Expression, immune infiltration and clinical significance of SPAG5 in hepatocellular carcinoma: A gene expression-based study.
Chen Wei,Chen Xing,Li Sijin,Ren Biqiong
The journal of gene medicine
BACKGROUND:Overexpression of sperm-associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) is a marker of poor prognosis in numerous tumors and is recognized as an index of tumor proliferation; however, its expression in liver cancer remains unclear. METHODS:The Oncomine (https://www.oncomine.org) and Timer (https://cistrome.shinyapps.io/timer) databases were used to analyze the expression of SPAG5 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal liver tissues. The relationship between the expression of SPAG5 and immune infiltration of HCC was investigated using the Timer and GEPIA (http://gepia.cancer-pku.cn) databases, and the mechanism was analyzed using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. A Kaplan-Meier Plotter (http://kmplot.com/analysis) was used to evaluate the effect of SPAG5 on the prognosis of patients with HCC. RESULTS:The results revealed that the SPAG5 expression level was positively correlated with the infiltration levels of CD8 T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and especially B cells and dendritic cells. In addition, SPAG5 expression was significantly associated with T cell exhaustion. The overall survival time, progression-free survival time, recurrence-free survival time and disease-specific survival time were significantly reduced for HCC patients with high SPAG5 expression (p < 0.01) and high expression of SPAG5 was significantly associated with a poor overall survival time and progression-free survival time of grade and stage II-III HCC (p < 0.05) but not with stage I HCC (p > 0.05). Additionally, the expression of SPAG5 is related to the p53 and cell cycle signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, SPAG5 is not only a marker of immune infiltration and poor prognosis, but also a potential therapeutic target for liver cancer.
POLE2 Serves as a Prognostic Biomarker and Is Associated with Immune Infiltration in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer.
Wu Zhen,Wang Yue-Ming,Dai Yu,Chen Liang-An
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
BACKGROUND Squamous cell lung cancer is the main cause of cancer-associated mortality. The discovery of promising prognostic biomarkers for predicting the survival of patients with squamous cell lung cancer remains a challenge. MATERIAL AND METHODS Gene expression profiles of GSE33479 and GSE51855, including 42 squamous cell lung cancer tissues and 17 normal tissues, from the GEO database were assessed to find common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via the GEO2R online tool and Venn diagram software. Then, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway analyses were conducted. The key protein-protein interaction (PPI) network within those common DEGs was subsequently illustrated through a combination of Search Tool for Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape software. Finally, core genes associated with survival and levels of immune infiltration were demonstrated by the Kaplan-Meier plotter and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) online database, respectively. RESULTS In total, 483 DEGs were involved, including 216 upregulated genes enriched in "cell division", "DNA replication", and "DNA repair pathway" and 267 downregulated genes enriched in "cell adhesion", "oxidation-reduction process", and "cell-cell signaling". The 75 core genes were selected by Molecular Complex Detection applied in Cytoscape. Four genes - MND1, FOXM1, CDC6, and POLE2 - were found to be significantly associated with survival. Further analysis of the KEEG pathway and TIMER database revealed that only POLE2 was enriched in "DNA replication" and its higher expression was negatively associated with survival and immune infiltration. CONCLUSIONS Higher expression of POLE2 is a prognosis-related biomarker for worse survival and is negatively associated with immune infiltration in squamous cell lung cancer.
Expression of ACAP1 Is Associated with Tumor Immune Infiltration and Clinical Outcome of Ovarian Cancer.
Zhang Jiawen,Zhang Qinyi,Zhang Jing,Wang Qingying
DNA and cell biology
ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and PH domains 1 (ACAP1) is an Arf6 GAP that regulates membrane trafficking and is critical for the migratory potential of cells. However, the roles of ACAP1 have not been fully explored and its association with clinicopathological features in ovarian cancer is still unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed multiple databases, including TISIDB, Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER2.0), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), CORTECON, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and LinkedOmics platforms to reveal the clinical significance and function of ACAP1 in ovarian cancer. We found that the expression of ACAP1 was upregulated in ovarian cancer and high ACAP1 expression predicted poor prognosis. Our data demonstrated that the expression and methylation status of ACAP1 were strongly correlated with immune infiltration levels, immunomodulators, and chemokines. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis also showed that the mechanism of ACAP1 in regulating ovarian cancer was related to a variety of immune-related pathways. In addition, we also revealed that the expression of ACAP1 was altered during cell differentiation and associated with cancer cell stemness markers. Our study highlights the clinical significance of ACAP1 in ovarian cancer and provides insight into the novel function of ACAP1 in regulation of tumor immune microenvironment and cancer cell stemness.
Bromodomain 4 is a potent prognostic marker associated with immune cell infiltration in breast cancer.
Zhong Limei,Yang Zhiyong,Lei Da,Li Lijuan,Song Shaohua,Cao Donglin,Liu Yufeng
Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
Bromodomain 4 (BRD4), a member of the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain protein family, has become a promising epigenetic target in cancer and inflammatory diseases; however, the detailed biological role of BRD4 in breast cancer (BRCA) remains undetermined. We analysed the BRD4 expression levels using the Oncomine and TIMER databases and evaluated the clinical impact of BRD4 on BRCA prognosis using Kaplan-Meier plot and PrognoScan. The correlation between BRD4 and tumour-infiltrating immune cells was investigated using TIMER. Furthermore, the correlation between BRD4 expression levels was also analysed using TIMER in addition to the GEPIA database for immune cell gene markers. BRD4 expression was significantly higher in BRCA tissues than in normal tissues, which was significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS). Specifically, high BRD4 expression was correlated with worse OS and progression-free survival in patients with BRCA. In addition, BRD4 expression was correlated with levels of infiltrating monocytes (CSF1R, cor = 0.204, P = 9.19e-12), tumour-associated macrophages (CD68, cor = 0.129, P = 1.81e-05), M1/M2 macrophages and different effector T cells (including Th1/Th2/Treg) in BRCA. These findings suggest that BRD4 could be used as a prognostic biomarker for determining prognosis and immune cell infiltration levels in BRCA.
CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2 are Prognostic Biomarkers and Correlated with Immune Infiltration in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Zou Yiping,Ruan Shiye,Jin Liang,Chen Zhihong,Han Hongwei,Zhang Yuanpeng,Jian Zhixiang,Lin Ye,Shi Ning,Jin Haosheng
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
BACKGROUND Orderly G2/M transition in the cell cycle is controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B (CDK1/CCNB) complex. We aimed to comprehensively investigate the roles of CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2 via multi-omics analysis and their relationships with immune infiltration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The transcriptional data and the epigenetic and genetic alterations of CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2, as well as their impacts on prognosis in HCC patients, were identified using multiple databases. The correlations between expression of these genes and immune infiltration in HCC were then explored using the TIMER database. RESULTS Overall, mRNA expression of CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2 was up-regulated in various tumor tissues including HCC. Higher expression of these genes was associated with poorer prognosis in HCC patients. Lower promoter methylation of these genes might cause higher expression levels in tumor tissues of HCC. Genetic alterations and several methylated-CpG sites in these genes were significantly associated with survival. Notably, expression levels of CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2 were positively correlated with infiltrating levels of CD4⁺ T cells, CD8⁺ T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells in HCC. In addition, significant correlations between the expression of these genes and various immune markers in HCC, such as PD-1, PDL-1, and CTLA-4, were also observed. CONCLUSIONS CDK1, CCNB1, and CCNB2 are potential prognostic biomarkers and associated with immune cell infiltration in HCC. The genes may be utilized to predict the reaction of immunotherapy. Combining inhibitors of these genes with immunotherapy may improve the survival time of HCC patients.
Upregulation of LAGE3 correlates with prognosis and immune infiltrates in colorectal cancer: A bioinformatic analysis.
Dong Xubin,Lv Shihui,Zhang Xiaohua,Hao Rutian
BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Identification of new CRC biomarkers is imperative to improve the prognosis and development of therapies against the disease. LAGE3 (L Antigen Family Member 3) functions as a tRNA modifier, although its potential role in CRC has not been fully elucidated. METHODS:RNA-seq matrix and corresponding clinical information were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases, then subjected to survival, enrichment, and tumor microenvironment analyses using packages implemented in R. RESULTS:We found that LAGE3 was upregulated and significantly correlating with poor prognosis in multiple CRC cohorts. Additionally, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that LAGE3 was an independent prognostic factor in patients with CRC, whereas functional enrichment analysis indicated that it could regulate protein targeting, tRNA processing, and the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, CIBERSORT analysis indicated a negative relationship between LAGE3 and levels of infiltration for multiple immune cells, especially CD8 + T cells in CRC. Particularly, LAGE3 expression was inversely correlated with the expression of immune checkpoints as well as that of various immune cell types of signature genes. CONCLUSION:Collectively, our results indicate that high LAGE3 expression correlates with adverse prognosis and poor immune infiltration in CRC patients.
TRPV1 acts as a Tumor Suppressor and is associated with Immune Cell Infiltration in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: evidence from integrated analysis.
Zheng Long,Dou Xiaojie,Song Huijia,Gao Ruixia,Tang Xiaoshuang
Journal of Cancer
Differential expression of TRPV1 has been detected in many cancer types, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the clinical significance of TRPV1 expression profile in ccRCC has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this study, TRPV1 expression in ccRCC and other cancer types was analyzed based on data from the GEO and Oncomine databases. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed for further validation in human ccRCC tissue chips. Survival and correlation analyses of TRPV1 were conducted using Kaplan-Meier Plotter (KM-Plotter) and the Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database. TRPV1 exhibited a low expression profile in 2 GEO datasets (GSE6344, GSE36895) and 4 Oncomine datasets (Gumz, Lenburg, Beroukhim 1 and Beroukhim 2), as also confirmed by IHC staining. Survival analysis indicated that high enrichment of TRPV1 significantly predicted a better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 1, 3, 5 and 10 years in ccRCC patients. TIMER analysis showed that TRPV1 copy number alterations (CNA) were closely related to immune cell infiltration. The detailed results indicated that TRPV1 expression was positively correlated with the infiltration level of CD4+ T cells, but negatively correlated with B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells infiltration. In addition, TRPV1 might also be inversely related to abundance of the regulatory T cells (Treg) and the M2 subset of macrophages. Finally, we found that TRPV1 expression was tightly associated with several key molecules of the classical pathways in ccRCC, such as VHL, TP53, HIF1A, MTOR, MAPK1, MET, CTNNB1, etc. Our research work suggests that TRPV1 is a novel tumor suppressor and prognosis marker for ccRCC and is of great value for further exploration.
Serum CD95L Level Correlates with Tumor Immune Infiltration and Is a Positive Prognostic Marker for Advanced High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.
De La Motte Rouge Thibault,Corné Julien,Cauchois Aurélie,Le Boulch Marie,Poupon Clotilde,Henno Sébastien,Rioux-Leclercq Nathalie,Le Pabic Estelle,Laviolle Bruno,Catros Véronique,Levêque Jean,Fautrel Alain,Le Gallo Matthieu,Legembre Patrick,Lavoué Vincent
Molecular cancer research : MCR
Soluble CD95L (s-CD95L) is a chemoattractant for certain lymphocyte subpopulations. We examined whether this ligand is a prognostic marker for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and whether it is associated with accumulation of immune cells in the tumor. Serum s-CD95L levels in 51 patients with advanced ovarian cancer were tested by ELISA. IHC staining of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD163, CD31, FoxP3, CCR6, IL-17, Granzyme B, PD-L1, and membrane CD95L was used to assess tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Although the intensity of CD3, CD8, CD4, CD20, and CD163 in tumor tissues remained constant regardless of membrane CD95L expression, tumors in patients with HGSOC with s-CD95L levels ≥516 pg/mL showed increased infiltration by CD3 T cells ( = 0.001), comprising both cytotoxic CD8 ( = 0.01) and CD4 ( = 0.0062) cells including FoxP3 regulatory T cells ( = 0.0044). Also, the number of tumor-infiltrating CD20 B cells ( = 0.0094) increased in these patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that low s-CD95L concentrations [<516 pg/mL, HR, 3.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-11.11), and <1,200 activated CD8 (Granzyme B) cells (HR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.16-5.95) were independent poor prognostic factors for recurrence, whereas >6,000 CD3 cells (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.79) was a good prognostic factor. Thus, low levels of s-CD95L (<516 pg/mL) are correlated with lower numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (CD3 and CD8, and also CD4 and FoxP3 T cells) in advanced HGSOC and are a poor prognostic marker. IMPLICATIONS: Serum s-CD95L is correlated with a number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in HGSOC and could be used as a noninvasive marker of tumor immune infiltration to select patients referred for immunotherapy trials that evaluate checkpoint inhibitor treatment.
CXCR3 from chemokine receptor family correlates with immune infiltration and predicts poor survival in osteosarcoma.
Tang Yin,Gu Zhiqian,Fu Youwei,Wang Junjie
BACKGROUND:Chemokine receptors have a crucial role in regulating tumor mediating immunity and are also implicated in the prognosis of some cancers. Here, the association between CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR2-5) and prognosis in osteosarcoma was studied. METHODS:Differences between CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5 expression and overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses. The associations of CXCR3 expression with clinical features and the prognosis were also analyzed. The signaling pathways modulated by CXCR3 were investigated. The correlations between CXCR3 and immune infiltrates were investigated. RESULTS:The expression of CXCR2, CXCR4, and CXCR5 was not associated with the prognosis, but CXCR3 low expression was correlated with worse OS and EFS of osteosarcoma, especially for female, patients aged less than 15.1 years, or patients without metastasis. Low CXCR3 expression was related to tumor site and histologic response (P<0.05), but not associated with other clinical characteristics. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that CXCR3 remained independently associated with the prognosis, especially for OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.15-9.24, P=0.026). The cell adhesion, apoptosis, metabolism, KRAS, P53, NOTCH, reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/Akt/mTOR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inflammation, and immune-related pathways such as IL-6/JAK/STAT3, TNF-α via NF-κB, Toll/NOD-like receptor, and complement were modulated by CXCR3. CXCR3 expression showed an especially positive correlation with immune infiltration of T cells CD8, macrophages M1, plasma cells, and NK cells activated. CONCLUSIONS:CXCR3 may be an independent risk factor for the prognosis and is most likely to benefit from immunotherapy in osteosarcoma.
MMP25 Regulates Immune Infiltration Level and Survival Outcome in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
Liang Yujie,Guan Chenyu,Li Kan,Zheng Guangsen,Wang Tao,Zhang Sien,Liao Guiqing
Frontiers in oncology
MMP25 is a critical gene of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, the molecular mechanism of MMP25 in head and neck cancer pathogenesis remains unclear. MMP25 expression was analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and its influence on clinical prognosis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The correlation between MMP25 and immune infiltration was investigated by CIBERSORT, TIMER, and ESTIMATE. In addition, the relationship between MMP25 expression and molecular mechanisms was analyzed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), gene ontology (GO), and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). MMP25 expression level correlated with prognosis and immune infiltrating levels, especially activated CD4 memory T cells, in head and neck cancer. Moreover, MMP25 expression potentially mediated genes, such as IRF8, IKZF1, and DOCK2, and tumor-associated pathways, including p53 signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway. These findings suggested that MMP25 plays a critical role in the prognosis and immune infiltration level of head and neck cancer. In addition, MMP25 expression significantly correlated with the regulation of various oncogenes and tumor-related pathways.
BRCA1 Is a Novel Prognostic Indicator and Associates with Immune Cell Infiltration in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Mei Jie,Wang Runjie,Xia Dandan,Yang Xuejing,Zhou Weijian,Wang Huiyu,Liu Chaoying
DNA and cell biology
The breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) is a tumor suppressor, and mutations or epigenetic inactivation will increase the risk of breast cancer oncogenesis. The current research aimed to explore the relationship between BRCA1 expression, prognosis, and tumor immunity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, BRCA1 expression was analyzed via multiple online databases and its association with clinical characteristics, prognosis and genetic alterations was identified using the original The Cancer Genome Atlas-liver hepatocellular carcinoma cohorts. DNA methylation sites and their prognostic values were analyzed using MethSurv. The correlations between BRCA1 and immune infiltration were investigated via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource. As results, BRCA1 was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues in multiple HCC cohorts. Besides, high BRCA1 expression was correlated with race, advanced T stage, clinical stage, poor tumor grade, MSI status, and worse prognosis. Notably, BRCA1 expression was positively correlated with infiltration levels of B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The current findings imply that BRCA1 is associated with prognosis and immune infiltration, laying foundations for in-depth research on the role of BRCA1 in HCC.
Immune-related key gene CLDN10 correlates with lymph node metastasis but predicts favorable prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Xiang Zhaolan,Zhong Cheng,Chang Aoshuang,Ling Junjun,Zhao Houyu,Zhou Wei,Zhuo Xianlu
The functions of immune cells in lymph node metastasis (LNM) have attracted considerable attention. This study aimed to screen the key immune-related and LNM-related genes in PTC. In the discovery phase, the immune-related genes in LNM were screened by using bioinformatics methods. In the validation phases, the association of the genes with LNM was first confirmed in a cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas and a cohort based on a tissue chip. Then, the relationship of the genes with immune cell infiltration was further explored. Consequently, CLDN10 was identified, and its high expression was correlated with the presence of LNM in PTC but predicted a favorable prognosis. High CLDN10 expression was positively correlated with the infiltration of several immune cells, such as B cells, CD8+T cells, and macrophages. High CLDN10 expression may improve the outcomes of patients with PTC by increasing immune cell infiltration, although it might be associated with LNM. In conclusion, although CLDN1 might be correlated with LNM, it may also increase the infiltration of immune cells, including CD8+T cells and macrophages, and improve the clinical outcomes of patients with PTC. The effects of tumor purity and immune cell infiltration need to be considered in prognosis evaluation.
CMA1 is potent prognostic marker and associates with immune infiltration in gastric cancer.
Shi Shanping,Ye Shazhou,Mao Jianmei,Ru Yuqing,Lu Yicong,Wu Xiaoyue,Xu Mingjun,Zhu Tingwei,Wang Yibo,Chen Yuanming,Tang Xiaoli,Xi Yang
Chymase 1 (CMA1), a gene known to be expressed in mast cells (MCs), is largely linked to immunity. However, the relationship between CMA1 and prognosis of multiple tumours and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) remains elusive. The differential expressions of CMA1 in different tumours and their corresponding normal tissues were evaluated exploring Tumour Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and Oncomine database; the correlation within expression level of CMA1 and outcome of cancer patients was evaluated Kaplan-Meier plotter and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database; the correlation between CMA1 and tumour immune cell infiltration was further investigated by TIMER; additionally, the correlation between CMA1 and gene signature pattern of immune infiltration were checked using TIMER and GEPIA. There were significant differences in CMA1 expression levels between gastric cancer (GC) tissues and adjacent normal tissues. The high expression of CMA1 was closed related to poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with GC (OS HR = 1.50, = .00015; PFS HR = 1.33, = .016). Especially, in GC patients at N1, N2 and N3 stages, high CMA1 expression was correlated with poor OS and PFS, but not with NO ( = .15, .09). The expression of CMA1 was positively associated with the levels of infiltrated CD4+, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) in GC. Whereas, CMA1 expression was considerably associated with various immune markers. CMA1 is a key gene whose expression level is significantly correlated with GC prognosis and infiltration levels of CD8+, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and DCs in GC. In addition, the expression of CMA1 may be involved in regulating tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), dendritic cells, exhausted T cells and regulatory T cells in GC. It suggests that CMA1 could be utilized as a prognostic marker and a sign of immune infiltration in GC.
WISP1 Predicts Clinical Prognosis and Is Associated With Tumor Purity, Immunocyte Infiltration, and Macrophage M2 Polarization in Pan-Cancer.
Liao Xia,Bu Yang,Xu Zihan,Jia Fengan,Chang Fan,Liang Junrong,Jia Qingan,Lv Yi
Frontiers in genetics
Cancer is becoming the leading cause of death and a major public health problem. Although many advanced treatment strategies are currently in use, the general prognosis of cancer patients remains dismal due to the high frequency of recurrence, metastasis. The identification of effective biomarkers is important for predicting survival of cancer patients and improving treatment efficacy. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 () expression and explored its correlation with prognosis in pan-cancer using tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA2). We also examined correlations between and immunocyte infiltration using TIMER. We identified genes co-expressed with using the LinkedOmics database and analyzed associated gene ontology using Metascape. Finally, we constructed protein-protein interaction networks and examined correlations between genes co-expressed with and immunocyte infiltration in pan-cancer. level differed between human pan-cancer tissues and normal tissues, indicating its potential as a prognostic biomarker. WISP1 expression was correlated with tumor purity and immunocyte infiltration, especially monocyte-macrophage trafficking and M2 polarization. Genes co-expressed with were mainly associated with extracellular matrix organization, with collagen members , , and being key genes correlated with macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization in pan-cancer. Conversely, in certain types of cancer with better prognoses, was associated with low M2 macrophage infiltration. These results suggest that affect clinical prognosis through associations with tumor purity, immune cell infiltration, and macrophage M2 polarization in pan-cancer, with collagen member proteins may serving as effector molecules of .
SIRT7 Is a Prognostic Biomarker Associated With Immune Infiltration in Luminal Breast Cancer.
Huo Qin,Li Zhenwei,Cheng Lixin,Yang Fan,Xie Ni
Frontiers in oncology
Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7), a protein-coding gene whose abnormal expression and function are associated with carcinogenesis. However, the prognosis of SIRT7 in different breast cancer subtypes and its correlation with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes remain unclear. The expression and survival data of SIRT7 in patients with breast cancer were analyzed using Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER), Gene Expression Profiling Interaction Analysis (GEPIA), The Human Protein Atlas (HPA), UALCAN, Breast Cancer Gene-Expression Miner (BC-GenExMiner), and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases. Also, the expression correlations between SIRT7 and immune infiltration gene markers were analyzed using TIMER and further verified the results using immunohistochemistry. SIRT7 exhibited higher expression levels in breast cancer tissues than the adjacent normal tissues. SIRT7 expression was significantly correlated with sample type, subclass, cancer stage, menopause status, age, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and triple-negative status. High SIRT7 expression was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer-luminal A [overall survival (OS): hazard ratio (HR) = 1.54, = 1.70e-02; distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS): HR = 1.56, = 2.60e-03]. Moreover, the expression of SIRT7 was positively correlated with the expression of IRF5 (M1 macrophages marker, = 0.165, = 1.13e-04) and PD1 (T cell exhaustion marker, = 0.134, = 1.74e-03). These results suggested that the expression of SIRT7 was related to M1 macrophages and T cell exhaustion infiltration in breast cancer-luminal. These findings demonstrate that the high expression of SIRT7 indicates poor prognosis in breast cancer as well as increased immune infiltration levels of M1 macrophages and T cell exhaustion in breast cancer-luminal. Thus, SIRT7 may serve as a candidate prognostic biomarker for determining prognosis associated with immune infiltration in breast cancer-luminal.
High expression of predicts a poor prognosis and correlates with immune infiltrates in bladder urothelial carcinoma.
Lin Bo,Zhang Tianwen,Ye Xin,Yang Hongyu
Epithelial membrane protein 1 () is a key gene that regulates cell proliferation and metastatic capability in various types of cancer, and serves an important role in tumor-immune interactions. However, the association between and clinical prognosis, as well as the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between expression and tumor immune cell infiltration in BLCA. In the present study, expression in BLCA was analyzed using the Oncomine database, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). The effects of on clinical prognosis were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier plotter and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. The correlations between , cancer immune infiltrates and lymphocyte abundance were determined using the TIMER and Tumor immune system interaction database. In addition, correlations between expression and gene markers in immune infiltrates were analyzed using cBioportal. The results demonstrated that, compared with adjacent normal tissues, was downregulated in BLCA tissues. High expression of was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) in BLCA cases obtained from TCGA. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that was an independent predictor of OS in patients with BLCA. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that was associated with cancer-related pathways and was positively correlated with the levels of infiltrating CD8 T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells in BLCA. Further analysis demonstrated that was significantly associated with the enrichment of multiple types of lymphocyte. expression exhibited a strong correlation with a range of immune markers in BLCA. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that was associated with a poor prognosis in patients with BLCA, and that the levels of immune infiltration and multiple immunomarker groups were associated with expression. These results suggested that may be used as a predictive biomarker to determine the prognosis and immune infiltration in BLCA.
DAB2IP Plays Important Clinical Significance and Correlates With Immune Infiltration in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Cao Haoyuan,Zhang Jiandong,Wang Wei
Technology in cancer research & treatment
BACKGROUND:Disabled homolog 2-interacting protein is a new member of the Ras GTPase superfamily involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. However, the expression of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein in renal cell carcinoma, its correlation with cancer prognosis, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes remains unclear. METHODS:The expression of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein was analyzed by UALCAN database, GEPIA database and the evaluation of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein effects on clinical prognosis. Prognostic factor analysis was used to identify the correlations between disabled homolog 2-interacting protein and cancer immune infiltration via the TIMER database. In addition, COXPRESdb database was used to analyze the enrichment of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein co-expression genes. RESULTS:Compared to the normal tissues, the messenger RNA expression levels of DAB2IP are higher in 8 while lower in 15 types of tumor tissues. Furthermore, disabled homolog 2-interacting protein has high expression in kidney chromophobe and low expression in both kidney renal clear cell carcinoma and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma. The messenger RNA expression levels of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein decrease gradually due to the increasing tumor staging which positively correlates with disease-free survival and overall survival in both kidney renal clear cell carcinoma and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma. The expression levels of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein also positively correlate with the tumor purity of kidney chromophobe, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma samples. Besides, the expression of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein in renal cell carcinoma has negative correlation with the immune infiltration, and the immune infiltration of B cells and CD8+ T cells affects the prognosis of kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma. Enrichment analysis of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein co-expressed genes suggested that its biological role was mainly in regulating GTPase activity. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that disabled homolog 2-interacting protein functions as a tumor suppressor in the progression of renal cell carcinoma, and the expression of disabled homolog 2-interacting protein is related to the immune infiltrating cells and affects the survival of renal cell carcinoma. Disabled homolog 2-interacting protein can be a novel clinical biomarker for patients with renal cell carcinoma, which also provides new insights for the future treatments of renal cell carcinoma.
Elevated expression of DOK3 indicates high suppressive immune cell infiltration and unfavorable prognosis of gliomas.
Liu Xiu,Chen Feng,Li Wenbin
Docking protein 3 has been implicated in immune response, including interferon-β production in macrophage and plasma cell differentiation. And its importance in lung adenocarcinoma has been reported. However, studies about its role in gliomas are rare. In this study, we explored the clinical and prognostic characteristics of DOK3 expression in 921 glioma samples. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis verified the independent unfavorable prognostic value and high prognostic accuracy of DOK3 expression for overall survival. Functional analysis with Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) implied the involvement of DOK3 in immune related responses. Immune cell infiltration analysis with online tools, CIBERSORT and EPIC, showed that samples with higher DOK3 expression were infiltrated with much more macrophages. DOK3 was also found to be strongly positively correlated with marker genes of tumor-associated macrophages and M2 macrophages, not M1. Results of immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that samples with higher DOK3 expression level were infiltrated with more microglia/macrophages and immunosuppressive M2 macrophages. In summary, our results demonstrated the correlation between high DOK3 expression level and malignant progression of gliomas, and the possible involvement of DOK3 in immunosuppressive responses in gliomas.
Increased expression of TTC21A in lung adenocarcinoma infers favorable prognosis and high immune infiltrating level.
Wang Wei,Ren Shiqi,Wang Ziheng,Zhang Chenlin,Huang Jianfei
BACKGROUND:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a crucial pathological type of lung cancer. Immune-infiltration of the tumor microenvironment positively associated with overall survival in LUAD. TTC21A is a gene has not reported in cancer, and the mechanism behind it is still unclear. Our study assesses TTC21A role in LUAD, via TCGA data. METHODS:GEPIA was utilized to analyze the expression of TTC21A in LUAD. We evaluated the influence of TTC21A on survival of LUAD patients by survival module. Then, data sets of LUAD were downloaded from TCGA. The correlations between clinical information and TTC21A expression were analyzed using logistic regression. Clinicopathologic characteristics associated with overall survival in TCGA patients using Cox regression. In addition, we explored the correlation between TTC21A and cancer immune infiltrates using CIBERSORT and "Correlation" module of GEPIA. RESULTS:The univariate analysis using logistic regression, wherein TTC21A expression served as a categorical dependent variable (with a median expression value of 2.5), indicated that increased TTC21A expression is significantly correlated with pathological stage, tumor status and lymph nodes. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that the up-regulated TTC21A expression, negative results of pathological stage and distant metastasis are independent prognostic factors for good prognosis. Specifically, a positive correlation between increased TTC21A expression and immune infiltrating level of B cells, Neutrophils, Mast cells and T cells was established using CIBERSORT analysis. Furthermore, we confirmed it in "correlation" module of GEPIA. CONCLUSION:Together with all these findings, increased TTC21A expression correlates with favorable prognosis and increased proportion of immune cells, such as B cells, Neutrophils, Mast cells and T cells in LUAD. These conclusions indicate that TTC21A could serve as a potential biomarker to assess prognosis and immune infiltration level in LUAD.
BTN3A2 serves as a prognostic marker and favors immune infiltration in triple-negative breast cancer.
Cai Peian,Lu Zhenhui,Wu Jianjun,Qin Xiong,Wang Zetao,Zhang Zhi,Zheng Li,Zhao Jinmin
Journal of cellular biochemistry
Immune infiltration is reported to be highly associated with tumor progress. Since butyrophilin subfamily 3 member A2 (BTN3A2) serves as a crucial mediator in immune activation, we aimed to investigate the correlation of BTN3A2 in immune infiltration and tumor prognosis via extensive-cancer analysis. The levels of BTN3A2 expression in extensive cancers were analyzed with Oncomine and TIMER databases. Univariate cox and multivariate cox regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations of BTN3A2 to prognosis of various cancers. The correlations of BTN3A2 with immune infiltration were assessed by TIMER database. It suggested that BTN3A2 was a potential prognosis signature for breast cancer (BRCA) and ovarian cancer (OV). However, immune infiltrations were highly correlated with BTN3A2 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), compared with OV and other subtypes of BRCA. Multivariate cox regression analysis revealed that BTN3A2 was an independently prognostic signature of TNBC, as well as weighted correlation network analysis suggested BTN3A2 was only correlated with TNBC, rather than other subtypes of BRCA. Immune cell subtypes correlation analysis showed that BTN3A2 was highly correlated with general T, CD8+ T, T helper type 1, exhausted T cells, and dendritic cells in TNBC. And the coexpression geneset of BTN3A2 was mainly involved in T-cell receptor interaction and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Collectively, BTN3A2 that was positively associated with better prognosis could be served as a special diagnostic and independently prognostic marker for TNBC by regulating the T-cell receptor interaction and NF-κB signaling pathways.
CXCL17 expression predicts poor prognosis and correlates with adverse immune infiltration in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Li Li,Yan Jing,Xu Jing,Liu Chao-Qun,Zhen Zuo-Jun,Chen Huan-Wei,Ji Yong,Wu Zhi-Peng,Hu Jian-Yuan,Zheng Limin,Lau Wan Yee
CXC ligand 17 (CXCL17) is a novel CXC chemokine whose clinical significance remains largely unknown. In the present study, we characterized the prognostic value of CXCL17 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluated the association of CXCL17 with immune infiltration. We examined CXCL17 expression in 227 HCC tissue specimens by immunohistochemical staining, and correlated CXCL17 expression patterns with clinicopathological features, prognosis, and immune infiltrate density (CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, macrophages). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that both increased intratumoral CXCL17 (P = 0.015 for overall survival [OS], P = 0.003 for recurrence-free survival [RFS]) and peritumoral CXCL17 (P = 0.002 for OS, P<0.001 for RFS) were associated with shorter OS and RFS. Patients in the CXCL17low group had significantly lower 5-year recurrence rate compared with patients in the CXCL17high group (peritumoral: 53.1% vs. 77.7%, P<0.001, intratumoral: 58.6% vs. 73.0%, P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified peritumoral CXCL17 as an independent prognostic factor for both OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.066, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.296-3.292, P = 0.002) and RFS (HR = 1.844, 95% CI = 1.218-2.793, P = 0.004). Moreover, CXCL17 expression was associated with more CD68 and less CD4 cell infiltration (both P<0.05). The combination of CXCL17 density and immune infiltration could be used to further classify patients into subsets with different prognosis for RFS. Our results provide the first evidence that tumor-infiltrating CXCL17+ cell density is an independent prognostic factor that predicts both OS and RFS in HCC. CXCL17 production correlated with adverse immune infiltration and might be an important target for anti-HCC therapies.
Low expression of RGL4 is associated with a poor prognosis and immune infiltration in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Sun Yidan,Zhang Ying,Ren Shiqi,Li Xiaojiang,Yang Peiying,Zhu Jinli,Lin Lisen,Wang Ziheng,Jia Yingjie
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a frequently diagnosed histologic subtype with increasing morbidity and mortality. RalGDS-Like 4 (RGL4) has not been reported to be associated with cancer risk, prognosis, immunotherapy or any other treatments. We perform a bioinformatics analysis on data downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-LUAD, and we find that low expression of RGL4 is accompanied by worse outcomes and prognosis in LUAD patients. As a promising predictor, the potential influence and mechanisms of RGL4 on overall survival are worth exploring. Moreover, RGL4 expression is significantly associated with a variety of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), particularly memory B cells, CD8T cells and neutrophils. Subsequently, we evaluated the most notable KEGG pathways, including glycolysis gluconeogenesis, the P53 signaling pathway, RNA degradation, and the B cell receptor signaling pathway, among others. Our findings provide evidence that the decreased expression of RGL4 is significantly associated with poor prognosis and immune cell infiltration in patients with LUAD and highlight the use of RGL4 as a novel predictive biomarker for the prognosis of LUAD and other cancers. RGL4 may also be used in combination with immune checkpoints to identify the benefits of immunotherapy. Subjects: Bioinformatics, Genomics, Oncology, Thoracic surgery.
Pan-Cancer Analysis of Immune Cell Infiltration Identifies a Prognostic Immune-Cell Characteristic Score (ICCS) in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Zuo Shuguang,Wei Min,Wang Shiqun,Dong Jie,Wei Jiwu
Frontiers in immunology
The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of heterogeneous cell populations, including malignant cells and nonmalignant cells that support tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis through extensive cross talk. The intra-tumor immune landscape is a critical factor influencing patient survival and response to immunotherapy. Gene expression data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus databases. Immune cell infiltration was determined by single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) depending on the integrated immune gene sets from published studies. Univariate analysis was used to determine the prognostic value of the infiltrated immune cells. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was performed to screen for the most survival-relevant immune cells. An immune-cell characteristic score (ICCS) model was constructed by using multivariate Cox regression analysis. The immune cell infiltration patterns across 32 cancer types were identified, and patients in the high immune cell infiltration cluster had worse overall survival (OS) but better progression-free interval (PFI) compared to the low immune cell infiltration cluster. However, immune cell infiltration showed inconsistent prognostic value depending on the cancer type. High immune cell infiltration (High CI) indicated a worse prognosis in brain lower grade glioma (LGG), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and uveal melanoma (UVM), and favorable prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC), cholangiocarcinoma (CHOL), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), sarcoma (SARC), and skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM). LUAD prognosis was significantly influenced by the infiltration of 13 immune cell types, with high infiltration of all but Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells correlating with a favorable prognosis. The ICCS model based on six most survival-relevant immune cell populations was generated that classified patients into low- and high-ICCS groups with good and poor prognoses, respectively. The multivariate and stratified analyses further revealed that the ICCS was an independent prognostic factor for LUAD. The infiltration of immune cells in 32 cancer types was quantified, and considerable heterogeneity was observed in the prognostic relevance of these cells in different cancer types. An ICCS model was constructed for LUAD with competent prognostic performance, which can further deepen our understanding of the TME of LUAD and can have implications for immunotherapy.
Effect of CXCR5-Positive Cell Infiltration on the Immune Contexture and Patient Prognosis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Chen Jun,Meng Xiangchao,Zhou Qinyi,Feng Jialin,Zheng Wenjie,Wang Zhuoying,Wang Jiadong,Wang You
OncoTargets and therapy
Purpose:CXCR5-positive (CXCR5) tumor cell infiltration has different prognostic values in different types of cancer. The objective was to evaluate the effect of CXCR5 cell infiltration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and Methods:The study included two patient cohorts: The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (TCGA, n = 472) and the Renji Hospital cohort (RJHC, n = 201). The TCGA and RJHC cohorts were analyzed for CXCR5-related mRNAs and CXCR5+ cell infiltration, respectively. We then evaluated the correlation between CXCR5 mRNA and CXCR5 cell infiltration in terms of overall survival and the immune contexture. Results:The 5-year overall survival rate was significantly correlated with high CXCR5 mRNA expression and CXCR5 cell infiltration in the TCGA and RJHC cohorts, respectively (p < 0.01), even after adjusting for confounders. Moreover, high CXCR5 mRNA expression was associated with more CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, plasma cells, and less dendritic cells. A high CXCR5 mRNA expression was also correlated with increased expression of cytotoxic IFNG, TNFSF11 (RANKL), GZMA, GZMB, GZMK, GZMM, and PRF1 and increased expression of the immunosuppressive gene PDCD1 (PD-1), CD274 (PD-L1), CTLA4, LAG3, HAVCR2 (TIM-3), BTLA, and TIGIT. Conclusion:HNSCC patients with a high intratumoral CXCR5 expression had a better prognosis than those with low intratumoral CXCR5 expression. Moreover, CXCR5 cell infiltration could be used as an independent prognostic biomarker or as a potential therapeutic target. The presence of CXCR5 cells affects the infiltration of immunocytes in head and neck cancer, differently from what was reported in other cancer types. Further randomized controlled trials or studies with more patients are needed to validate our results.
CXCL5 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is correlated with immune cell infiltration.
Zhang Ronghua,Liu Qiaofei,Peng Junya,Wang Mengyi,Li Tong,Liu Jingkai,Cui Ming,Zhang Xiang,Gao Xiang,Liao Quan,Zhao Yupei
Journal of Cancer
: C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) is an important attractant for immune cell accumulation in tumor tissues. Recent evidence has shown that CXCL5 could promote carcinogenesis and cancer progression in a variety of cancer types. However, the relationships between CXCL5, immune cell infiltration and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the role and regulative mechanism of CXCL5 in PDAC carcinogenesis. : The expression of CXCL5 in PDAC was analyzed based on online databases and tissue microarray staining, and Western blotting of CXCL5 in PDAC cell lines and patient samples. The correlation between CXCL5 expression and clinicopathological features, prognosis and immune cell infiltration in tumor tissues was analyzed. : High expression of CXCL5 was observed both in PDAC tumor tissue and PDAC cell lines, compared to normal pancreas tissues and normal ductal epithelium cells. High CXCL5 expression in tumor tissues was positively correlated with an advanced T stage (p=0.036), a positive tumor lymph node metastasis (p=0.014), a poor differentiation status (p=0.003) and a poor prognosis (p=0.001). Combination of CA242 and CXCL5 expression (p<0.0001) served as a better prognostic factor than CA242 alone (p=0.006). In addition, PDAC patients with high CXCL5 expression had more intratumoral M2 polarized macrophages (p=0.0248), neutrophils (p=0.0068) and IgG plasma cells (p=0.0133) than patients with low CXCL5 expression. : The expression of CXCL5 is elevated in pancreatic cancer cells. High CXCL5 expression is positively correlated with poor survival and the increased infiltration of several types of immune suppressive cells. Thus, CXCL5 could be a promising therapeutic target for PDAC immunotherapy.
CD38 Predicts Favorable Prognosis by Enhancing Immune Infiltration and Antitumor Immunity in the Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Microenvironment.
Zhu Ying,Zhang Zhigang,Jiang Zhou,Liu Yang,Zhou Jianwei
Frontiers in genetics
The identification of predictive biomarkers and novel targets to optimize immunotherapy strategies for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is urgently needed. CD38 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that acts as an ectoenzyme and immune receptor. However, the underlying immunological mechanisms and prognostic value of CD38 in EOC remain unclear. CD38 gene expression in EOC was evaluated by using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and TISIDB database. The prognostic value was calculated using GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier plotter. Gene set enrichment analysis was conducted to study the roles of CD38 in the EOC microenvironment. Furthermore, the relationship between CD38 expression level and immune cell infiltration was analyzed by the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource and TISIDB. The GEPIA and TISIDB databases showed that CD38 expression in EOC was higher than that in normal tissue and was highest in the immunoreactive subtype among the four molecular types. A total of 424 cases from GEPIA revealed that high levels of CD38 were associated with longer disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, = 0.00089] and increased overall survival rate ( = 0.67, = 0.0016). Kaplan-Meier plotter also confirmed the prognostic value of CD38 in EOC. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database demonstrated that gene signatures in many categories, such as immune response and adaptive immune response, were enriched in EOC samples with high CD38 expression. In addition, CD38 was positively correlated with immune cell infiltration, especially infiltration of activated CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and B cells. CD38 is positively correlated with prognosis and immune cell infiltration in the EOC microenvironment and contributes to the regulation of antitumor immunity. CD38 could be used as a prognostic biomarker and potential immunotherapy target.
[Increased TRIM5 is associated with a poor prognosis and immune infiltration in glioma patients].
Chen Yue,Li Qin,Zhang Jie,Gu Rui,Li Kai,Zhao Gang,Yuan Hang,Feng Tianyu,Ou Deqiong,Lin Ping
Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
Tripartite motif 5 (TRIM5) plays a significant function in autophagy and involves in immune and tumor processes. While the function of TRIM5 remains poorly understood in glioma. We purpose to evaluate the possible prognostic role of TRIM5 in glioma via bioinformatics analyses. The database clinical samples of glioma in this study included low grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). TRIM5 expression in glioma tissues were explored in Oncomine, GEPIA and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. Survival analysis and the multivariate Cox regression analysis of TRIM5 based on TCGA were used to evaluate the prognostic role of TRIM5. The protein networks of TRIM5 was detected by STRING database. KEGG enrichment analyses were performed to predict the potential molecular pathways of TRIM5 in glioma. In addition, immune infiltration analysis was conducted by CIBERSORT and TIMER databases. We found that TRIM5 was strongly increased in glioma samples compared with normal samples in Oncomine, GEPIA and TCGA databases. Higher TRIM5 was significantly contributed to worse overall survival (OS) in LGG+GBM patients and LGG patients, while was no correlated with OS of GBM patients. Interaction networks analysis identified that IRF3, IRF7, OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, OASL, GBP1, PML, BTBD1 and BTBD2 proteins were contacted with TRIM5. Moreover, KEGG revealed that apoptosis and cancer- and immune-related pathways were enriched with elevated TRIM5. Specifically, TRIM5 could influence the immune infiltration levels, such as activated NK cells, monocytes, activated mast cells and macrophages in glioma. In conclusion, our data indicated that TRIM5 was upregulated in glioma tissues and associated with poor prognosis and immune infiltration. TRIM5 may be acted as a biomarker in prognosis and immunotherapy guidance of glioma.
ACE2 correlated with immune infiltration serves as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial carcinoma and renal papillary cell carcinoma: implication for COVID-19.
Yang Jing,Li Hongxia,Hu Shengda,Zhou Yafeng
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a member of the renin-angiotension system, however, the correlation between ACE2 and prognosis in UCEC (Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma) and KIRP (Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma) is not clear. We analyzed the expression levels of ACE2 in the Oncomine and TIMER databases, the correlation between ACE2 and overall survival in the PrognoScan, GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases. The correlation between ACE2 and immune infiltration level and the type markers of immune cells was investigated in TIMER database. A prognosis analysis based on the expression levels of ACE2 was further performed in related immune cells subgroup. The ACE2 promoter methylation profile was tested in the UALCAN database. In addition, we used GSE30589 and GSE52920 databases to elucidate the changes of ACE2 expression in vivo and in vitro after SARS-CoV infection. ACE2 was elevated in UCEC and KIRP, and high ACE2 had a favorable prognosis. The expression of ACE2 was positively correlated with the level of immune infiltration of macrophage in KIRP, B cell, CD4+T cell, neutrophil and dendritic cell immune infiltration levels in UCEC. ACE2 was significantly positively correlated with the type markers of B cells and neutrophils, macrophages in UCEC, while ACE2 in KIRP was positively correlated with the type markers of macrophages. High ACE2 expression level had a favorable prognosis in different enriched immune cells subgroups in UCEC and KIRP. And the promoter methylation levels of ACE2 in UCEC and KIRP were significantly reduced. What's more, we found that the expression of ACE2 decreased in vivo and in vitro after SARS-CoV infection. In conclusion, ACE2 expression increased significantly in UCEC and KIRP, elevated ACE2 was positively correlated with immune infiltration and prognosis. Moreover, tumor tissues may be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients with UCEC and KIRP, which may worsen the prognosis.
TOX correlates with prognosis, immune infiltration, and T cells exhaustion in lung adenocarcinoma.
Guo Longbin,Li Xuanzi,Liu Rongping,Chen Yulei,Ren Chen,Du Shasha
BACKGROUND:Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box (TOX) plays a crucial role on the development of innate immunity and tumor microenvironment. This study aims to explore the prognostic potential of TOX and comprehensively analyze the correlations between TOX, immune infiltration, and T cells function in diverse cancers particularly lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS:TIMER was used to analyze TOX expression in different cancers. Potential prognostic value of TOX was evaluated by the PrognoScan, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and GEPIA2. The relationships between TOX, immune infiltration, and related gene marker sets were analyzed by TIMER and GEPIA2. Single-cell RNA-seq for T cells in LUAD was analyzed to further investigate the correlations between TOX expression and different T cells populations. RESULTS:TOX downregulates in most of the cancer types and correlates with poor prognosis in LUAD. TOX shows significant impacts on survival of LUAD with early stage, ever-smoking, or low-TMB status. Increased TOX expression positively correlates with high immune infiltration levels in most of the immune cells and functional T cells including exhausted T cells. Moreover, multiple key genes of exhausted T cells comprising PD-1, TIM-3, TIGHT, and CXCL13 have remarkable interaction with TOX. Specifically, TOX is observed with high enrichment in exhausted CD4 and CD8 T cells populations in single-cell RNA-seq analysis for LUAD. CONCLUSION:TOX is a prognosis-related biomarker for multiple cancer types especially LUAD. Increased TOX expression significantly increase immune infiltration levels in most of the immune cells comprising CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, mast cells, and functional T cells. Moreover, we verified that TOX highly correlates with exhausted T cells and is probable a critical regulator promoted T cells exhaustion in LUAD. Detection of TOX expression could help to predict prognosis and regulating TOX expression in exhausted T cells may offer a novel strategy in maximizing immunotherapy efficacy for LUAD.