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    Survey on the Current State of Endotracheal Intubation Among the Critically Ill: HEMAIR Investigators. Seisa Mohamed O,Gondhi Venkatesh,Demirci Onur,Diedrich Daniel A,Kashyap Rahul,Smischney Nathan J Journal of intensive care medicine OBJECTIVES:In the last decade, the practice of intubation in the intensive care unit (ICU) has evolved. To further examine the current intubation practice in the ICU, we administered a survey to critical care physicians. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey study design. SETTING:Thirty-two academic/nonacademic centers nationally and internationally. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The survey was developed among a core group of physicians with the assistance of the Survey Research Center at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. The survey was pilot tested for functionality and reliability. The response rate was 82 (51%) of 160 among the 32 centers. Although propofol was the induction drug of choice, there was a significant difference with actual ketamine use and those who indicated a preference for it (ketamine: 52% vs 61%; P < .001). The most common airway device used for intubation was direct laryngoscopy (Miller laryngoscope blade) at 56 (68%) followed by video laryngoscopy at 26 (32%). Most (>90%) indicated that they have a difficult airway cart, but only 55 (67%) indicated they have a documented plan to handle a difficult airway with even lower results for documented review of adverse events (49%). CONCLUSION:Although propofol was the induction drug of choice, ketamine was a medication that many preferred to use, possibly relating to the fact that the most common complication postintubation is hypotension. Direct laryngoscopy remains the primary airway device for endotracheal intubation. Finally, although the majority stated they had a difficult airway cart available, most did not have a documented plan in place when encountering a difficult airway or a documented process to review adverse events surrounding intubation. 10.1177/0885066616654452
    Impact of Endotracheal Intubation on Interventional Endoscopy Unit Efficiency Metrics at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center. Perbtani Yaseen B,Summerlee Robert J,Yang Dennis,An Qi,Suarez Alejandro,Williamson J Blair,Shrode Charles W,Gupte Anand R,Chauhan Shailendra S,Draganov Peter V,Forsmark Chris E,Chang Myron,Wagh Mihir S The American journal of gastroenterology OBJECTIVES:Measures for evaluating interventional endoscopy unit efficiency have not been adequately validated, especially in reference to the involvement of anesthesia services for endoscopy. Primary aim was to compare process measures/metrics of interventional endoscopy unit efficiency between intubated and non-intubated patients. Secondary aim was to assess variables associated with the need for endotracheal intubation. METHODS:The prospectively collected endoscopy unit metrics database at UF Health was reviewed for procedures performed in the interventional endoscopy unit for 6 months. Parameters included hospital-mandated metrics available from the database. RESULTS:A total of 1,421 patients underwent 1,635 interventional endoscopic procedures and 271/1,421 patients (19.1%) were intubated. There was no significant difference between intubated and non-intubated cohorts with respect to age, gender, BMI, ASA Score, Mallampati Score, or the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were more frequently intubated than those undergoing non-ERCP procedures (41.3 vs. 12.4%, P<0.0001). Inpatients comprised 48.3% of all intubated patients, whereas only 29.2% of non-intubated patients were inpatients (P<0.0001). Most patients (159/271, 58.7%) were intubated per anesthesiologist preference. All process efficiency metrics were significantly prolonged in the intubated compared with the non-intubated patient cohort, except the time interval between successive procedures. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with an anesthesiologist who had performed a greater number of total endoscopic sedations were less likely to be intubated than patients with an anesthesiologist who had performed fewer total procedures (P=0.0066). CONCLUSIONS:Endotracheal intubation negatively impacts efficiency metrics in an interventional endoscopy unit. Careful assessment for the need for intubation should be emphasized. 10.1038/ajg.2016.97
    Randomized Trial of Video Laryngoscopy for Endotracheal Intubation of Critically Ill Adults. Janz David R,Semler Matthew W,Lentz Robert J,Matthews Daniel T,Assad Tufik R,Norman Brett C,Keriwala Raj D,Ferrell Benjamin A,Noto Michael J,Shaver Ciara M,Richmond Bradley W,Zinggeler Berg Jeannette,Rice Todd W, Critical care medicine OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of video laryngoscopy on the rate of endotracheal intubation on first laryngoscopy attempt among critically ill adults. DESIGN:A randomized, parallel-group, pragmatic trial of video compared with direct laryngoscopy for 150 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation by Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine fellows. SETTING:Medical ICU in a tertiary, academic medical center. PATIENTS:Critically ill patients 18 years old or older. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were randomized 1:1 to video or direct laryngoscopy for the first attempt at endotracheal intubation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Patients assigned to video (n = 74) and direct (n = 76) laryngoscopy were similar at baseline. Despite better glottic visualization with video laryngoscopy, there was no difference in the primary outcome of intubation on the first laryngoscopy attempt (video 68.9% vs direct 65.8%; p = 0.68) in unadjusted analyses or after adjustment for the operator's previous experience with the assigned device (odds ratio for video laryngoscopy on intubation on first attempt 2.02; 95% CI, 0.82-5.02, p = 0.12). Secondary outcomes of time to intubation, lowest arterial oxygen saturation, complications, and in-hospital mortality were not different between video and direct laryngoscopy. CONCLUSIONS:In critically ill adults undergoing endotracheal intubation, video laryngoscopy improves glottic visualization but does not appear to increase procedural success or decrease complications. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001841
    Randomized Trial of Apneic Oxygenation during Endotracheal Intubation of the Critically Ill. Semler Matthew W,Janz David R,Lentz Robert J,Matthews Daniel T,Norman Brett C,Assad Tufik R,Keriwala Raj D,Ferrell Benjamin A,Noto Michael J,McKown Andrew C,Kocurek Emily G,Warren Melissa A,Huerta Luis E,Rice Todd W, , American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Hypoxemia is common during endotracheal intubation of critically ill patients and may predispose to cardiac arrest and death. Administration of supplemental oxygen during laryngoscopy (apneic oxygenation) may prevent hypoxemia. OBJECTIVES:To determine if apneic oxygenation increases the lowest arterial oxygen saturation experienced by patients undergoing endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. METHODS:This was a randomized, open-label, pragmatic trial in which 150 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation in a medical intensive care unit were randomized to receive 15 L/min of 100% oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula during laryngoscopy (apneic oxygenation) or no supplemental oxygen during laryngoscopy (usual care). The primary outcome was lowest arterial oxygen saturation between induction and 2 minutes after completion of endotracheal intubation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Median lowest arterial oxygen saturation was 92% with apneic oxygenation versus 90% with usual care (95% confidence interval for the difference, -1.6 to 7.4%; P = 0.16). There was no difference between apneic oxygenation and usual care in incidence of oxygen saturation less than 90% (44.7 vs. 47.2%; P = 0.87), oxygen saturation less than 80% (15.8 vs. 25.0%; P = 0.22), or decrease in oxygen saturation greater than 3% (53.9 vs. 55.6%; P = 0.87). Duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay, and in-hospital mortality were similar between study groups. CONCLUSIONS:Apneic oxygenation does not seem to increase lowest arterial oxygen saturation during endotracheal intubation of critically ill patients compared with usual care. These findings do not support routine use of apneic oxygenation during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02051816). 10.1164/rccm.201507-1294OC
    A Multicenter Randomized Trial of a Checklist for Endotracheal Intubation of Critically Ill Adults. Janz David R,Semler Matthew W,Joffe Aaron M,Casey Jonathan D,Lentz Robert J,deBoisblanc Bennett P,Khan Yasin A,Santanilla Jairo I,Bentov Itay,Rice Todd W, , Chest BACKGROUND:Hypoxemia and hypotension are common complications during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Verbal performance of a written, preintubation checklist may prevent these complications. We compared a written, verbally performed, preintubation checklist with usual care regarding lowest arterial oxygen saturation or lowest systolic BP experienced by critically ill adults undergoing endotracheal intubation. METHODS:A multicenter trial in which 262 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation were randomized to a written, verbally performed, preintubation checklist (checklist) or no preintubation checklist (usual care). The coprimary outcomes were lowest arterial oxygen saturation and lowest systolic BP between the time of procedural medication administration and 2 min after endotracheal intubation. RESULTS:The median lowest arterial oxygen saturation was 92% (interquartile range [IQR], 79-98) in the checklist group vs 93% (IQR, 84-100) with usual care (P = .34). The median lowest systolic BP was 112 mm Hg (IQR, 94-133) in the checklist group vs 108 mm Hg (IQR, 90-132) in the usual care group (P = .61). There was no difference between the checklist and usual care in procedure duration (120 vs 118 s; P = .49), number of laryngoscopy attempts (one vs one attempt; P = .42), or severe life-threatening procedural complications (40.8% vs 32.6%; P = .20). CONCLUSIONS:The verbal performance of a written, preprocedure checklist does not increase the lowest arterial oxygen saturation or lowest systolic BP during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults compared with usual care. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02497729; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. 10.1016/j.chest.2017.08.1163