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    Factors Affecting the Development of Gallstones Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy. Özdaş Sabri,Bozkurt Hilmi Obesity surgery Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a widely accepted procedure that has gained popularity among both bariatric surgeons and patients. There is still limited data in the literature on the formation of gallstones following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and so the present study determines the incidence of and potential risk factors related to the development of gallstones following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The data of patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at a single center due to morbid obesity between January 2014 and December 2017 was retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, as those with gallstones detected on ultrasound at 12 months and those without gallstones. Data of the two groups was compared. BMI did not differ significantly between patients with positive (+) and negative (-) ultrasound findings (p > 0.05). Aside from age, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, other preoperative parameters showed no significant association with the development of gallstones in USG (-) and USG (+) patients. The present study identified no significant relationship between a decrease in BMI following LSG and the postoperative development of gallstones. Preoperative hypertension and coronary artery disease were found to be significantly related to the development of gallstones after surgery. The authors suggest that patients with preexisting CAD and hypertension in the preoperative period must be followed-up with ultrasound more meticulously. 10.1007/s11695-019-03946-w
    Gallstone Disease After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in an Asian Population-What Proportion of Gallstones Actually Becomes Symptomatic? Hasan Muhammed Yaser,Lomanto Davide,Loh Lee Leng,So Jimmy Bok Yan,Shabbir Asim Obesity surgery BACKGROUND:Despite evidence on gallstone disease after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), there is an existing lack of consensus on practice guidelines, i.e., surveillance and stone-lowering prophylaxis. Available evidence also has a racial bias as western reports predominate current data. Considering the growing popularity of LSG in Asia and the unique Asian anthropometrics, we have attempted to provide a regional perspective by reviewing our LSG database to investigate the epidemiology of this complication. METHODS:One hundred two morbidly obese cases were retrospectively reviewed. Abdominal ultrasounds were conducted preoperatively and at 12-month post-op. No gallstone-lowering prophylaxis was used. Outcome measure was the incidence of new gallstone formation at 1 year and the rate of symptomatic stones during the follow-up period. RESULTS:Mean age was 43 years (range 20-68) with average initial BMI of 41.68 kg/m. Preoperative gallstones were present in 14 (13.7%) cases. At 12-month post-op, 24 (27.5%) patients with no previous gallstone disease developed new stones. Within the mean follow-up period of 28.4 months, only one case (0.9%) developed gallstone complication requiring a cholecystectomy. We found no statistical difference in demographics, BMI variables (initial BMI, ΔBMI at 6 months and 1 year), and comorbidities between patients with new gallstone and those without stones. CONCLUSION:Our results match western data in that gallstone formation is common after LSG though incidence of complicated stones is small. This is despite not using gallstone-lowering prophylaxis. The low conversion rate also questions the relevance of surveillance screening, as most patients with new gallstones remain asymptomatic at least in the short-term follow-up. 10.1007/s11695-017-2657-y
    Management of gallbladder disease after sleeve gastrectomy in a selected Lebanese population. Dakour Aridi Hanaa,Sultanem Serge,Abtar Houssam,Safadi Bassem Y,Fawal Hayssam,Alami Ramzi S Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery BACKGROUND:Patients with morbid obesity are at a higher risk of developing gallstones after bariatric surgery. Studies on the incidence of symptomatic gallstones necessitating cholecystectomy after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are limited in the Middle East. OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess the incidence of cholecystectomy after LSG during a 1-year follow-up and to evaluate potential risk factors and potential prophylactic measures. SETTING:Two university hospitals in Lebanon. METHODS:A prospectively maintained bariatric database of 361 patients who underwent primary LSG between January 2009 and December 2012 at the American University of Beirut Medical Center and Makassed General Hospital was reviewed. Data included demographics, preoperative weight, weight at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and incidence of postoperative symptomatic cholelithiasis. RESULTS:A total of 319 patients (88.4%) were followed up at 1 year. Twenty-four (7.5%) had symptomatic gallstones and underwent cholecystectomy after LSG. Mean postoperative time for the development of symptomatic gallstones was 426 days (range, 91-1234 days). Patients who developed symptomatic gallstones were significantly younger (29.8 versus 34.8, P = 0.008) but comparable to patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy in terms of other baseline characteristics and weight loss results at 1 year. Out of the obesity-related co-morbidities, hypertension was the only co-morbidity associated with post-LSG cholecystectomy (OR = 3.35, P = 0.036) after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSION:The incidence of symptomatic gallstones requiring cholecystectomy after LSG in our study cohort was higher than that of the general population (7.5%). This incidence does not warrant prophylactic cholecystectomy or routine pre- or postoperative ultrasounds. 10.1016/j.soard.2016.01.029
    Concomitant cholecystectomy during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Raziel Asnat,Sakran Nasser,Szold Amir,Goitein David Surgical endoscopy BACKGROUND:The prevalence of cholelithiasis in morbidly obese individuals is 19-45%. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become one of the most performed procedures worldwide. The management of gallstones at the time of LSG is under debate. We herein report our experience with concomitant LSG and cholecystectomy. METHODS:Patients undergoing LSG, between 2006 and 2014 with symptomatic cholelithiasis (SC), underwent concomitant cholecystectomy (SGC), and were compared to those who had LSG alone. Gender, age, and BMI were noted. Preoperative ultrasonography was performed for all patients and gallstone presence was recorded. Operative time, intraoperative mishaps, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), and the incidence of subsequent symptomatic gallbladder disease were collected as well. RESULTS:SC was present in 180 patients who underwent SGC. LSG was performed in 2,383, of whom 43 (2%) had asymptomatic cholelithiasis (AC). SGC patients had a higher percentage of females and were older (79% and 46 years vs. 62% and 43 years, respectively). BMI, LOS, and complications were similar. Operative time was prolonged by 35 min in SGC. Two patients with SGC had bile leakage. Of patients with AC, 9.3% required cholecystectomy during the first post-operative year after LSG due to evolution of symptoms, compared to only 2.7% of those with normal preoperative gallbladders. Presenting symptoms and severity of the disease were worse in the first group. CONCLUSIONS:For SC, LSC is safe and warranted. Prophylactic cholecystectomy when gallstones are absent is unnecessary. Management of AC at the time of LSG is still debatable. 10.1007/s00464-014-4010-z
    The incidence of cholelithiasis after sleeve gastrectomy and its association with weight loss: A two-centre retrospective cohort study. Manatsathit Wuttiporn,Leelasinjaroen Pornchai,Al-Hamid Hussein,Szpunar Susanna,Hawasli Abdelkader International journal of surgery (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Gallstones commonly develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and other bariatric surgery; however, incidence of gallstone development after SG has not been adequately studied. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent SG at two institutions from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Patients with previous cholecystectomy, preexisting gallstones, gallbladder polyps, or the absence of preoperative abdominal imaging were excluded. Follow-up abdominal ultrasonography was performed once the patients achieved 80-lb weight loss, became symptomatic, or reached one-year post-surgery. The incidence of gallstones and symptomatic gallstones and/or bile sludge was calculated. Different parameters of early and late postoperative weight loss were compared between the patients who developed gallstones and those who did not. RESULTS:During the study period, 253 underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Ultimately, 96 patients met inclusion criteria and were evaluated. The incidence of gallstone formation was 47.9% (46/96), and the incidence of symptomatic gallstones was 22.9% (22/96). None of the weight loss parameters during the early and late postoperative period were significantly different between the patients who developed gallstones and those who did not. CONCLUSION:Gallstones are a common complication after rapid weight loss from SG. Our data suggest that gallstone formation during the weight loss period is not associated with amount or rate of weight loss both during the early or late postoperative period. 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.03.060
    Incidence of symptomatic cholelithiasis after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and its association with rapid weight loss. Alsaif Faisal A,Alabdullatif Fahad S,Aldegaither Mohammed K,Alnaeem Khalid A,Alzamil Abdulrahman F,Alabdulkarim Nouf H,Aldohayan Abdullah D Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association Background/Aim:The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past years. In the Arab region, 66%-75% of adults and 25%-40% of children are either overweight or obese. Bariatric surgery has become the most effective approach for managing obesity and its co-morbidities. An expected outcome of bariatric surgery is cholelithiasis, which is one of the established risk factors of rapid weight loss. The aim of this study is to detect the incidence of symptomatic cholelithiasis among bariatric patients. Patients and Methods:A retrospective cohort study on 711 patients aged between 18 and 60 who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was conducted at King Saud University Medical City from January 2016 to January 2018. Results:The postoperative incidence of symptomatic cholelithiasis was 3.5%. The mean duration of symptom development was 12.4 months. The rates of weight loss at 6 and 12 months for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were 28.94 ± 4.89% and 38.51 ± 6.84%, respectively (P = 0.002), which were significantly higher than in patients without symptomatic cholelithiasis during the same follow-up period (24.41 ± 6.6% and 32.29 ± 10.28%), respectively; (P = 0.012). Conclusion:We found a 3.5% incidence of symptomatic cholelithiasis among post-LSG patients in a period of 2 years. Rapid weight loss was the only risk factor that contributed to the development of post-LSG gallbladder disease. Statistical Analysis Used:Results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages for categorical variables and as mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. A paired sample t-test was performed to determine significant differences between means at different time stamps. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. 10.4103/sjg.SJG_472_19