK1 or CHK2 kinases and cell cycle arrest in S or G2/M phases. Combined, these results demonstrate a new role for the NPRL2, distinct from its function in mTORC1 regulation. 10.1038/s41598-017-15497-0