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    Should we consider changing traditional physiotherapy treatment of patellofemoral pain based on recent insights from the literature? Barton Christian J,Crossley Kay M,Macri Erin M British journal of sports medicine 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098695
    Hamstring rehabilitation in elite track and field athletes: applying the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification in clinical practice. Macdonald Ben,McAleer Stephen,Kelly Shane,Chakraverty Robin,Johnston Michael,Pollock Noel British journal of sports medicine RATIONALE:Hamstring injuries are common in elite sports. Muscle injury classification systems aim to provide a framework for diagnosis. The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC) describes an MRI classification system with clearly defined, anatomically focused classes based on the site of injury: (a) myofascial, (b) muscle-tendon junction or (c) intratendinous; and the extent of the injury, graded from 0 to 4. However, there are no clinical guidelines that link the specific diagnosis (as above) with a focused rehabilitation plan. OBJECTIVE:We present an overview of the general principles of, and rationale for, exercise-based hamstring injury rehabilitation in British Athletics. We describe how British Athletics clinicians use the BAMIC to help manage elite track and field athletes with hamstring injury. Within each class of injury, we discuss four topics: clinical presentation, healing physiology, how we prescribe and progress rehabilitation and how we make the shared decision to return to full training. We recommend a structured and targeted diagnostic and rehabilitation approach to improve outcomes after hamstring injury. 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098971
    Room for improvement: a randomised controlled trial with nested qualitative interviews on space, place and treatment delivery. Sandal Louise F,Thorlund Jonas B,Moore Andrew J,Ulrich Roger S,Dieppe Paul A,Roos Ewa M British journal of sports medicine OBJECTIVE:Healthcare-oriented design in hospitals can promote better clinical outcomes. Creating optimal facilities may increase treatment effects. We investigated the influence of the treatment room on effects of exercise therapy. METHODS:In a mixed-method randomised controlled double-blind trial, middle-aged individuals reporting knee or hip pain performed 8 weeks of exercise therapy in (1) a newly built physically enhanced environment, (2) a standard environment or (3) were waitlisted, receiving no intervention. Participants and therapists were blind to study aim. Primary outcome was participants' Global Perceived Effect (GPE; seven-point Likert scale). Six nested focus group interviews with participants (n=25) and individual interviews with therapists (n=2) explored experiences of the environments. RESULTS:42 people exercised in the physically enhanced environment, 40 in the standard environment, 21 were waitlisted. Contrary to our hypothesis, the treatment response seemed greater in the standard environment for GPE (0.98, 95% CI0.5 to 1.4) than for the physically enhanced environment (0.37, 95% CI -0.2 to 0.9), between-group difference (0.61, 95% CI -0.1 to 1.3) did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). Waitlist group reported no improvement (-0.05 95% CI -0.5 to 0.4). In interviews, participants from the standard environment expressed greater social cohesion and feeling at home. Qualitative themes identified; reflection, sense of fellowship and transition. Secondary patient-reported outcomes and qualitative findings supported the primary finding, while improvements in muscle strength and aerobic capacity did not differ between exercise groups. CONCLUSION:Results suggest that the physical environment contributes to treatment response. Matching patients' preferences to treatment rooms may improve patient-reported outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02043613. 10.1136/bjsports-2016-097448
    MRI of sacroiliac joints for the diagnosis of axial SpA: prevalence of inflammatory and structural lesions in nulliparous, early postpartum and late postpartum women. Hoballah Adel,Lukas Cédric,Leplat Christophe,Taourel Patrice,Pialat Jean-Baptiste,Sans Nicolas,Ramos-Pascual Sonia,Cyteval Catherine Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of bone marrow oedema (BME) at the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in early postpartum (EPP), nulliparous (NP) and late postpartum (LPP) women, and to identify factors associated with BME presence at the SIJ. METHODS:Three groups were obtained: NP (never given birth), EPP (given birth within 12 months) and LPP (given birth more than 24 months). The primary outcome was the presence of BME and/or structural lesions (erosions, osteophytes, ankylosis and sclerosis) at the SIJ MRI. RESULTS:BME prevalence was greater among EPP (33%) than NP (14%, p=0.001), but was not different to LPP (21%, p=0.071). The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) MRI criteria for sacroiliitis were positive in 75%, 71% and 80%, respectively, of EPP, NP and LPP women with BME. EPP (38%) had similar prevalence of sclerosis than LPP (28%, p=0.135), but greater than NP (18%, p=0.001). Lastly, EPP (28%) had similar prevalence of osteophytes than LPP (42%) and NP (27%), although there was a difference between LPP and NP (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS:EPP have higher BME prevalence at the SIJ than NP, EPP tend to have higher BME prevalence compared with LPP and BME presence decreases with time from delivery. Three-quarters of women with BME at the SIJ had a positive ASAS MRI criteria for sacroiliitis, indicating that BME presence as the main criterion for a positive diagnosis can lead to false-positive results. SIJ MRIs should not be interpreted in isolation, since age, time from delivery and other factors may outweigh the pertinence of MRI findings. NCT02956824. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217208
    COVID-19: Interim Guidance on Rehabilitation in the Hospital and Post-Hospital Phase from a European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society-coordinated International Task Force. Spruit Martijn A,Holland Anne E,Singh Sally J,Tonia Thomy,Wilson Kevin C,Troosters Thierry The European respiratory journal BACKGROUND:Patients with COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 will most probably have a need for rehabilitation during and directly after the hospitalisation. Data on safety and efficacy are lacking. Healthcare professionals cannot wait for published randomised controlled trials before they can start these rehabilitative interventions in daily clinical practice, as the number of post-COVID-19 patients increases rapidly. The Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence process was used to make interim recommendation for the rehabilitation in the hospital and post-hospital phase in COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients, respectively. METHODS:93 experts were asked to fill out 13 multiple choice questions. Agreement of directionality was tabulated for each question. At least 70% agreement on directionality was necessary to make consensus suggestions. RESULTS:76 experts (82%) reached consensus on all questions based upon indirect evidence and clinical experience on the need for early rehabilitation during the hospital admission, the screening for treatable traits with rehabilitation in all patients at discharge and 6-8 weeks after discharge, and around the content of rehabilitation for these patients. It advocates for assessment of oxygen needs at discharge and more comprehensive assessment of rehabilitation needs including physical as well as mental aspects 6-8 weeks after discharge. Based on the deficits identified multidisciplinary rehabilitation should be offered with attention for skeletal muscle and functional as well as mental restoration. CONCLUSIONS:This multinational task force recommends early, bedside rehabilitation for patients affected by severe COVID-19. The model of pulmonary rehabilitation may suit as a framework, particularly in a subset of patients with long term respiratory consequences. 10.1183/13993003.02197-2020
    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve exercise capacity in patients with severe COPD: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Maddocks Matthew,Nolan Claire M,Man William D-C,Polkey Michael I,Hart Nicholas,Gao Wei,Rafferty Gerrard F,Moxham John,Higginson Irene J The Lancet. Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle dysfunction and exercise intolerance are common in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed the effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as a home-based exercise therapy. METHODS:In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, undertaken across three UK National Health Service sites, we randomly assigned (1:1) adults with COPD, a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) less than 50% predicted, and incapacitating breathlessness (Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale ≥4) to receive active or placebo NMES, daily over a 6-week period. Randomisation was by an independent system using minimisation to balance age, GOLD stage, and quadriceps strength. Participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was change in 6-min walk test (6MWT) distance at 6 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial was registered as ISRCTN15985261 and is now closed. FINDINGS:Between June 29, 2012, and July 4, 2014, we enrolled 73 participants, of whom 52 participants were randomly assigned; 25 to receive active NMES and 27 to placebo NMES. Change in 6MWT distance was greater in the active NMES group (mean 29·9 [95% CI 8·9 to 51·0]) compared with in the placebo group (-5·7 [-19·9 to 8·4]; mean difference at 6 weeks 35·7 m [95% CI 10·5 to 60·9]; p=0·005). Sensitivity analyses for complete-cases and adjustment for baseline values showed similar results. 6 weeks after stopping the intervention the effect waned (7·3 m [95% CI -32·5 to 47·0]; p=0·50). The proportion of participants who had adverse events was similar between groups (five [20%] in the active NMES group and nine [33%] in the placebo group). Two participants, one from each group, reported persistent erythema, which was considered to be possibly related to NMES and the use of adhesive electrodes. INTERPRETATION:NMES improves functional exercise capacity in patients with severe COPD by enhancing quadriceps muscle mass and function. These data support the use of NMES in the management of patients unable to engage with conventional pulmonary rehabilitation. More work is needed to study how to maintain the effect. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research. 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00503-2
    Benefits for Type 2 Diabetes of Interrupting Prolonged Sitting With Brief Bouts of Light Walking or Simple Resistance Activities. Dempsey Paddy C,Larsen Robyn N,Sethi Parneet,Sacre Julian W,Straznicky Nora E,Cohen Neale D,Cerin Ester,Lambert Gavin W,Owen Neville,Kingwell Bronwyn A,Dunstan David W Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To determine whether interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light-intensity walking (LW) or simple resistance activities (SRA) improves postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In a randomized crossover trial, 24 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D (14 men 62 ± 6 years old) underwent the following 8-h conditions on three separate days (with 6-14 days washout): uninterrupted sitting (control) (SIT), sitting plus 3-min bouts of LW (3.2 km · h(-1)) every 30 min, and sitting plus 3-min bouts of SRA (half-squats, calf raises, gluteal contractions, and knee raises) every 30 min. Standardized meals were consumed during each condition. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides were compared between conditions. RESULTS:Compared with SIT, both activity-break conditions significantly attenuated iAUCs for glucose (SIT mean 24.2 mmol · h · L(-1) [95% CI 20.4-28.0] vs. LW 14.8 [11.0-18.6] and SRA 14.7 [10.9-18.5]), insulin (SIT 3,293 pmol · h · L(-1) [2,887-3,700] vs. LW 2,104 [1,696-2,511] and SRA 2,066 [1,660-2,473]), and C-peptide (SIT 15,641 pmol · h · L(-1) [14,353-16,929] vs. LW 11,504 [10,209-12,799] and SRA 11,012 [9,723-12,301]) (all P < 0.001). The iAUC for triglycerides was significantly attenuated for SRA (P < 0.001) but not for LW (SIT 4.8 mmol · h · L(-1) [3.6-6.0] vs. LW 4.0 [2.8-5.1] and SRA 2.9 [1.7-4.1]). CONCLUSIONS:Interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of LW or SRA attenuates acute postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglyceride responses in adults with T2D. With poor adherence to structured exercise, this approach is potentially beneficial and practical. 10.2337/dc15-2336
    Personalised Hip Therapy: development of a non-operative protocol to treat femoroacetabular impingement syndrome in the FASHIoN randomised controlled trial. Wall Peter Dh,Dickenson Edward J,Robinson David,Hughes Ivor,Realpe Alba,Hobson Rachel,Griffin Damian R,Foster Nadine E British journal of sports medicine INTRODUCTION:Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is increasingly recognised as a cause of hip pain. As part of the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome, we developed a protocol for non-operative care and evaluated its feasibility. METHODS:In phase one, we developed a protocol for non-operative care for FAI in the UK National Health Service (NHS), through a process of systematic review and consensus gathering. In phase two, the protocol was tested in an internal pilot RCT for protocol adherence and adverse events. RESULTS:The final protocol, called Personalised Hip Therapy (PHT), consists of four core components led by physiotherapists: detailed patient assessment, education and advice, help with pain relief and an exercise-based programme that is individualised, supervised and progressed over time. PHT is delivered over 12-26 weeks in 6-10 physiotherapist-patient contacts, supplemented by a home exercise programme. In the pilot RCT, 42 patients were recruited and 21 randomised to PHT. Review of treatment case report forms, completed by physiotherapists, showed that 13 patients (62%) received treatment that had closely followed the PHT protocol. 13 patients reported some muscle soreness at 6 weeks, but there were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSION:PHT provides a structure for the non-operative care of FAI and offers guidance to clinicians and researchers in an evolving area with limited evidence. PHT was deliverable within the National Health Service, is safe, and now forms the comparator to arthroscopic surgery in the UK FASHIoN trial (ISRCTN64081839). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN 09754699. 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096368
    Trial of Contralateral Seventh Cervical Nerve Transfer for Spastic Arm Paralysis. Zheng Mou-Xiong,Hua Xu-Yun,Feng Jun-Tao,Li Tie,Lu Ye-Chen,Shen Yun-Dong,Cao Xiao-Hua,Zhao Nai-Qing,Lyu Jia-Ying,Xu Jian-Guang,Gu Yu-Dong,Xu Wen-Dong The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Spastic limb paralysis due to injury to a cerebral hemisphere can cause long-term disability. We investigated the effect of grafting the contralateral C7 nerve from the nonparalyzed side to the paralyzed side in patients with spastic arm paralysis due to chronic cerebral injury. METHODS:We randomly assigned 36 patients who had had unilateral arm paralysis for more than 5 years to undergo C7 nerve transfer plus rehabilitation (18 patients) or to undergo rehabilitation alone (18 patients). The primary outcome was the change from baseline to month 12 in the total score on the Fugl-Meyer upper-extremity scale (scores range from 0 to 66, with higher scores indicating better function). Results The mean increase in Fugl-Meyer score in the paralyzed arm was 17.7 in the surgery group and 2.6 in the control group (difference, 15.1; 95% confidence interval, 12.2 to 17.9; P<0.001). With regard to improvements in spasticity as measured on the Modified Ashworth Scale (an assessment of five joints, each scored from 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating more spasticity), the smallest between-group difference was in the thumb, with 6, 9, and 3 patients in the surgery group having a 2-unit improvement, a 1-unit improvement, or no change, respectively, as compared with 1, 6, and 7 patients in the control group (P=0.02). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging showed connectivity between the ipsilateral hemisphere and the paralyzed arm. There were no significant differences from baseline to month 12 in power, tactile threshold, or two-point discrimination in the hand on the side of the donor graft. RESULTS:The mean increase in Fugl-Meyer score in the paralyzed arm was 17.7 in the surgery group and 2.6 in the control group (difference, 15.1; 95% confidence interval, 12.2 to 17.9; P<0.001). With regard to improvements in spasticity as measured on the Modified Ashworth Scale (an assessment of five joints, each scored from 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating more spasticity), the smallest between-group difference was in the thumb, with 6, 9, and 3 patients in the surgery group having a 2-unit improvement, a 1-unit improvement, or no change, respectively, as compared with 1, 6, and 7 patients in the control group (P=0.02). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging showed connectivity between the ipsilateral hemisphere and the paralyzed arm. There were no significant differences from baseline to month 12 in power, tactile threshold, or two-point discrimination in the hand on the side of the donor graft. CONCLUSIONS:In this single-center trial involving patients who had had unilateral arm paralysis due to chronic cerebral injury for more than 5 years, transfer of the C7 nerve from the nonparalyzed side to the side of the arm that was paralyzed was associated with a greater improvement in function and reduction of spasticity than rehabilitation alone over a period of 12 months. Physiological connectivity developed between the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and the paralyzed hand. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Registry number, 13004466 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1615208
    Effects of Mindfulness Yoga vs Stretching and Resistance Training Exercises on Anxiety and Depression for People With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Kwok Jojo Y Y,Kwan Jackie C Y,Auyeung M,Mok Vincent C T,Lau Claire K Y,Choi K C,Chan Helen Y L JAMA neurology Importance:Clinical practice guidelines support exercise for patients with Parkinson disease (PD), but to our knowledge, no randomized clinical trials have tested whether yoga is superior to conventional physical exercises for stress and symptom management. Objective:To compare the effects of a mindfulness yoga program vs stretching and resistance training exercise (SRTE) on psychological distress, physical health, spiritual well-being, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with mild-to-moderate PD. Design, Setting, and Participants:An assessor-masked, randomized clinical trial using the intention-to-treat principle was conducted at 4 community rehabilitation centers in Hong Kong between December 1, 2016, and May 31, 2017. A total of 187 adults (aged ≥18 years) with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD who were able to stand unaided and walk with or without an assistive device were enrolled via convenience sampling. Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to mindfulness yoga or SRTE. Interventions:Mindfulness yoga was delivered in 90-minute groups and SRTE were delivered in 60-minute groups for 8 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary outcomes included anxiety and depressive symptoms assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes included severity of motor symptoms (Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [MDS-UPDRS], Part III motor score), mobility, spiritual well-being in terms of perceived hardship and equanimity, and HRQOL. Assessments were done at baseline, 8 weeks (T1), and 20 weeks (T2). Results:The 138 participants included 65 men (47.1%) with a mean (SD) age of 63.7 (8.7) years and a mean (SD) MDS-UPDRS score of 33.3 (15.3). Generalized estimating equation analyses revealed that the yoga group had significantly better improvement in outcomes than the SRTE group, particularly for anxiety (time-by-group interaction, T1: β, -1.79 [95% CI, -2.85 to -0.69; P = .001]; T2: β, -2.05 [95% CI, -3.02 to -1.08; P < .001]), depression (T1: β, -2.75 [95% CI, -3.17 to -1.35; P < .001]); T2: β, -2.75 [95% CI, -3.71 to -1.79; P < .001]), perceived hardship (T1: β, -0.92 [95% CI, -1.25 to -0.61; P < .001]; T2: β, -0.76 [95% CI, -1.12 to -0.40; P < .001]), perceived equanimity (T1: β, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.79-1.42; P < .001]; T2: β, 1.19 [95% CI, 0.82-1.56; P < .001]), and disease-specific HRQOL (T1: β, -7.77 [95% CI, -11.61 to -4.38; P < .001]; T2: β, -7.99 [95% CI, -11.61 to -4.38; P < .001]). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with mild-to-moderate PD, the mindfulness yoga program was found to be as effective as SRTE in improving motor dysfunction and mobility, with the additional benefits of a reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms and an increase in spiritual well-being and HRQOL. Trial Registration:Centre for Clinical Research and Biostatistics identifier: CUHK_CCRB00522. 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.0534
    Normal and Pathoanatomy of the Arthritic Shoulder: Considerations for Shoulder Arthroplasty. Getz Charles L,Ricchetti Eric T,Verborgt Olivier,Brolin Tyler J The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons The glenohumeral joint is a highly mobile, complex articulation that relies not only on the bony support between the humeral head and glenoid but also on appropriate balance and tension of the surrounding soft-tissue structures. Recreating the normal anatomic relationships is a basic premise in joint arthroplasty, which can be challenging in shoulder arthroplasty, as the normal glenohumeral anatomy has considerable variation from patient to patient. Also, as the anatomy of the glenohumeral joint becomes distorted with advanced shoulder pathology, it becomes a challenge to return the shoulder to its premorbid anatomic state. Failure to restore normal anatomic parameters after shoulder arthroplasty has been shown to have deleterious effects on postoperative function and implant survival. As the recognition of this has grown, shoulder prostheses have evolved to allow for considerable more variation in an attempt to recreate patient-specific anatomy. However, understanding the progression of shoulder pathology to better predict the patient's premorbid anatomy remains limited. A thorough understanding of the premorbid and pathologic anatomy of the glenohumeral joint will aid in preoperative planning and intraoperative execution and lead to a more predictable reconstruction of the shoulder, which is critical for a successful outcome after shoulder arthroplasty. 10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00414
    Does strength deficit correlate with shoulder function in patients with rotator cuff tears? Characteristics of massive tears. Oh Joo Han,Yoon Jong Pil,Kim Dong Hyun,Chung Seok Won,Kim Joon Yub,Lee Hyun-Joo,Il Seo,Park Kyeong Hyeon,Lee Hoseok Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery BACKGROUND:The correlation between shoulder strength deficits and function in rotator cuff tears remains uncertain. This study aimed to determine the correlation between shoulder strength deficits and shoulder function evaluated by various clinical scoring systems. METHODS:A total of 262 patients (mean age, 59.67 years [standard deviation, 8.06 years]) who underwent full-thickness rotator cuff repair were included. Patients in group I (n = 188) had small to large rotator cuff tears, whereas those in group II (n = 74) had massive rotator cuff tears. Demographic factors, isokinetic test results, and shoulder function evaluated using various scoring systems were obtained. Correlation differences according to severity of the rotator cuff tear were evaluated. RESULTS:We found weak correlations between shoulder strength deficits (peak torque and total work) and clinical outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears (r = -0.288). For patients in group I (nonmassive tears), we found a weaker correlation (r = -0.242) according to the tear pattern. However, shoulder strength deficits in group II patients (massive tears) were strongly correlated with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (r = -0.598), Constant (r = -0.582), and Short Form 36 (r = -0.511) scores, especially regarding internal rotator strength deficits. CONCLUSIONS:Shoulder strength deficits measured via isokinetic testing and shoulder function were weakly correlated in patients with rotator cuff tears. However, shoulder strength deficits in patients with massive tears considerably worsened shoulder function and systemic disability, but not regional disability. In particular, internal rotator strength deficits were strongly correlated with poor shoulder function. 10.1016/j.jse.2019.03.015
    Effect of Behavioral and Pelvic Floor Muscle Therapy Combined With Surgery vs Surgery Alone on Incontinence Symptoms Among Women With Mixed Urinary Incontinence: The ESTEEM Randomized Clinical Trial. Sung Vivian W,Borello-France Diane,Newman Diane K,Richter Holly E,Lukacz Emily S,Moalli Pamela,Weidner Alison C,Smith Ariana L,Dunivan Gena,Ridgeway Beri,Nguyen John N,Mazloomdoost Donna,Carper Benjamin,Gantz Marie G, JAMA Importance:Mixed urinary incontinence, including both stress and urgency incontinence, has adverse effects on a woman's quality of life. Studies evaluating treatments to simultaneously improve both components are lacking. Objective:To determine whether combining behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy with midurethral sling is more effective than sling alone for improving mixed urinary incontinence symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants:Randomized clinical trial involving women 21 years or older with moderate or severe stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms for at least 3 months, and at least 1 stress and 1 urgency incontinence episode on a 3-day bladder diary. The trial was conducted across 9 sites in the United States, enrollment between October 2013 and April 2016; final follow-up October 2017. Interventions:Behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy (included 1 preoperative and 5 postoperative sessions through 6 months) combined with midurethral sling (n = 209) vs sling alone (n = 207). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was change between baseline and 12 months in mixed incontinence symptoms measured by the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) long form; range, 0 to 300 points; minimal clinically important difference, 35 points, with higher scores indicating worse symptoms. Results:Among 480 women randomized (mean [SD] age, 54.0 years [10.7]), 464 were eligible and 416 (86.7%) had postbaseline outcome data and were included in primary analyses. The UDI score in the combined group significantly decreased from 178.0 points at baseline to 30.7 points at 12 months, adjusted mean change -128.1 points (95% CI, -146.5 to -109.8). The UDI score in the sling-only group significantly decreased from 176.8 to 34.5 points, adjusted mean change -114.7 points (95% CI, -133.3 to -96.2). The model-estimated between-group difference (-13.4 points; 95% CI, -25.9 to -1.0; P = .04) did not meet the minimal clinically important difference threshold. Related and unrelated serious adverse events occurred in 10.2% of the participants (8.7% combined and 11.8% sling only). Conclusions and Relevance:Among women with mixed urinary incontinence, behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy combined with midurethral sling surgery compared with surgery alone resulted in a small statistically significant difference in urinary incontinence symptoms at 12 months that did not meet the prespecified threshold for clinical importance. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01959347. 10.1001/jama.2019.12467
    Does early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction prevent development of meniscal damage? Results from a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Snoeker Barbara A,Roemer Frank W,Turkiewicz Aleksandra,Lohmander Stefan,Frobell Richard B,Englund Martin British journal of sports medicine OBJECTIVES:To determine development of new and worsening meniscal damage over 5 years after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury comparing rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction ('early-ACLR') versus rehabilitation with optional delayed ACL reconstruction ('optional-delayed-ACLR'). METHODS:We used knee MRIs from the only randomised controlled trial in the field including 121 young adults. One musculoskeletal radiologist read baseline and 5-year follow-up images using the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Osteoarthritis Score (ACLOAS). We defined development (ie, new and worsening) of meniscal damage both dichotomously and as a sum score representing severity (based on the reclassified ACLOAS meniscus grades). In the full analysis set, we analysed development of meniscal damage (yes/no) with logistic regression and severity with zero-inflated Poisson regression and adjusted for age, sex and baseline meniscal damage. RESULTS:Over 5 years, new or worsening meniscal damage developed in 45% of subjects with early-ACLR and in 53% of subjects with optional-delayed-ACLR. The relative risk for development of meniscal damage on knee level was 1.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.9) in optional-delayed-ACLR versus early-ACLR. For medial and lateral meniscal damage, respectively, the relative risks were 2.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.9) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.6 to 1.5). The mean severity score was 1.5 higher (more severe damage) on knee level in optional-delayed-ACLR versus early-ACLR (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) among those with meniscal damage at 5 years. For medial and lateral meniscal damage, respectively, the corresponding scores were 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.5) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.4). CONCLUSION:A strategy of early-ACLR may reduce development of medial meniscal damage following acute ACL injury. For the lateral meniscus, ACLR seems neither to be protective nor to increase the risk of damage. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN 84752559. 10.1136/bjsports-2019-101125
    The Management of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Synopsis of the 2019 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and U.S. Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline. Sall James,Eapen Blessen C,Tran Johanna Elizabeth,Bowles Amy O,Bursaw Andrew,Rodgers M Eric Annals of internal medicine Description:In June 2019, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) approved an update of the joint clinical practice guideline for rehabilitation after stroke. This synopsis summarizes the key recommendations from this guideline. Methods:In February 2018, the VA/DoD Evidence-Based Practice Work Group convened a joint VA/DoD guideline development effort that included clinical stakeholders and stroke survivors and conformed to the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) tenets for trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. The guideline panel identified key questions, systematically searched and evaluated the literature, and developed 2 algorithms and 42 key recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. Stroke survivors and their family members were invited to share their perspectives to further inform guideline development. Recommendations:The guideline recommendations provide evidence-based guidance for the rehabilitation care of patients after stroke. The recommendations are applicable to health care providers in both primary care and rehabilitation. Key features of the guideline are recommendations in 6 areas: timing and approach; motor therapy; dysphagia; cognitive, speech, and sensory therapy; mental health therapy; and other functions, such as returning to work and driving. 10.7326/M19-1695
    Physiotherapy Not Effective for Pediatric Constipation. Slomski Anita JAMA 10.1001/jama.2019.22085
    Digitally enabled aged care and neurological rehabilitation to enhance outcomes with Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) in Australia: A randomised controlled trial. Hassett Leanne,van den Berg Maayken,Lindley Richard I,Crotty Maria,McCluskey Annie,van der Ploeg Hidde P,Smith Stuart T,Schurr Karl,Howard Kirsten,Hackett Maree L,Killington Maggie,Bongers Bert,Togher Leanne,Treacy Daniel,Dorsch Simone,Wong Siobhan,Scrivener Katharine,Chagpar Sakina,Weber Heather,Pinheiro Marina,Heritier Stephane,Sherrington Catherine PLoS medicine BACKGROUND:Digitally enabled rehabilitation may lead to better outcomes but has not been tested in large pragmatic trials. We aimed to evaluate a tailored prescription of affordable digital devices in addition to usual care for people with mobility limitations admitted to aged care and neurological rehabilitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We conducted a pragmatic, outcome-assessor-blinded, parallel-group randomised trial in 3 Australian hospitals in Sydney and Adelaide recruiting adults 18 to 101 years old with mobility limitations undertaking aged care and neurological inpatient rehabilitation. Both the intervention and control groups received usual multidisciplinary inpatient and post-hospital rehabilitation care as determined by the treating rehabilitation clinicians. In addition to usual care, the intervention group used devices to target mobility and physical activity problems, individually prescribed by a physiotherapist according to an intervention protocol, including virtual reality video games, activity monitors, and handheld computer devices for 6 months in hospital and at home. Co-primary outcomes were mobility (performance-based Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]; continuous version; range 0 to 3; higher score indicates better mobility) and upright time as a proxy measure of physical activity (proportion of the day upright measured with activPAL) at 6 months. The dataset was analysed using intention-to-treat principles. The trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000936628). Between 22 September 2014 and 10 November 2016, 300 patients (mean age 74 years, SD 14; 50% female; 54% neurological condition causing activity limitation) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 149) or control (n = 151) using a secure online database (REDCap) to achieve allocation concealment. Six-month assessments were completed by 258 participants (129 intervention, 129 control). Intervention participants received on average 12 (SD 11) supervised inpatient sessions using 4 (SD 1) different devices and 15 (SD 5) physiotherapy contacts supporting device use after hospital discharge. Changes in mobility scores were higher in the intervention group compared to the control group from baseline (SPPB [continuous, 0-3] mean [SD]: intervention group, 1.5 [0.7]; control group, 1.5 [0.8]) to 6 months (SPPB [continuous, 0-3] mean [SD]: intervention group, 2.3 [0.6]; control group, 2.1 [0.8]; mean between-group difference 0.2 points, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.3; p = 0.006). However, there was no evidence of a difference between groups for upright time at 6 months (mean [SD] proportion of the day spent upright at 6 months: intervention group, 18.2 [9.8]; control group, 18.4 [10.2]; mean between-group difference -0.2, 95% CI -2.7 to 2.3; p = 0.87). Scores were higher in the intervention group compared to the control group across most secondary mobility outcomes, but there was no evidence of a difference between groups for most other secondary outcomes including self-reported balance confidence and quality of life. No adverse events were reported in the intervention group. Thirteen participants died while in the trial (intervention group: 9; control group: 4) due to unrelated causes, and there was no evidence of a difference between groups in fall rates (unadjusted incidence rate ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.83; p = 0.43). Study limitations include 15%-19% loss to follow-up at 6 months on the co-primary outcomes, as anticipated; the number of secondary outcome measures in our trial, which may increase the risk of a type I error; and potential low statistical power to demonstrate significant between-group differences on important secondary patient-reported outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we observed improved mobility in people with a wide range of health conditions making use of digitally enabled rehabilitation, whereas time spent upright was not impacted. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register; ACTRN12614000936628. 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003029