Potential small-molecule drugs as available weapons to fight novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): A review.
Rahimkhoei Vahid,Jabbari Nassrollah,Nourani Aynaz,Sharifi Sina,Akbari Ali
Cell biochemistry and function
Since the new coronavirus known as 2019-nCoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has widely spread in Wuhan, China, with severe pneumonia, scientists and physicians have made remarkable efforts to use various options such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, vaccines, small-molecule drugs and interferon therapies to control, prevent or treatment infections of 2019-nCoV. However, no vaccine or drug has yet been confirmed to completely treat 2019-nCoV. In this review, we focus on the use of potential available small-molecule drug candidates for treating infections caused by 2019-nCoV.
Two linear epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that elicit neutralising antibodies in COVID-19 patients.
Poh Chek Meng,Carissimo Guillaume,Wang Bei,Amrun Siti Naqiah,Lee Cheryl Yi-Pin,Chee Rhonda Sin-Ling,Fong Siew-Wai,Yeo Nicholas Kim-Wah,Lee Wen-Hsin,Torres-Ruesta Anthony,Leo Yee-Sin,Chen Mark I-Cheng,Tan Seow-Yen,Chai Louis Yi Ann,Kalimuddin Shirin,Kheng Shirley Seah Gek,Thien Siew-Yee,Young Barnaby Edward,Lye David C,Hanson Brendon John,Wang Cheng-I,Renia Laurent,Ng Lisa F P
Given the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, identification of immunogenic targets against the coronavirus spike glycoprotein will provide crucial advances towards the development of sensitive diagnostic tools and potential vaccine candidate targets. In this study, using pools of overlapping linear B-cell peptides, we report two IgG immunodominant regions on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein that are recognised by sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Notably, one is specific to SARS-CoV-2, which is located in close proximity to the receptor binding domain. The other region, which is localised at the fusion peptide, could potentially function as a pan-SARS target. Functionally, antibody depletion assays demonstrate that antibodies targeting these immunodominant regions significantly alter virus neutralisation capacities. Taken together, identification and validation of these neutralising B-cell epitopes will provide insights towards the design of diagnostics and vaccine candidates against this high priority coronavirus.
An approach towards development of monoclonal IgY antibodies against SARS CoV-2 spike protein (S) using phage display method: A review.
Somasundaram Rajeswari,Choraria Ankit,Antonysamy Michael
The present state of diagnostic and therapeutic developmental race for vaccines against the SARS CoV-2 (nCOVID-19) focuses on prevention and control of this global pandemic which also represents a critical challenge to the global health community. Although development of novel vaccines can prevent the SARS CoV-2 infections, it is still impeded by several other factors and therefore novel approaches towards treatment and management of this disease is the urgent need. Passive immunotherapy plays a vital role as a possible alternative to meet this challenge and among various antibody sources, chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) can be used as an alternative to mammalian antibodies which have been previously studied against SARS CoV outbreak in China. In this review, we discuss the strategies for the use of chicken egg yolk (IgY) antibodies in the development of rapid diagnosis and immunotherapy against SARS CoV-2. Also, IgY antibodies have previously been used against various respiratory bacterial and viral infections in humans and animals. Compared to mammalian antibodies (IgG), chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have greater binding affinity to specific antigens, ease of extraction and lower production costs, hence possessing remarkable pathogen-neutralizing activity of pathogens in respiratory and lungs. We provide an overall importance for the use of monoclonal chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) using phage display method describing their potential passive immunotherapeutic application for the treatment and prevention of SARS CoV-2 infection which is simple, fast and safe way of approach for treating patients effectively.