Pathogenic diversity of RNA variants and RNA variation-associated factors in cancer development.
Yang Hee Doo,Nam Suk Woo
Experimental & molecular medicine
Recently, with the development of RNA sequencing technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) for RNA, numerous variations of alternatively processed RNAs made by alternative splicing, RNA editing, alternative maturation of microRNA (miRNA), RNA methylation, and alternative polyadenylation have been uncovered. Furthermore, abnormally processed RNAs can cause a variety of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Especially in cancer development, aberrant RNAs caused by deregulated RNA modifiers or regulators are related to progression. Accumulating evidence has reported that aberrant RNAs promote carcinogenesis in many cancers, including liver cancer, leukemia, melanoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and other cancers, in which abnormal RNA processing occurs in normal cells. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the precise roles and mechanisms of disease-related RNA processing in various cancers for the development of therapeutic interventions. In this review, the underlying mechanisms of variations in the RNA life cycle and the biological impacts of RNA variations on carcinogenesis will be discussed, and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of tumor malignancies will be provided. We also discuss emerging roles of RNA regulators in hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
Non-Coding RNAs as Potential Novel Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Hepatic Insulin Resistance.
Pielok Ariadna,Marycz Krzysztof
International journal of molecular sciences
In the recent years, the prevalence of metabolic conditions such as type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) raises. The impairment of liver metabolism resulting in hepatic insulin resistance is a common symptom and a critical step in the development of T2D and MetS. The liver plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Hepatic insulin resistance can often be identified before other symptoms arrive; therefore, establishing methods for its early diagnosis would allow for the implementation of proper treatment in patients before the disease develops. Non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs (micro-RNA) and lncRNAs (long-non-coding RNA) are being recognized as promising novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets-especially due to their regulatory function. The dysregulation of miRNA and lncRNA activity has been reported in the livers of insulin-resistant patients. Many of those transcripts are involved in the regulation of the hepatic insulin signaling cascade. Furthermore, for several miRNAs (miR-802, miR-499-5p, and miR-122) and lncRNAs (H19 imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19), maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), and metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1)), circulating levels were altered in patients with prediabetes, T2D, and MetS. In the course of this review, the role of the aforementioned ncRNAs in hepatic insulin signaling cascade, as well as their potential application in diagnostics, is discussed. Overall, circulating ncRNAs are precise indicators of hepatic insulin resistance in the development of metabolic diseases and could be applied as early diagnostic and/or therapeutic tools in conditions associated with insulin resistance.
Gestational diabetes and maternal obesity are associated with sex-specific changes in miRNA and target gene expression in the fetus.
Joshi Apoorva,Azuma Rikka,Akumuo Rita,Goetzl Laura,Pinney Sara E
International journal of obesity (2005)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) or maternal obesity have been linked to the development of diabetes, obesity, and fatty liver disease later in life with sex-specific manifestations. Alterations in miRNA expression in offspring exposed to GDM and maternal obesity and effects on hepatic development are unknown. Here, we describe how exposure to maternal obesity in utero leads to sex-specific changes in miRNA and target gene expression in human fetal liver. METHODS:Candidate miRNA expression was measured in second trimester amniotic fluid (AF) from women with GDM. Targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were determined and pathway enrichment of target genes was performed. MiRNA and target gene expression were measured in a separate cohort of second trimester primary human fetal hepatocytes (PHFH) exposed to maternal obesity via qPCR and western blot. All studies were IRB approved. RESULTS:GDM-exposed AF had significant increases in miRNAs 199a-3p, 503-5p, and 1268a (fold change (FC) ≥ 1.5, p < 0.05). Female offspring-specific analysis showed enrichment in miRNAs 378a-3p, 885-5p, and 7-1-3p (p < 0.05). MiRNA gene targets were enriched in hepatic pathways. Key genes regulating de novo lipogenesis were upregulated in obesity-exposed PHFH, especially in males. Significantly altered miRNAs in GDM AF were measured in obese-exposed PHFH, with consistent increases in miRNAs 885-5p, 199-3p, 503-5p, 1268a, and 7-1-3p (FC ≥ 1.5, p < 0.05). Female PHFH exposed to maternal obesity had increased expression of miR-885-5p, miR-199-3p, miR-503-5p, miR-1268s, and miR-7-1-3p (p < 0.05), corresponding to decreased target genes expression for ABCA1, PAK4, and INSR. In male PHFHs, no miRNA changes were measured but there was increased expression of ABCA1, PAK4, and INSR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest sex-specific changes in miRNA and gene expression in PHFH may be one mechanism contributing to the sexual dimorphism of metabolic disease in offspring exposed to GDM and maternal obesity in utero.