Global left atrial failure in heart failure.
Triposkiadis Filippos,Pieske Burkert,Butler Javed,Parissis John,Giamouzis Gregory,Skoularigis John,Brutsaert Dirk,Boudoulas Harisios
European journal of heart failure
The left atrium plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular and neurohumoral homeostasis in heart failure. However, with progressive left ventricular dysfunction, left atrial (LA) dilation and mechanical failure develop, which frequently culminate in atrial fibrillation. Moreover, LA mechanical failure is accompanied by LA endocrine failure [deficient atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) processing-synthesis/development of ANP resistance) and LA regulatory failure (dominance of sympathetic nervous system excitatory mechanisms, excessive vasopressin release) contributing to neurohumoral overactivity, vasoconstriction, and volume overload (global LA failure). The purpose of the present review is to describe the characteristics and emphasize the clinical significance of global LA failure in patients with heart failure.
Left atrial diameter in heart failure with left ventricular preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction.
Zhu Ning,Chen Hao,Zhao Xuyong,Ye Fanhao,Jiang Wenbing,Wang Yi
Left atrial (LA) remodeling has been identified to predict atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure. However, the role of LA diameter (LAD) in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remains poorly understood.A total of 142 patients including 71 subjects with AF (21 of HFpEF, 22 of HFmrEF, and 28 of HFrEF) and 71 ejection fraction (EF)-matched subjects with sinus rhythm (SR) were included in the study. Baseline characteristics and echocardiographic parameters including LAD were compared between both groups as well as among HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF.In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, LAD predicted AF in HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF [area under the curve (AUC): 0.646; P = .03]. LAD was negatively association with left ventricular ejection fraction while positively with Nt-proNP and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (regression coefficient: -0.239, P = .004; regression coefficient: 0.191, P = .023; regression coefficient: 0.357, P < .001). In ROC analyses, LAD predicted HFrEF among the 3 categories (AUC: 0.629, P = .01).In the setting of HF, LAD was higher in AF than in and SR, and predicted AF. Furthermore, LAD was associated with severity of HF in HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF, and also predicted HFrEF.