Inhibition of Endothelial Notch Signaling Impairs Fatty Acid Transport and Leads to Metabolic and Vascular Remodeling of the Adult Heart.
Jabs Markus,Rose Adam J,Lehmann Lorenz H,Taylor Jacqueline,Moll Iris,Sijmonsma Tjeerd P,Herberich Stefanie E,Sauer Sven W,Poschet Gernot,Federico Giuseppina,Mogler Carolin,Weis Eva-Maria,Augustin Hellmut G,Yan Minhong,Gretz Norbert,Schmid Roland M,Adams Ralf H,Gröne Hermann-Joseph,Hell Rüdiger,Okun Jürgen G,Backs Johannes,Nawroth Peter P,Herzig Stephan,Fischer Andreas
BACKGROUND:Nutrients are transported through endothelial cells before being metabolized in muscle cells. However, little is known about the regulation of endothelial transport processes. Notch signaling is a critical regulator of metabolism and angiogenesis during development. Here, we studied how genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endothelial Notch signaling in adult mice affects endothelial fatty acid transport, cardiac angiogenesis, and heart function. METHODS:Endothelial-specific Notch inhibition was achieved by conditional genetic inactivation of Rbp-jκ in adult mice to analyze fatty acid metabolism and heart function. Wild-type mice were treated with neutralizing antibodies against the Notch ligand Delta-like 4. Fatty acid transport was studied in cultured endothelial cells and transgenic mice. RESULTS:Treatment of wild-type mice with Delta-like 4 neutralizing antibodies for 8 weeks impaired fractional shortening and ejection fraction in the majority of mice. Inhibition of Notch signaling specifically in the endothelium of adult mice by genetic ablation of Rbp-jκ caused heart hypertrophy and failure. Impaired heart function was preceded by alterations in fatty acid metabolism and an increase in cardiac blood vessel density. Endothelial Notch signaling controlled the expression of endothelial lipase, Angptl4, CD36, and Fabp4, which are all needed for fatty acid transport across the vessel wall. In endothelial-specific Rbp-jκ-mutant mice, lipase activity and transendothelial transport of long-chain fatty acids to muscle cells were impaired. In turn, lipids accumulated in the plasma and liver. The attenuated supply of cardiomyocytes with long-chain fatty acids was accompanied by higher glucose uptake, increased concentration of glycolysis intermediates, and mTOR-S6K signaling. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or displacing glucose as cardiac substrate by feeding a ketogenic diet prolonged the survival of endothelial-specific Rbp-jκ-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies Notch signaling as a novel regulator of fatty acid transport across the endothelium and as an essential repressor of angiogenesis in the adult heart. The data imply that the endothelium controls cardiomyocyte metabolism and function.
Deletion of delta-like 1 homologue accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces myocardial fibrosis.
Rodriguez Patricia,Sassi Yassine,Troncone Luca,Benard Ludovic,Ishikawa Kiyotake,Gordon Ronald E,Lamas Santiago,Laborda Jorge,Hajjar Roger J,Lebeche Djamel
European heart journal
AIMS:Myocardial fibrosis is associated with profound changes in ventricular architecture and geometry, resulting in diminished cardiac function. There is currently no information on the role of the delta-like homologue 1 (Dlk1) in the regulation of the fibrotic response. Here, we investigated whether Dlk1 is involved in cardiac fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and regulates myocardial fibrosis and explored the molecular mechanism underpinning its effects in this process. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using Dlk1-knockout mice and adenoviral gene delivery, we demonstrate that overexpression of Dlk1 in cardio-fibroblasts resulted in inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblasts. This process is mediated by TGF-β1 signalling, since isolated fibroblasts lacking Dlk1 exhibited a higher activation of the TGF-β1/Smad-3 pathway at baseline, leading to an earlier acquisition of a myofibroblast phenotype. Likewise, Dlk1-null mice displayed increased TGF-β1/Smad3 cardiac activity, resulting in infiltration/accumulation of myofibroblasts, induction and deposition of extra-domain A-fibronectin isoform and collagen, and activation of pro-fibrotic markers. Furthermore, these profibrotic events were associated with disrupted myofibril integrity, myocyte hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. Interestingly, Dlk1 expression was down-regulated in ischaemic human and porcine heart tissues. Mechanistically, miR-370 mediated Dlk1's regulation of cardiac fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation by directly targeting TGFβ-R2/Smad-3 signalling, while the Dlk1 canonical target, Notch pathway, does not seem to play a role in this process. CONCLUSION:These findings are the first to demonstrate an inhibitory role of Dlk1 of cardiac fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation by interfering with TGFβ/Smad-3 signalling in the myocardium. Given the deleterious effects of continuous activation of this pathway, we propose Dlk1 as a new potential candidate for therapy in cases where aberrant TGFβ signalling leads to chronic fibrosis.
Histone deacetylase activity governs diastolic dysfunction through a nongenomic mechanism.
Jeong Mark Y,Lin Ying H,Wennersten Sara A,Demos-Davies Kimberly M,Cavasin Maria A,Mahaffey Jennifer H,Monzani Valmen,Saripalli Chandrasekhar,Mascagni Paolo,Reece T Brett,Ambardekar Amrut V,Granzier Henk L,Dinarello Charles A,McKinsey Timothy A
Science translational medicine
There are no approved drugs for the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is characterized by left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. We demonstrate that ITF2357 (givinostat), a clinical-stage inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) catalytic activity, is efficacious in two distinct murine models of diastolic dysfunction with preserved EF. ITF2357 blocked LV diastolic dysfunction due to hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats and suppressed aging-induced diastolic dysfunction in normotensive mice. HDAC inhibitor-mediated efficacy was not due to lowering blood pressure or inhibiting cellular and molecular events commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction, including cardiac fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, or changes in cardiac titin and myosin isoform expression. Instead, ex vivo studies revealed impairment of cardiac myofibril relaxation as a previously unrecognized, myocyte-autonomous mechanism for diastolic dysfunction, which can be ameliorated by HDAC inhibition. Translating these findings to humans, cardiac myofibrils from patients with diastolic dysfunction and preserved EF also exhibited compromised relaxation. These data suggest that agents such as HDAC inhibitors, which potentiate cardiac myofibril relaxation, hold promise for the treatment of HFpEF in humans.