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    Synthesis and Structural/Functional Characterization of Selective M14 Metallocarboxypeptidase Inhibitors Based on Phosphinic Pseudopeptide Scaffold: Implications on the Design of Specific Optical Probes. Covaleda Giovanni,Gallego Pablo,Vendrell Josep,Georgiadis Dimitris,Lorenzo Julia,Dive Vincent,Aviles Francesc Xavier,Reverter David,Devel Laurent Journal of medicinal chemistry Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCPs) of the M14 family are Zn-dependent exoproteases present in almost every tissue or fluid in mammals. These enzymes perform a large variety of physiological functions and are involved in several pathologies, such as pancreatic diseases, inflammation, fibrinolysis, and cancer. Here, we describe the synthesis and functional/structural characterization of a series of reversible tight-binding phosphinic pseudopeptide inhibitors that show high specificity and potency toward these proteases. Characterization of their inhibitory potential against a large variety of MCPs, combined with high-resolution crystal structures of three selected candidates in complex with human carboxypeptidase A (CPA)1, allowed to decipher the structural determinants governing selectivity for type-A of the M14A MCP family. Further, the phosphinic pseudopeptide framework was exploited to generate an optical probe selectively targeting human CPAs. The phosphinic pseudopeptides presented here constitute the first example of chemical probes useful to selectively report on type-A MCPs activity in complex media. 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01465
    Substrate specificity of human metallocarboxypeptidase D: Comparison of the two active carboxypeptidase domains. Garcia-Pardo Javier,Tanco Sebastian,Díaz Lucía,Dasgupta Sayani,Fernandez-Recio Juan,Lorenzo Julia,Aviles Francesc X,Fricker Lloyd D PloS one Metallocarboxypeptidase D (CPD) is a membrane-bound component of the trans-Golgi network that cycles to the cell surface through exocytic and endocytic pathways. Unlike other members of the metallocarboxypeptidase family, CPD is a multicatalytic enzyme with three carboxypeptidase-like domains, although only the first two domains are predicted to be enzymatically active. To investigate the enzymatic properties of each domain in human CPD, a critical active site Glu in domain I and/or II was mutated to Gln and the protein expressed, purified, and assayed with a wide variety of peptide substrates. CPD with all three domains intact displays >50% activity from pH 5.0 to 7.5 with a maximum at pH 6.5, as does CPD with mutation of domain I. In contrast, the domain II mutant displayed >50% activity from pH 6.5-7.5. CPD with mutations in both domains I and II was completely inactive towards all substrates and at all pH values. A quantitative peptidomics approach was used to compare the activities of CPD domains I and II towards a large number of peptides. CPD cleaved C-terminal Lys or Arg from a subset of the peptides. Most of the identified substrates of domain I contained C-terminal Arg, whereas comparable numbers of Lys- and Arg-containing peptides were substrates of domain II. We also report that some peptides with C-terminal basic residues were not cleaved by either domain I or II, showing the importance of the P1 position for CPD activity. Finally, the preference of domain I for C-terminal Arg was validated through molecular docking experiments. Together with the differences in pH optima, the different substrate specificities of CPD domains I and II allow the enzyme to perform distinct functions in the various locations within the cell. 10.1371/journal.pone.0187778