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    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein is an important mediator of alcohol-induced brain inflammation. Rajayer Salil R,Jacob Asha,Yang Weng-Lang,Zhou Mian,Chaung Wayne,Wang Ping PloS one Binge drinking has been associated with cerebral dysfunction. Ethanol induced microglial activation initiates an inflammatory process that causes upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines which in turn creates neuronal inflammation and damage. However, the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. We postulate that cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), a novel proinflammatory molecule, can contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. To test this theory male wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to alcohol at concentrations consistent to binge drinking and blood and brain tissues were collected. At 5 h after alcohol, a significant increase of 53% in the brain of CIRP mRNA was observed and its expression remained elevated at 10 h and 15 h. Brain CIRP protein levels were increased by 184% at 10 h and remained high at 15 h. We then exposed male WT and CIRP knockout (CIRP(-/-)) mice to alcohol, and blood and brain tissues were collected at 15 h post-alcohol infusion. Serum levels of tissue injury markers (AST, ALT and LDH) were significantly elevated in alcohol-exposed WT mice while they were less increased in the CIRP(-/-) mice. Brain TNF-α mRNA and protein expressions along with IL-1β protein levels were significantly increased in WT mice, which was not seen in the CIRP(-/-) mice. In cultured BV2 cells (mouse microglia), ethanol at 100 mM showed an increase of CIRP mRNA by 274% and 408% at 24 h and 48 h respectively. Corresponding increases in TNF-α and IL-1β were also observed. CIRP protein levels were markedly increased in the medium, suggesting that CIRP was secreted by the BV2 cells. From this we conclude that alcohol exposure activates microglia to produce and secrete CIRP and possibly induce pro-inflammatory response and thereby causing neuroinflammation. CIRP could be a novel mediator of alcohol-induced brain inflammation. 10.1371/journal.pone.0079430
    Activated mesenchymal stem cell administration inhibits chronic alcohol drinking and suppresses relapse-like drinking in high-alcohol drinker rats. Ezquer Fernando,Quintanilla María Elena,Morales Paola,Ezquer Marcelo,Lespay-Rebolledo Carolyne,Herrera-Marschitz Mario,Israel Yedy Addiction biology Neuroinflammation has been reported to follow chronic ethanol intake and may perpetuate alcohol consumption. Present studies determined the effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), known for their anti-inflammatory action, on chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like ethanol intake in a post-deprivation condition. Rats were allowed 12-17 weeks of chronic voluntary ethanol (10% and 20% v/v) intake, after which a single dose of activated hMSCs (5 × 10 ) was injected into a brain lateral ventricle. Control animals were administered vehicle. After assessing the effect of hMSCs on chronic ethanol intake for 1 week, animals were deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks and thereafter an ethanol re-access of 60 min was allowed to determine relapse-like intake. A single administration of activated hMSCs inhibited chronic alcohol consumption by 70% (P < 0.001), an effect seen within the first 24 hours of hMSCs administration, and reduced relapse-like drinking by 80% (P < 0.001). In the relapse-like condition, control animals attain blood ethanol ('binge-like') levels >80 mg/dl. The single hMSC administration reduced relapse-like blood ethanol levels to 20 mg/dl. Chronic ethanol intake increased by 250% (P < 0.001) the levels of reactive oxygen species in hippocampus, which were markedly reduced by hMSC administration. Astrocyte glial acidic fibrillary protein immunoreactivity, a hallmark of neuroinflammation, was increased by 60-80% (P < 0.001) by chronic ethanol intake, an effect that was fully abolished by the administration of hMSCs. This study supports the neuroinflammation-chronic ethanol intake hypothesis and suggest that mesenchymal stem cell administration may be considered in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. 10.1111/adb.12572