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    Protective effects of naringin against paraquat-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Chen Yan,Nie Yi-chu,Luo Yu-long,Lin Feng,Zheng Yan-fang,Cheng Guo-hua,Wu Hao,Zhang Ke-jian,Su Wei-wei,Shen Jian-gang,Li Pei-bo Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association The present study evaluates protective effects of naringin against paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Survival probability against PQ intoxication was tested by a single intraperitoneal injection of PQ. Results showed that survival rates of mice exposed to PQ only (50 mg/kg within 7 days) were much lower than that in mice daily treatment with NAC or naringin. Moreover, protection against PQ-induced ALI was tested by daily pretreatment mice with saline, NAC or naringin for 3 days before PQ (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Results showed that increase in leukocytes infiltration and overexpressions of TNF-α and TGF-β1 caused by 8h of PQ exposure were dose-dependently ameliorated by naringin. Furthermore, protection against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis was tested by pretreatment mice with PQ (20 mg/kg, i.p.), and then daily administration with saline, NAC or naringin for prolonged 21 days. Results showed that naringin of 60 and 120 mg/kg significantly reduced PQ-induced upregulations of TNF-α, TGF-β1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, levels of pulmonary malonaldehyde and hydroxyproline, as well as pulmonary fibrosis deposition, while increased activities of SOD, GSH-Px and HO-1. These results indicated that naringin had effective protection against PQ-induced ALI and pulmonary fibrosis. 10.1016/j.fct.2013.04.024
    Protective effect of Xuebijing injection on paraquat-induced pulmonary injury via down-regulating the expression of p38 MAPK in rats. Liu Ming-wei,Su Mei-xian,Zhang Wei,Wang Yan-qiong,Chen Mei,Wang Li,Qian Chuan-yun BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Exposure to paraquat results in acute lung injury. A systemic inflammatory response has been widely established as a contributor to paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Recent studies have reported that consumption of Xuebijing prevents inflammatory response-induced diseases. This study investigated whether consumption of Xuebijing protected rats against paraquat-induced acute lung injury. METHODS:Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group; paraquat group; paraquat + Xuebijing group; and paraquat + dexamethasone group. Rats in the paraquat, paraquat + Xuebijing and paraquat + dexamethasone groups were intraperitoneally injected with paraquat (30 mg/kg) or administered paraquat and Xuebijing at 8 mL/kg or dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg, respectively, via an injection into the tail vein. Lung p38 MAPK, NF-κB65, IkB, p-IκB-α, HIF-1α, Nrf2 and TGF-β1 expression were essayed using western blotting. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β1 and PIIIP were measured using ELISA. ROS, oxidised glutathione and glutathione activity were measured. RESULTS:After inducing acute lung injury with paraquat for 24 h, Xuebijing was observed to block lung p-p38 MAPK, NF-κB65, HIF-1α, p-IκB-α and TGF-β1 expression, and increased Nrf2 and IkB expression. The numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes and total number of cells were significantly lower in the Xuebijing group compared with the control group. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1 and PIIIP levels were significantly decreased in the Xuebijing group. ROS and oxidised glutathione activity were markedly inhibited by Xuebijing. Histological evaluation showed attenuation of the effects of Xuebijing on paraquat-induced lung injury. Compared with the paraquat + dexamethasone group, the Xuebijing + paraquat group showed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS:Inhibiting the expression of p38 MAPK and NF-κB65 was crucial for the protective effects of Xuebijing on paraquat-induced acute lung injury. The findings suggest that Xuebijing could effectively ameliorate paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats. Xuebijing was as effective as dexamethasone at improving paraquat-induced lung injury by regulating lung inflammation, lung function and oxidative stress responses. 10.1186/1472-6882-14-498
    [Exploration about the protection mechanism of 5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin on paraquat poisoning model]. Gao Lina,Yuan Huiya,Cao Zhipengn,Xu Enyu,Liu Junting Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of 5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin (HMH) on kidney injury induced by paraquat (PQ). METHODS:Fifteen SPF healthy Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, PQ poisoning model group and HMH intervention group, with 5 mice in each group. PQ poisoning model was challenged by one-time gavage of 30 mg/kg PQ solution. The NS group received the same amount of NS by gavage. The HMH group was given 100 mg/kg of HMH immediately after the model was made and continued to be gavaged. Mice in each group were sacrificed 1 day after HMH gavage and heart blood and renal tissue were harvested for examination. The morphological changes of renal tissue were observed under light microscope by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissue were detected according to the instructions of the kit. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in renal tissues were detected by Western Blot. The serum metabolites were detected by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), the overall distribution of each sample was observed by principal component analysis (PCA), the accuracy of the model was evaluated by multidimensional analysis orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and the difference metabolites were screened by variable importance in the projection (VIP) value > 1. RESULTS:Light microscopic observation showed that: glomerular structure in NS group was clear, there was no hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration in renal interstitium and blood vessels. In PQ group, some glomeruli atrophy and necrosis, capillary congestion in glomeruli, infiltration of inflammatory cells around glomeruli, swelling of renal tubular epithelial cells, slight stenosis of lumen, and occasional necrosis and exfoliation of epithelial cells occurred. The degree of kidney injury in HMH group was significantly less than that in PQ group. Compared with the NS group, the content of MDA in the PQ group was significantly increased (nmol/g: 6.70±0.84 vs. 2.70±0.43, P < 0.01) and the activity of SOD was significantly decreased (kU/L: 33.30±4.66 vs. 50.20±3.23, P < 0.05), the protein expression of HO-1 and IL-1β were significantly increased (HO-1/β-actin: 1.11±0.12 vs. 0.61±0.13, IL-1β/β-actin: 0.93±0.13 vs. 0.32±0.06, both P < 0.05). Compared with the PQ group, the content of MDA in the HMH group was significantly decreased (nmol/g: 5.10±0.93 vs. 6.70±0.84, P < 0.05) and the activity of SOD was significantly increased (kU/L: 61.00±9.02 vs. 33.30±4.66, P < 0.05), the protein expression of HO-1 was significantly decreased (HO-1/β-actin: 0.77±0.07 vs. 1.11±0.12, P < 0.05), however, there was no significant difference in the protein expression of IL-1β (IL-1β/β-actin: 0.87±0.13 vs. 0.93±0.13, P > 0.05). Metabolite detection results showed that: compared with NS group, the levels of creatinine, glycine, succinic acid, fumaric acid and citric acid were significantly increased in the PQ group (VIP value was 1.50, 1.58, 1.64, 1.74 and 1.95 respectively, all P < 0.05), while the levels of palmitic acid,α-tocopherol and 6-phosphogluconic acid were significantly decreased (VIP value was 1.10, 1.55 and 1.56 respectively, all P < 0.05). Compared with the PQ group, the levels of creatinine and citric acid were significantly decreased in the HMH group (VIP value was 1.50 and 1.86, both P < 0.05), while trans-4-hydroxy-proline, D-glyceric acid, 2, 6-fructose phosphate, 6-phosphate gluconic acid and aminomalonic acid were significantly increased (VIP value was 1.36, 1.55, 1.63, 1.68 and 1.76 respectively, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:HMH protects kidney injury caused by PQ poisoning by correcting tricarboxylic acids cycle disturbance, lipid peroxidation and energy metabolism disturbance, and its mechanism is related to the regulation of HO-1 protein expression through Nrf2 pathway. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.012.016
    Melittin Exerts Beneficial Effects on Paraquat-Induced Lung Injuries In Mice by Modifying Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis. El-Aarag Bishoy,Magdy Mohamed,AlAjmi Mohamed F,Khalifa Shaden A M,El-Seedi Hesham R Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Melittin (MEL) is a 26-amino acid peptide with numerous biological activities. Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides, although it is extremely toxic to humans. To date, PQ poisoning has no effective treatment, and therefore the current study aimed to assess for the first time the possible effects of MEL on PQ-induced lung injuries in mice. Mice received a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of PQ (30 mg/kg), followed by IP treatment with MEL (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) twice per week for four consecutive weeks. Histological alterations, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the lungs were studied. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining indicated that MEL markedly reduced lung injuries induced by PQ. Furthermore, treatment with MEL increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in lung tissue homogenates. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining showed that B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and survivin expressions were upregulated after MEL treatment, while Ki-67 expression was downregulated. The high dose of MEL was more effective than the low dose in all experiments. In summary, MEL efficiently reduced PQ-induced lung injuries in mice. Specific pharmacological examinations are required to determine the effectiveness of MEL in cases of human PQ poisoning. 10.3390/molecules24081498
    [Effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of paraquat-induced acute lung injury and the underlying mechanisms]. Li Dong,Xu Li-yan,Chang Zi-juan,Zhao Guang-ju,Nan Chao,Lu Zhong-qiu Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases OBJECTIVE:To investigate the intervention effect of thalidomide on paraquat-induced acute lung injury in mice and its mechanism. METHODS:Male ICR mice were randomly allocated to negative control group (n = 30), thalidomide control group (n = 30), paraquat poisoning group (n = 30), 50 mg/kg thalidomide treatment group (n = 30), 100 mg/kg thalidomide treatment group (n = 30), and 150 mg/kg thalidomide treatment group (n = 30). The negative control group was intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of saline; the thalidomide control group was intraperitoneally injected with thalidomide (150 mg/kg); the paraquat poisoning group was intraperitoneally injected with diluted paraquat solution (22 mg/kg); each thalidomide treatment group was intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of paraquat solution (22 mg/kg) and was injected with thalidomide (50, 100, or 150 mg/kg) 1 h later. All mice were anesthetized and sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d after paraquat poisoning, and their lung tissue was collected. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in lung tissue were measured by double-antibody sandwich ELISA; the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was measured by RT-PCR; the protein expression of nuclear NF-kgr;B p65 was measured by Western blot. The pathological changes of lung tissue were observed under light microscope; the wet/dry ratio of the lung was calculated. RESULTS:Compared with the negative control group, the paraquat poisoning group had significantly increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB mRNA, and nuclear NF-κB p65 and wet/dry ratio of the lung (P < 0.05). Compared with the paraquat poisoning group, the thalidomide treatment groups had significantly decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB mRNA, and nuclear NF-κB p65 and wet/dry ratios of the lung (P < 0.05), and the 150 mg/kg thalidomide treatment group showed the most significant decrease in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB mRNA, and nuclear NF-κB p65. The observation of pathological changes showed that the paraquat poisoning group had the most marked lung tissue damage at 3 d after poisoning, and the lung tissue damage was lessened in the thalidomide treatment groups. CONCLUSION:Thalidomide can reduce paraquat-induced acute lung injury and lung edema. The mechanism may include inhibition of NF-κB activation and expression and downregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6.
    Diosmin ameliorative effects on oxidative stress and fibrosis in paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Mirzaee Sirus,Mansouri Esrafil,Shirani Maryam,Zeinvand-Lorestani Marzieh,Khodayar Mohammad Javad Environmental science and pollution research international Paraquat (PQ) induces pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive lung disorder resulting in severe respiratory failure and death. Increased oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and multiple fibrotic lesions are major features of PQ-induced lung injury. Diosmin (Dio) is a safe drug that is available for clinical use for vascular disorders. Dio exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic activities. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of diosmin on PQ-induced lung injury in mice and the underlying mechanisms involved. Lung injury was induced by PQ (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in NMRI albino mice and Dio (50 and 100 mg/kg, gavage) was administrated 3 days before PQ and continued for 10 or 24 days. After euthanizing the mice, the biochemical and histopathological markers of lung tissue were determined. PQ significantly increased oxidative stress, inflammatory, and fibrotic markers. PQ increased the level of malonedaldehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HYP) and decreased the level of glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the lung. Dio (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased GSH levels and catalase activity and decreased HYP content and MDA levels. In addition, Dio reduced histopathological injuries in hematoxylin and eosin-stained and Masson's trichrome-stained sections. These findings suggest that Dio has protective effects against PQ-induced lung injury, which may be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. 10.1007/s11356-019-06572-2