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    Effects of iron deficiency on neonatal behavior at different stages of pregnancy. Hernández-Martínez Carmen,Canals Josefa,Aranda Nuria,Ribot Blanca,Escribano Joaquín,Arija Victoria Early human development Animal and human studies have shown that prenatal and postnatal iron deficiency is a risk factor for behavioral, emotional and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between iron status of pregnant women and the behavior of their newborn, taking into account the timing in which the deficit occurs. This study was conducted in Spain (developed country) where: the general population is well-nourished; during pregnancy routine obstetrical checks are carried out; and pregnant women are systematically iron supplemented. A total of 216 healthy and well-nourished pregnant women and their term, normal weight newborn participated in this study. The neonatal behavior was assessed by the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS). The results showed that in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, iron deficiency was a weak and significant predictor of the NBAS autonomous nervous system cluster score, and in the third trimester, this condition predicted the NBAS motor and state organization clusters score and the NBAS robustness and endurance supplementary item. In conclusion, iron deficiency during pregnancy is related to the neonate's general autonomous response, motor performance and self regulation capabilities. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.12.006
    ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY: IMPACT ON WEIGHT AND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANEMIA IN NEWBORN. de Sá Solange Augusta,Willner Erica,Duraes Pereira Tatiane Aguiar,de Souza Vanessa Rosse,Teles Boaventura Gilson,Blondet de Azeredo Vilma Nutricion hospitalaria INTRODUCTION:nutritional deficiencies are still a common problem during pregnancy causing anemia. Gestational anemia is still considered a public health problem in Brazil, because it is hazardous to both mother and fetus, and is associated with increased risk of maternal-fetal morbidity, as well as the nutritional status of child. OBJECTIVE:to evaluate the frequency of maternal gestational anemia in newborns and its relation to the nutritional status of the child at birth. METHODS:anthropometric data of pregnant women and their newborns were obtained. Blood was collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord of newborns for analysis of hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation index in automatic devices. The results are presented such as the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation. GraphPadinStat Software version 3.0 was used, with a maximum significance level of 5%. RESULTS:the frequency of maternal anemia was 53.7%, and 32.6% in newborns. Half the newborns were anemic children of anemic mothers. 79.3% of the anemic pregnant women had mild anemia and in 20.7% moderate. The average concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit was lower in anemic pregnant women (9.7 ± 0.9 g/dL and 29.8 ± 3.2%) compared with non-anemic (11.9 ± 0.7 g/ dL and 36.5 ± 2.7%). The maternal iron was positively correlated with ferritin (r = 0.3889, p = 0.01) from umbilical cord blood. The newborns' weight, length and head circumference of anemic mothers were 3 375.9 ± 506,9 g, 51.2 ± 1.7 cm and 34.5 ± 1.5 cm, respectively, while of nonanemic mothers were 3 300.2 ± 458,4 g, 50.3 ± 2.0 cm and 34.2 ± 2.0 cm, respectively. There were no significant correlations between maternal hemoglobin, iron and ferritin with weight, length and head circumference of newborns. CONCLUSION:the results of this study show that maternal iron deficiency anemia (mild to moderate) can affect the blood profile and iron concentrations in umbilical cord blood of newborns, but without interfering with the child's anthropometric parameters. 10.3305/nh.2015.32.5.9186
    Perinatal Anemia is Associated with Neonatal and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Infants with Moderate to Severe Perinatal Asphyxia. Kalteren Willemien S,Ter Horst Hendrik J,den Heijer Anne E,de Vetten Leanne,Kooi Elisabeth M W,Bos Arend F Neonatology BACKGROUND:Perinatal anemia may cause perinatal asphyxia. Its pathophysiology and neurodevelopmental effects are theoretically different from other causes of perinatal asphyxia. OBJECTIVE:The study aimed to determine whether perinatal anemia results in different short-term and long-term outcomes than other causes of perinatal asphyxia treated with therapeutic hypothermia. METHODS:We retrospectively included infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, born between May 2009 and October 2015. During follow-up, we assessed cognitive and motor development at 2-3 years of age, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (BSID-III). Neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO) was classified as abnormal in case of cerebral palsy with Gross Motor Function Classification System ≥III and/or a BSID-III composite score < 85. Outcomes of infants with perinatal anemia (initial hemoglobin < 7 mmol/L) were compared to infants born with perinatal asphyxia due to other causes. RESULTS:In total, 111 infants were included of whom 30 infants (27%) died during the neonatal period. Infants with anemia (n = 23) had a higher mortality risk, OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.27-8.72, p = 0.01. None of the surviving infants with anemia (n = 12) had an abnormal NDO, in contrast to 26/69 (38%) with neurodevelopmental impairments, particularly motor problems, in the non-anemic group, p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS:Perinatal anemia causing moderate to severe perinatal asphyxia is associated with a higher risk for neonatal mortality. All survivors with perinatal anemia, however, showed a normal NDO in contrast to children who were born asphyxiated due to other causes. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism for the favorable NDO in the perinatal anemia group needs further elucidation. 10.1159/000490369
    Effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia on fetal neural development. Basu Sriparna,Kumar Dinesh,Anupurba Shampa,Verma Ashish,Kumar Ashok Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association OBJECTIVE:Perinatal iron deficiency may have deleterious consequences on fetal neural development. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on fetal hippocampal morphogenesis and production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). STUDY DESIGN:Seventy term, singleton neonates born to mothers with IDA (hemoglobin <110g/L and serum ferritin <12 μg/L) formed the study group. Twenty gestational age-matched neonates born to healthy mothers without IDA (hemoglobin ≥110 g/L and serum ferritin >12 μg/L) served as controls. Maternal and fetal inflammatory conditions, infections and neonates with perinatal asphyxia were excluded. Cord blood BDNF concentrations were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Volumetric analysis of hippocampus (right, left and combined, corrected for total intracranial volume) was done by cranial magnetic resonance imaging on days 3-5 of life. RESULTS:In the study group, 24 mothers had mild (hemoglobin 100.0-109.0 g/L), 24 had moderate (hemoglobin 70.0-99.0 g/L), and 22 had severe (hemoglobin <70.0 g/L) anemia. Both hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF concentrations of neonates born to iron-deficient mothers were significantly reduced compared to controls. A progressive decline in hippocampal volumes and BDNF concentrations was observed with increasing severity of maternal anemia. Pearson correlation showed significant correlations among maternal and cord blood hemoglobin, iron indices, hippocampal volumes and BDNF concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal IDA adversely affects hippocampal morphogenesis and fetal production of BDNF. The degree of affection is proportional to the severity of maternal anemia. 10.1038/s41372-017-0023-5
    Effects of prophylactic iron supplementation on outcome of nonanemic pregnant women: A non-randomized clinical trial. Asadi Nasrin,Vafaei Homeira,Kasraeian Maryam,Yoosefi Sedigeh,Faraji Azam,Abbasi Lilia Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA BACKGROUND:The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of prophylactic iron supplementation on the pregnancy outcome of nonanemic pregnant women in a sample of Iranian population. METHODS:This non-randomized clinical trial was conducted during a 2-year period in obstetrics clinics of Shiraz, southern Iran. We included a sample of singleton pregnancies registered in our clinics. Those with comorbidities were excluded. Serum ferritin was measured at baseline and participants were classified accordingly: those with normal serum ferritin levels (≥30 µg/dL) who received standard prophylactic iron supplementation during the pregnancy (Group 1); those who had minor thalassemia and elevated serum ferritin levels (≥30 µg/dL) who did not receive prophylactic iron supplementation or those with normal ferritin levels (≥30 µg/dL) who refused to receive iron supplementation due to gastrointestinal upset (Group 2); and those with iron deficiency anemia with low serum ferritin levels (<30 µg/dL) who received standard iron supplementation during pregnancy (Group 3). All the participants were followed to the delivery and maternal and neonatal outcomes were recorded and compared between three study groups. RESULTS:Overall we included 30 pregnant women in each group with mean age of the participants was 28.66 ± 6.02 years. There was no significant difference between three study groups regarding gestational age at delivery (p = 0.250), birthweight (p = 0.893), Apgar at 1 (p = 0.532) and 5 (p = 0.590) minutes, and route of delivery (p = 0.590). The overall rate of maternal complication of the pregnancy was comparable between the three study groups (p = 0.188). However, those in group 1, had significantly higher rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when compared to other two groups (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION:Prophylactic iron supplementation in pregnant women with normal ferritin levels is associated with increased risk of GDM. Other pregnancy and neonatal outcomes are not affected by the prophylactic iron supplementation. 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000184
    Severe thrombocytopenia in pregnancy: a retrospective study. Halici-Ozturk Filiz,Ozturk Merve,Yakistiran Betul,Caglar Ali T,Engin-Ustun Yaprak,Ozgu-Erdinc Ayşe Seval Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis : Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count less than 150 000/μl and it is the most common hematologic disease after anemia in pregnancy. This study aims to investigate pregnant women with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 000/μl). In the relevant literature, few studies have addressed severe thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. This is a retrospective study based on the data from a reference center in Ankara, Turkey between January 2016 and December 2017. The study group consisted of 51 pregnant women who had two platelet counts lower than 50 000/μl. Descriptive statistical methods were utilized to analyze the results. The study analyzed the causes of severe thrombocytopenia, maternal and fetal-neonatal outcomes, and the management of the patients. The common causes of severe thrombocytopenia were hypertensive disorders (66.7%), immune thrombocytopenia (13.7%), massive obstetric hemorrhage (7.8%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (5.9%). The preterm delivery occurred in 58.8% of the patients, and 46 live-births (two twins), six stillbirths, and one pregnancy termination emerged. Postpartum hemorrhage occurred in four (0.08%) patients, and blood transfusion was performed in 15 (29.4%) patients. The platelet transfusion was required to increase the platelet count of 30 (58.8%) patients. The study showed that the incidence of causes in severe thrombocytopenia in pregnancy varied considerably from mild and moderate thrombocytopenia. Despite severe thrombocytopenia, maternal and neonatal bleeding complications were infrequent in the study group. 10.1097/MBC.0000000000000955
    Maternal and Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Anemia in Pregnancy. Smith Catherine,Teng Flora,Branch Emma,Chu Scally,Joseph K S Obstetrics and gynecology OBJECTIVE:To estimate the incidence of anemia in pregnancy and compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes of women with and without anemia. METHODS:We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study on all pregnant women in British Columbia who had a live birth or stillbirth at or after 20 weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2016. Women were diagnosed with anemia based on two criteria: third-trimester hemoglobin value or a delivery admission diagnosis of anemia (made before delivery). Anemia was categorized into no anemia (hemoglobin 11 g/dL or greater), mild (9-10.9 g/dL), moderate (7-8.9 g/dL), severe (less than 7 g/dL), or anemia of unspecified severity (with diagnosis made before delivery). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% CIs expressing the association between anemia and maternal and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS:Of 515,270 women in the study population, 65,906 (12.8%) had anemia: 11.8%, 0.43%, and 0.02% had mild, moderate, and severe anemia, respectively, and 0.58% had anemia of unspecified severity. Anemic women had longer hospitalization duration and more antenatal admissions, and rates of preeclampsia, placenta previa and cesarean delivery were higher among women with anemia. The intrapartum-postpartum blood transfusion rate was 5.1 per 1,000 among women without anemia, and higher among women with anemia (aOR 2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.45 for mild anemia; 21.3, 95% CI 12.2-37.3 for moderate anemia; not analyzable for severe anemia; and 48.3, 95% CI 6.60-353.9 for anemia of unspecified severity). Anemia was associated with preterm birth (mild anemia, aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.12; moderate anemia, aOR 2.26, 95% CI 2.02-2.54; anemia of unspecified severity, aOR 2.27, 95% CI 2.06-2.50), small-for-gestational-age live birth, low 5-minute Apgar score, neonatal death, and perinatal death. CONCLUSION:Maternal anemia in pregnancy represents a common and potentially reversible risk factor associated with antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum maternal morbidity and perinatal morbidity and mortality. 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003557
    The Association between Iron-deficiency Anemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Retrospective Report from Pakistan. Mahmood Tuba,Rehman Atique Ur,Tserenpil Gantuya,Siddiqui Faiza,Ahmed Mehak,Siraj Fatima,Kumar Besham Cureus Background Anemia is one of the most common conditions that affect pregnancies, with dietary iron deficiency being its most common cause. Maternal anemia has been associated with increased risks of both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with third-trimester anemia. Methods This was a retrospective report from a Pakistani public hospital. It included data records of the childbirths in the hospital, with at least one record that documented the hemoglobin (Hb) level in women in the first or second trimester and one in the third trimester. The duration of the study was from January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019. Women with Hb level of <10mg/dL in the third trimester were categorized as anemic, and those with Hb level of >10mg/dL were categorized as non-anemic. Pregnancy outcomes were assessed for both mothers and babies. All data were processed through SPSS version 21.0 for Windows (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results The study evaluated 235 (37.8%) anemic and 387 (62.2%) non-anemic women. Adverse maternal outcomes were compared between the two groups. In anemic women, gestational hypertension (56% vs. 27%; p: <0.0001), preeclampsia (65% vs. 25%; p: <0.0001), antepartum hemorrhage (32% vs. 19%; p: =0.0001), postpartum hemorrhage (79% vs. 28%; p: <0.0001), transfusions (94% vs. 5%; p: <0.0001), prolonged/obstructed labor (49% vs. 20%; p: <0.000), urgent induction of labor (24% vs. 2%; p: <0.0001), and urgent caesarean section (CS) (45% vs. 29%; p: 0.0001) were significantly more common as compared to non-anemic women. Adverse neonatal outcomes such as low birth weight (LBW) (59% vs. 29%; p: <0.0001), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (73% vs. 23%; p: <0.0001), preterm delivery (39% vs. 15%; p: <0.0001), stillbirth (8% vs. 3%; p: 0.01), and early neonatal death (9% vs. 2%; p: 0.000) were associated more with anemia. There was no report of maternal mortality in either group. Conclusion: Anemia in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes including neonatal death. Efforts are required to ensure adequate maternal nutritional status in order to prevent poor outcomes. 10.7759/cureus.5854
    Maternal and Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Anemia in Pregnancy. Smith Catherine,Teng Flora,Branch Emma,Chu Scally,Joseph K S Obstetrics and gynecology OBJECTIVE:To estimate the incidence of anemia in pregnancy and compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes of women with and without anemia. METHODS:We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study on all pregnant women in British Columbia who had a live birth or stillbirth at or after 20 weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2016. Women were diagnosed with anemia based on two criteria: third-trimester hemoglobin value or a delivery admission diagnosis of anemia (made before delivery). Anemia was categorized into no anemia (hemoglobin 11 g/dL or greater), mild (9-10.9 g/dL), moderate (7-8.9 g/dL), severe (less than 7 g/dL), or anemia of unspecified severity (with diagnosis made before delivery). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% CIs expressing the association between anemia and maternal and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS:Of 515,270 women in the study population, 65,906 (12.8%) had anemia: 11.8%, 0.43%, and 0.02% had mild, moderate, and severe anemia, respectively, and 0.58% had anemia of unspecified severity. Anemic women had longer hospitalization duration and more antenatal admissions, and rates of preeclampsia, placenta previa and cesarean delivery were higher among women with anemia. The intrapartum-postpartum blood transfusion rate was 5.1 per 1,000 among women without anemia, and higher among women with anemia (aOR 2.45, 95% CI 1.74-3.45 for mild anemia; 21.3, 95% CI 12.2-37.3 for moderate anemia; not analyzable for severe anemia; and 48.3, 95% CI 6.60-353.9 for anemia of unspecified severity). Anemia was associated with preterm birth (mild anemia, aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.12; moderate anemia, aOR 2.26, 95% CI 2.02-2.54; anemia of unspecified severity, aOR 2.27, 95% CI 2.06-2.50), small-for-gestational-age live birth, low 5-minute Apgar score, neonatal death, and perinatal death. CONCLUSION:Maternal anemia in pregnancy represents a common and potentially reversible risk factor associated with antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum maternal morbidity and perinatal morbidity and mortality. 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003557
    Association between maternal anemia at admission for delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes. Chu Fu-Chieh,Shen-Wen Shao Steven,Lo Liang-Ming,Hsieh T'sang-T'ang,Hung Tai-Ho Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA BACKGROUND:Maternal anemia is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and threatens maternal or fetal life. Anemia increases the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. We aimed to determine the cutoff level of hemoglobin and risk factors for maternal anemia at admission for delivery and investigate the association between maternal anemia and adverse perinatal outcomes in contemporary Taiwanese women. METHODS:About 32,234 women admitted to the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2016 were enrolled in this retrospective observational cohort study. The prevalence of pre-delivery maternal anemia in Taiwan and the maternal demographic and perinatal outcomes associated with maternal anemia was assessed. RESULTS:The 10th and 5th percentile hemoglobin levels of the test cohort (2001-2008, n = 15,602) were 10.8 g/dL and 9.9 g/dL, respectively. In the study cohort (2009-2016, n = 13,026), women who were multiparous, who were aged >34 years, with history of cesarean delivery, and with history of uterine fibroids had higher prevalence of anemia. Anemic women were at increased risk of cesarean delivery, primary cesarean delivery, premature rupture of membranes, early preterm birth <34 weeks, having very low birth weight infants (<1,500 g), having large for gestational age infants, and neonatal intensive care center transfer, but at lower risk of having small for gestational age infants. CONCLUSION:Maternal anemia at delivery is a risk factor for primary cesarean delivery and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Furthermore, we hypothesize that maternal anemia might increase fetoplacental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis as an adaptive response. 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000215
    Parental age effects on neonatal white matter development. Gale-Grant Oliver,Christiaens Daan,Cordero-Grande Lucilio,Chew Andrew,Falconer Shona,Makropoulos Antonios,Harper Nicholas,Price Anthony N,Hutter Jana,Hughes Emer,Victor Suresh,Counsell Serena J,Rueckert Daniel,Hajnal Joseph V,Edwards A David,O'Muircheartaigh Jonathan,Batalle Dafnis NeuroImage. Clinical OBJECTIVE:Advanced paternal age is associated with poor offspring developmental outcome. Though an increase in paternal age-related germline mutations may affect offspring white matter development, outcome differences could also be due to psychosocial factors. Here we investigate possible cerebral changes prior to strong environmental influences using brain MRI in a cohort of healthy term-born neonates. METHODS:We used structural and diffusion MRI images acquired soon after birth from a cohort (n = 275) of healthy term-born neonates. Images were analysed using a customised tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) processing pipeline. Neurodevelopmental assessment using the Bayley-III scales was offered to all participants at age 18 months. For statistical analysis neonates were compared in two groups, representing the upper quartile (paternal age ≥38 years) and lower three quartiles. The same method was used to assess associations with maternal age. RESULTS:In infants with older fathers (≥38 years), fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter organisation, was significantly reduced in three early maturing anatomical locations (the corticospinal tract, the corpus callosum, and the optic radiation). Fractional anisotropy in these locations correlated positively with Bayley-III cognitive composite score at 18 months in the advanced paternal age group. A small but significant reduction in total brain volume was also observed in in the infants of older fathers. No significant associations were found between advanced maternal age and neonatal imaging. CONCLUSIONS:The epidemiological association between advanced paternal age and offspring outcome is extremely robust. We have for the first time demonstrated a neuroimaging phenotype of advanced paternal age before sustained parental interaction that correlates with later outcome. 10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102283