The effects of feeding yeast bioactives to broiler breeders and/or their offspring on growth performance, gut development, and immune function in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria.
Lu Z,Thanabalan A,Leung H,Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki R,Patterson R,Kiarie E G
Yeast bioactives (YB) may stimulate broiler breeders (BB) to increase deposition of immunoglobulins (Ig) in eggs. We investigated the effects of feeding YB (mixture of derivatives from whole yeast subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis) to BB and/or their offspring on growth performance, gut development, and immune function in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria. The BB (Ross 708 ♀ and Ross ♂) were assigned to 2 groups (60 ♀ and 10 ♂) and fed basal or basal diet supplemented with 500 g of YB/Mt. A total of 250 fertile eggs per treatment were collected, incubated, hatched, and sexed. Additional egg samples were analyzed for IgA and IgY contents. A total of 160 broiler chicks (80 ♀ and 80 ♂) from each breeder experimental group were placed in cages based on sex and BW resulting in 32 cages for each BB treatment group. Cages (16 per BB treatment group) were allocated to basal broiler chick diet or basal diet supplemented with 500 g of YB/Mt. On day 9, half of each BB by broiler chick dietary treatments was challenged with 1 mL of Eimeria culture (100,000 oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and 25,000 oocysts of Eimeria maxima). On day 14, all birds were necropsied for intestinal lesion scores and samples. Feeding YB to BB increased (P < 0.05) IgA concentration in egg yolk. Eimeria challenge decreased (P < 0.05) pancreas weight, jejunal villus height (VH), and growth performance but increased spleen weight, intestinal mass and jejunal mucosa IgA concentration. Independent of Eimeria challenge, feeding YB to BB and/or to chicks resulted in higher (P < 0.001) jejunal VH compared with feeding it to BB only or not at all. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and had negative effects on indices of intestinal function and health. Feeding YB to BB increased deposition of IgA in hatching eggs and improved jejunal VH independent of Eimeria challenge when fed to BB and/or to broiler chicks.
The effect of dietary protein level on performance characteristics of coccidiosis vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers following mixed-species Eimeria challenge.
Lee J T,Eckert N H,Ameiss K A,Stevens S M,Anderson P N,Anderson S M,Barri A,McElroy A P,Danforth H D,Caldwell D J
A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of starter diet protein levels on the performance of broilers vaccinated with a commercially available live oocyst coccidiosis vaccine before subsequent challenge with a mixed-species Eimeria challenge. Data indicated that an increasing protein concentration in the starter diet improved broiler performance during coccidiosis vaccination. Prechallenge performance data indicated that vaccination could decrease BW and increase feed conversion ratio. The time period most important for the observed effects appeared to be between 13 and 17 d of age. This reduction in performance parameters of vaccinated broilers compared with nonvaccinated broilers was eliminated by the conclusion of the experiments (27 d) in the diet groups with higher protein. Vaccination was effective at generating protective immunity against Eimeria challenge, as evidenced by increased (P < 0.05) BW gain, improved feed conversion, reduced postchallenge mortality, and reduced lesion development in vaccinated broilers compared with nonvaccinated broilers. These observations support numerous other reports that confirm live oocyst vaccination can be used effectively as a preventive against avian coccidiosis in commercially reared broilers. More important, these findings suggest that reduced protein concentration of starter diets can lead to significant losses in broiler performance when using a vaccination program to prevent coccidiosis.
Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of the Eimeria maxima response in broilers.
Hamzić Edin,Buitenhuis Bart,Hérault Frédéric,Hawken Rachel,Abrahamsen Mitchel S,Servin Bertrand,Elsen Jean-Michel,Pinard-van der Laan Marie-Hélène,Bed'Hom Bertrand
Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE
BACKGROUND:Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and is caused by protozoans of the Eimeria genus. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high costs for the development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the current control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics to improve the host response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500 broilers using E. maxima for which we investigated variability among animals in response to the challenge. As a follow-up to this challenge study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions underlying variability of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis to increase our biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge. RESULTS:In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with q value <0.1 distributed across five chromosomes. The highly significant SNPs were associated with body weight gain (three SNPs on GGA5, one SNP on GGA1 and one SNP on GGA3), plasma coloration measured as optical density at wavelengths in the range 465-510 nm (10 SNPs and all on GGA10) and the percentage of β2-globulin in blood plasma (15 SNPs on GGA1 and one SNP on GGA2). Biological pathways related to metabolic processes, cell proliferation, and primary innate immune processes were among the most frequent significantly enriched biological pathways. Furthermore, the network-based analysis produced two networks of high confidence, with one centered on large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) and 2 (LATS2) and the second involving the myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). CONCLUSIONS:We identified several strong candidate genes and genomic regions associated with traits measured in response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, the post-GWAS functional analysis indicates that biological pathways and networks involved in tissue proliferation and repair along with the primary innate immune response may play the most important role during the early stage of Eimeria maxima infection in broilers.
Dietary vitamin D improves performance and bone mineralisation, but increases parasite replication and compromises gut health in -infected broilers.
Sakkas Panagiotis,Oikeh Idiegberanoise,Blake Damer P,Smith Sheralyn,Kyriazakis Ilias
The British journal of nutrition
Coccidial infections reduce fat-soluble vitamin status and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens. We hypothesised that broilers infected with Eimeria maxima would benefit from increased dietary supplementation with vitamin D (vitD) or with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3 or 25D3). Broilers were assigned to diets with low (L) or commercial (M) vitD levels (25 v. 100 μg/kg) supplemented as cholecalciferol (D3) or 25D3. At day 11 of age, birds were inoculated with water or 7000 E. maxima oocysts. Pen performance was calculated over the early (days 1-6), acute (days 7-10) and recovery periods (days 11-14) post-infection (pi). At the end of each period, six birds per treatment were dissected to assess long bone mineralisation, plasma levels of 25D3, Ca and P, and intestinal histomorphometry. Parasite replication and transcription of cytokines IL-10 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were assessed at day 6 pi using quantitative PCR. Performance, bone mineralisation and plasma 25D3 levels were significantly reduced during infection (P < 0·05). M diets or diets with 25D3 raised plasma 25D3, improved performance and mineralisation (P < 0·05). Offering L diets compromised feed efficiency pi, reduced femur breaking strength and plasma P levels at day 10 pi in infected birds (P < 0·05). Contrastingly, offering M diets or diets with 25D3 resulted in higher parasite loads (P < 0·001) and reduced jejunal villi length at day 10 pi (P < 0·01), with no effect on IL-10 or IFN-γ transcription. Diets with M levels or 25D3 improved performance and mineralisation, irrespective of infection, while M levels further improved feed efficiency and mineralisation in the presence of coccidiosis.
Evaluation of nitro compounds as feed additives in diets of Eimeria-challenged broilers in vitro and in vivo.
Teng Po-Yun,Fuller Alberta Lorraine,Kim Woo Kyun
Coccidiosis is a disease caused by Eimeria spp., resulting in approximately 3 billion US dollar loss in the poultry industry annually. The present study evaluated the effects of potential feed additives, 2-Nitro-1-propanol (NP) and nitroethanol (NE), on control of coccidiosis. An in vitro experiment indicated that both NP and NE inhibited the development of sporozoites in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK). The in vivo study was further conducted to evaluate the effects of NP and NE on growth performance, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), and intestinal lesion scores of broilers challenged with Eimeria spps. Six treatments were tested in the study, including the nonchallenged control, challenged control, 100 ppm NP, 200 ppm NP, 100 ppm NE, and 200 ppm NE. Broilers were fed the treatment diets from day 12 until the end of the trial. All birds except the unchallenged control were challenged with Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, and Eimeria acervulina on day 14. The growth performance was calculated, and the intestinal lesion was scored on day 20. The results showed that Eimeria challenge significantly reduced growth performance, increased intestinal lesion scores, and decreased AMEn compared with the nonchallenged control group. Birds fed with 200 ppm of NP had reduced growth performance compared with the nonchallenged control and challenged control. However, the supplementation of NP significantly improved AMEn and reduced cecal damage. Overall, NP and NE reduced sporozoites numbers in the MDBK cells. NP improved dietary digestibility of energy and reduces lesion scores in the ceca but could not maintain growth performance in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria spp.
The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima.
Almeida Gustavo F D,Thamsborg Stig M,Madeira Alda M B N,Ferreira Jorge F S,Magalhães Pedro M,Demattê Filho Luiz C,Horsted Klaus,Hermansen John E
Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative control (uninfected), a positive control (infected and untreated), chemical coccidiostats (nicarbazin+narazin and, later, salinomycin), vaccination, and a product based on oregano. Differences in performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate), mortality, gross intestinal lesions and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than in broilers given vaccination, oregano and in negative controls. There was a trend for lower mortality (P = 0·08) in the later stage of the growing period (23-43 days) in broilers given the highest dosage of herbal mixture compared with broilers given chemical coccidiostats. In conclusion, the delivery strategy of the herbal extracts is easy to implement at farm level, but further studies on dose levels and modes of action are needed.
The similarity of the effect of carbohydrase or prebiotic supplementation in broilers aged 21 days, fed mixed cereal diets and challenged with coccidiosis infection.
Craig Allison D,Khattak Farina,Hastie Peter,Bedford Mike R,Olukosi Oluyinka A
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on growth performance and nutrient utilisation when supplementing diets deficient in energy and protein with carbohydrase enzymes or xylo-oligosaccharide in broilers challenged with coccidia. 960 Ross 308 broilers were used in this 21-day study. The treatments were arranged into a 2×4 factorial with 2 challenge states (challenged and non-challenged) and 4 different additive types (control, xylanase alone, xylanase and β-glucanase mixture and xylo-oligosaccharide). On day 14, the challenged group received 12× the recommended dose of coccidiosis vaccine while the non-challenged group received a sham treatment of water only. The birds and feed were weighed on days 0, 14 and 21. On day 21, two birds per pen were euthanized, the caeca were removed and the contents collected for short chain fatty acid analysis. Six more birds per pen were euthanized and ileal digesta were collected and pooled per pen for nutrient digestibility analysis. Feed intake was greater (P < 0.05) on days 14 and 21 when xylo-oligosaccharide was included in the diet compared to the xylanase and β-glucanase mixture in birds challenged with coccidiosis. Including xylo-oligosaccharide in the diet improved (P < 0.05) the digestibility of nitrogen and supplementing diets with the xylanase and β-glucanase mixture improved (P < 0.05) the digestibility of several amino acids. The concentration of arabinose and xylose was (P < 0.001) greater when broiler diets were supplemented with carbohydrase enzymes or xylo-oligosaccharide compared to the control. Although there was an increase in short chain fatty acid production due to the addition of carbohydrase enzymes or xylo-oligosaccharide, there was no additive effect on the %G+C profile of caecal bacteria however there was a negative effect of coccidiosis. In conclusion, the similarity in the response to carbohydrase enzymes or xylo-oligosaccharide supplementation illustrates that the hydrolysis products from carbohydrase activity may have prebiotic like effects.
Anticoccidial and antioxidant effects of plants derived polyphenol in broilers exposed to induced coccidiosis.
Alhotan Rashed A,Abudabos Alaeldein
Environmental science and pollution research international
The comparative anticoccidial effects of herbal products with a standard synthetic anticoccidial drug on the production performance, intestinal histology, and some blood biochemical parameters in broilers exposed to experimental coccidiosis was investigated. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 336) were randomly distributed into six groups. One group served as a control, the second was treated with the coccidial infection, the third was treated with synthetic anticoccidial drug (Elancoban), the fourth group was treated with an herbal product (Cozante), the fifth group of birds was treated with Norponin, and the sixth group was treated with Emanox. The results indicated that BWG, BW, FCR, and PEF decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the positive control. Body weight gain, BW, and PEF were significantly (P < 0.01) high in Elancoban-treated birds. On day 25, lesion score was significantly (P < 0.01) low in duodenum, jejunum, and ceca in Elancoban-treated birds control. On day 30, lesion score was significantly (P < 0.05) low in Emanox-treated birds as compared with the positive control. Albumin concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) low in Emanox while glucose concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) high in all the treated groups compared with the positive control birds. The total antioxidant capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) high in Emanox on day 15 and 30 as compared with the positive control. The results showed that birds exposed to the natural anticoccidial products showed improved villi and total antioxidant capacity. We concluded that herbal products performed better than the positive control group.