Accelerated macrophage apoptosis induces autoantibody formation and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Denny Michael F,Chandaroy Parthapratim,Killen Paul D,Caricchio Roberto,Lewis Emily E,Richardson Bruce C,Lee Kyung-Dall,Gavalchin Jerrie,Kaplan Mariana J
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Increased monocyte/macrophage (Mphi) apoptosis occurs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is mediated, at least in part, by an autoreactive CD4(+) T cell subset. Furthermore, autoreactive murine CD4(+) T cells that kill syngeneic Mphi in vitro induce a lupus-like disease in vivo. However, it is unclear whether increased Mphi apoptosis in SLE per se is sufficient to accelerate/promote autoimmunity. We have investigated whether increased Mphi apoptosis in vivo, induced by the administration of clodronate liposomes, can exacerbate the autoimmune phenotype in NZB x SWR (SNF(1)) lupus-prone mice, and induce autoantibody production in haplotype-matched BALB/c x DBA1 (DBF(1)) non-lupus-prone mice. Lupus-prone mice SNF(1) mice that were treated with clodronate liposomes, but not mice treated with vehicle, developed significant increases in autoantibodies to dsDNA, nucleosomes, and the idiotypically related family of nephritic Abs Id(LN)F(1), when compared with untreated SNF(1) mice. Furthermore, clodronate treatment hastened the onset of proteinuria and worsened SNF(1) lupus nephritis. When compared with vehicle-treated controls, clodronate-treated non-lupus-prone DBF(1) mice developed significantly higher levels of anti-nucleosome and Id(LN)F(1) Abs but did not develop lupus nephritis. We propose that Mphi apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of autoantibody formation and organ damage through both an increase in the apoptotic load and impairment in the clearance of apoptotic material. This study suggests that mechanisms that induce scavenger cell apoptosis, such as death induced by autoreactive cytotoxic T cells observed in SLE, could play a pathogenic role and contribute to the severity of the disease.
Macrophage depletion using clodronate liposomes decreases tumorigenesis and alters gut microbiota in the AOM/DSS mouse model of colon cancer.
Bader Jackie E,Enos Reilly T,Velázquez Kandy T,Carson Meredith S,Nagarkatti Mitzi,Nagarkatti Prakash S,Chatzistamou Ioulia,Davis J Mark,Carson James A,Robinson Cory M,Murphy E Angela
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
We examined the role of macrophages in inflammation associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Given the emerging evidence on immune-microbiota interactions in CRC, we also sought to examine the interaction between macrophages and gut microbiota. To induce CRC, male C57BL/6 mice ( n = 32) received a single injection of azoxymethane (AOM), followed by three cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-supplemented water in weeks 1, 4, and 7. Prior to the final DSS cycle ( week 7) and twice weekly until euthanasia, mice ( n = 16/group) received either 200 μl ip of clodronate-filled liposomes (CLD) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) encapsulated liposomes to deplete macrophages. Colon tissue was analyzed for polyp burden, macrophage markers, transcription factors, and inflammatory mediators. Stool samples were collected, and DNA was isolated and subsequently sequenced for 16S rRNA. Clodronate liposomes decreased tumor number by ∼36% and specifically large (≥1 mm) tumors by ∼36% ( P < 0.05). This was consistent with a decrease in gene expression of EMR1 in the colon tissue and polyp tissue as well as expression of select markers associated with M1 (IL-6) and M2 macrophages (IL-13, IL-10, TGFβ, CCL17) in the colon tissue ( P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a decrease in STAT3 and p38 MAPK and ERK signaling in colon tissue. Clodronate liposomes increased the relative abundance of the Firmicutes phylum ( P < 0.05) and specifically Lactobacillaceae and Clostridiaceae families, which have been associated with reduced CRC risk. Overall, these data support the development of therapeutic strategies to target macrophages in CRC and provide support for further evaluation of immune-microbiota interactions in CRC. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that macrophage depletion during late-stage tumorigenesis is effective at reducing tumor growth. This was associated with a decrease in macrophage markers and chemokines in the colon tissue and a decrease in transcription factors that are linked to colorectal cancer. The macrophage-depleted group was found to have an increased abundance of Firmicutes, a phylum with documented anti-tumorigenic effects. Overall, these data support the development of therapeutic strategies to target macrophages in colorectal cancer.