Exploring the Impact of Mindfulness on False-Memory Susceptibility.
Sherman Susan M,Grange James A
Wilson, Mickes, Stolarz-Fantino, Evrard, and Fantino (2015) presented data from three well-powered experiments suggesting that a brief mindfulness induction can increase false-memory susceptibility. However, we had concerns about some of the methodology, including whether mind wandering is the best control condition for brief mindfulness inductions. Here, we report the findings from a preregistered double-blind randomized controlled trial designed to replicate and extend Wilson et al.'s findings. Participants ( = 287) underwent 15-min mindfulness or mind-wandering inductions or completed a join-the-dots task before being presented with lists of words related to nonpresented critical lures. This was followed by free-recall and recognition tasks. There was no evidence for an effect of state of mind on correct or false recall or recognition. Furthermore, manipulation checks revealed that mindfulness and mind-wandering inductions activated overlapping states of mind. Exploratory analyses provided some support for mindfulness increasing false memory, but it appears that mind wandering may not be the right control for brief mindfulness research.
Follower Mindfulness and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Perceived Authentic Leadership and the Moderating Role of Leader Mindfulness.
Zhang Jing,Song Lynda J,Ni Dan,Zheng Xiaoming
Frontiers in psychology
Drawing on implicit leadership theory and the mindfulness literature, we propose that perceived authentic leadership mediates the relationship between follower mindfulness and follower well-being. Leader mindfulness plays a moderating role in this process. We validated these hypotheses with the two-wave data from 56 leaders and 275 followers in two private enterprises located in China. We used Mplus 8.0 to test our hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, the results showed that perceived authentic leadership mediated the positive relationship between follower mindfulness and follower well-being. Higher leader mindfulness enhanced the effect of follower mindfulness on perceived authentic leadership and also strengthened the indirect effect of follower mindfulness on follower well-being via perceived authentic leadership. The theoretical and managerial implications are further discussed in the light of these findings.
Mindfulness and the 'psychological imagination'.
Nehring Daniel,Frawley Ashley
Sociology of health & illness
We analyse the rise of 'mindfulness' in English language media discourses and contextualise it in terms of its expression of a persistent underlying 'psychological imagination' in contemporary thinking about social problems. An inversion of C. Wright Mills' much-cited sociological imagination, the psychological imagination draws on medical-scientific authority to treat social problems as private concerns rooted in individual biology, mentality and behaviour. We analyse the roles which academic claims-making, commercial interests and mass mediatisation have played in the rise of mindfulness from the late 1970s onwards. We first map the translation of mindfulness from Buddhist philosophy into Western psychotherapy and popular psychology before considering its emergence and expression in the public sphere of news media claims-making. We argue that where the sociological imagination 'promised' above all the treatment of private troubles as public issues and insights into the 'human variety' produced by myriad ways of living, the psychological imagination promises the isolation of public issues as private concerns rooted in individual biology, mentality and behaviour. The psychological imagination permeates the expression of mindfulness as a solution to social ills and symbolises the comparative decline of assumptions implicit in Mills' 20th century rousing call to social scientists.
Mindfulness training disrupts Pavlovian conditioning.
Hanley Adam W,Garland Eric L
Physiology & behavior
Classical conditioning is a quintessential learning process; however, maladaptive forms of conditioning sustain many unhealthy behaviors (e.g., addiction). Mindfulness training is theorized to de-automatize conditioned behavior by decoupling stimulus and response. This study assessed the effect of mindfulness training on conditioned behavior during a classical conditioning task. Findings indicated mindfulness training decreased classically conditioned behavior relative to an active control condition, delaying the onset of first conditioned response and decreasing conditioned response frequency. Thus, mindfulness training may be one method of increasing volitional control over maladaptive conditioned behaviors that contribute to the development and maintenance of clinical disorders.
Is There a Dark Side to Mindfulness? Relation of Mindfulness to Criminogenic Cognitions.
Tangney June P,Dobbins Ashley E,Stuewig Jeffrey B,Schrader Shannon W
Personality & social psychology bulletin
In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have been modified for use with inmate populations, but how this might relate to specific criminogenic cognitions has not been examined empirically. Theoretically, characteristics of mindfulness should be incompatible with distorted patterns of criminal thinking, but is this in fact the case? Among both 259 male jail inmates and 516 undergraduates, mindfulness was inversely related to the Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) through a latent variable of emotion regulation. However, in the jail sample, this mediational model also showed a direct, positive path from mindfulness to CCS, with an analogous, but nonsignificant trend in the college sample. Post hoc analyses indicate that the Nonjudgment of Self scale derived from the Mindfulness Inventory: Nine Dimensions (MI:ND) largely accounts for this apparently iatrogenic effect in both samples. Some degree of self-judgment is perhaps necessary and useful, especially among individuals involved in the criminal justice system.
Mindfulness Meditation Activates Altruism.
Iwamoto Sage K,Alexander Marcus,Torres Mark,Irwin Michael R,Christakis Nicholas A,Nishi Akihiro
Clinical evidence suggests that mindfulness meditation reduces anxiety, depression, and stress, and improves emotion regulation due to modulation of activity in neural substrates linked to the regulation of emotions and social preferences. However, less was known about whether mindfulness meditation might alter pro-social behavior. Here we examined whether mindfulness meditation activates human altruism, a component of social cooperation. Using a simple donation game, which is a real-world version of the Dictator's Game, we randomly assigned 326 subjects to a mindfulness meditation online session or control and measured their willingness to donate a portion of their payment for participation as a charitable donation. Subjects who underwent the meditation treatment donated at a 2.61 times higher rate than the control (p = 0.005), after controlling for socio-demographics. We also found a larger treatment effect of meditation among those who did not go to college (p < 0.001) and those who were under 25 years of age (p < 0.001), with both subject groups contributing virtually nothing in the control condition. Our results imply high context modularity of human altruism and the development of intervention approaches including mindfulness meditation to increase social cooperation, especially among subjects with low baseline willingness to contribute.
The Many Roads to Mindfulness: A Review of Nonmindfulness-Based Interventions that Increase Mindfulness.
Xia Tom,Hu Hiroe,Seritan Andreea L,Eisendrath Stuart
Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have become increasingly popular for treating various physical and mental disorders. An increase in mindfulness levels through the teaching of mindfulness meditation is the most well-studied mechanism of MBIs. Recent studies, however, suggest that an increase in mindfulness is also observed in physical or psychosocial interventions not explicitly labeled as MBIs, or what the authors call non-MBIs. The authors aimed to review what non-MBIs can increase mindfulness levels despite not explicitly teaching mindfulness meditation. The authors conducted a literature search for studies that included a non-MBI study arm measuring pre- and postintervention mindfulness levels using one of the following eight validated self-reported mindfulness questionnaires: Five-Faceted Mindfulness Questionnaire, Mindful Awareness and Attention Scale, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Toronto Mindfulness Scale, Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale, Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure, and Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised. The authors identified 69 non-MBI study arms from 51 independent studies of the non-MBI itself or as active controls of an MBI under investigation. The authors documented or calculated, if not provided, effect sizes (ES) for changes in mindfulness levels following these interventions. Among the 69 non-MBI arms, 36 showed no effect for change in mindfulness (ES <0.20), 3 were indeterminate (no ES available or unable to calculate), 13 had small effects (0.20 < ES <0.5), 13 had medium effects (0.50 < ES <0.80), 3 had large effects (0.80 < ES <1.3), and 1 had a very large effect (ES >1.3) for change in mindfulness. Analysis of the characteristics of non-MBIs with significant increases in mindfulness levels suggested some commonalities between MBIs and non-MBIs, shedding light on a spectrum of mindfulness-related interventions and the possibility that there are many roads to developing mindfulness.
Mindfulness and Leadership: Communication as a Behavioral Correlate of Leader Mindfulness and Its Effect on Follower Satisfaction.
Arendt Johannes F W,Pircher Verdorfer Armin,Kugler Katharina G
Frontiers in psychology
In recent years, the construct of mindfulness has gained growing attention in psychological research. However, little is known about the effects of mindfulness on interpersonal interactions and social relationships at work. Addressing this gap, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of mindfulness in leader-follower relationships. Building on prior research, we hypothesize that leaders' mindfulness is reflected in a specific communication style ("mindfulness in communication"), which is positively related to followers' satisfaction with their leaders. We used nested survey data from 34 leaders and 98 followers from various organizations and tested mediation hypotheses using hierarchical linear modeling. Our hypotheses were confirmed by our data in that leaders' self-reported mindfulness showed a positive relationship with several aspects of followers' satisfaction. This relationship was fully mediated by leaders' mindfulness in communication as perceived by their followers. Our findings emphasize the potential value of mindfulness in workplace settings. They provide empirical evidence for a positive link between leaders' dispositional mindfulness and the wellbeing of their followers, indicating that mindfulness is not solely an individual resource but also fosters interpersonal skills. By examining leaders' mindfulness in communication as an explanatory process, we created additional clarification about leaders' mindfulness relates to followers' perceptions, offering a promising starting point for measuring behavioral correlates of leader mindfulness.