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    Trigeminal neuralgia occurs and recurs in the absence of neurovascular compression. Lee Albert,McCartney Shirley,Burbidge Cole,Raslan Ahmed M,Burchiel Kim J Journal of neurosurgery OBJECT:Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve is the most common factor associated with the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Microvascular decompression (MVD) has proven to be the most successful and durable surgical approach for this disorder. However, not all patients with TN manifest unequivocal neurovascular compression (NVC). Furthermore, over time patients with an initially successful MVD manifest a relentless rate of TN recurrence. METHODS:The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of TN Type 1 (TN1) or Type 2 (TN2) involving patients 18 years or older who underwent evaluation (and surgery when indicated) at Oregon Health & Science University between July 2006 and February 2013. Surgical and imaging findings were correlated. RESULTS:The review identified a total of 257 patients with TN (219 with TN1 and 38 with TN2) who underwent high-resolution MRI and MR angiography with 3D reconstruction of combined images using OsiriX. Imaging data revealed that the occurrence of TN1 and TN2 without NVC was 28.8% and 18.4%, respectively. A subgroup of 184 patients underwent surgical exploration. Imaging findings were highly correlated with surgical findings, with a sensitivity of 96% for TN1 and TN2 and a specificity of 90% for TN1 and 66% for TN2. CONCLUSIONS:Magnetic resonance imaging detects NVC with a high degree of sensitivity. However, despite a diagnosis of TN1 or TN2, a significant number of patients have no NVC. Trigeminal neuralgia clearly occurs and recurs in the absence of NVC. 10.3171/2014.1.JNS131410
    Multimodal neuronavigation-guided precision bypass in adult ischaemic patients with moyamoya disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Lu Junlin,Zhao Yahui,Ma Li,Chen Yu,Li Mingtao,Ye Xun,Wang Rong,Chen Xiaolin,Zhao Yuanli BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Revascularisation surgery is an important treatment of moyamoya disease (MMD). Several general methods of revascularisation had been used: direct, indirect and combined techniques. However, there had been no reports about the criteria of recipient arteries selection in bypass surgery for MMD. Surgeons usually choose the recipient arteries by their own experiences. Their choices of the recipient arteries are various and may contribute the different outcome of patients. The purpose is to identify utility and efficacy of precision bypass guided by multimodal neuronavigation of MMD in a prospective randomised controlled trial. METHOD AND ANALYSIS:This study is a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial. This study will enrol a total of 100 eligible patients. These eligible patients will be randomised to the empirical bypass group and the multimodal neuronavigation-guided precision bypass group in a 1:1 ratio. Patient baseline characteristics and MMD characteristics will be described. In the multimodal neuronavigation-guided group, the blood velocity and blood flow of the recipient arteries will be identified. Surgical complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 3 month, 6 month, 12 month and end of trial will be analysed with CT perfusion, MRI, digital subtraction angiography, modified Rankin Scale, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and modified Barthel Scale. This trial will determine whether multimodal neuronavigation-guided precision bypass is superior to empirical bypass in patients with MMD and identify the safety and efficacy of multimodal neuronavigation-guided precision bypass. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol and written informed consent were reviewed and approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Peking University International Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. The study started in August, 2018 and expected to be completed in December, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03516851; Pre-results. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025566
    A multidisciplinary approach to assess recovery of consciousness in a patient with moyamoya disease. Formica Caterina,Corallo Francesco,Morabito Rosa,Allone Cettina,De Salvo Simona,Micchia Katia,Corallo Federica,Todaro Antonino,Marino Silvia Brain and behavior INTRODUCTION:Moyamoya disease (MMD) meaning "hazy puff of smoke" in Japanese is a rare chronic cerebrovascular syndrome characterized by progressive stenosis and occlusion of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs), and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). METHODS:Our moyamoya patient with severely impaired cognitive and motor functions underwent a specific motor and neuropsychological rehabilitative treatments to assess the recovery of consciousness. RESULTS:Results obtained showed an improvement of clinical and neuropsychological examination. These findings highlighted the importance of an intensive rehabilitation techniques used in the care of disorders of consciousness patients. CONCLUSIONS:The use of sensory methods provides advantages for the rehabilitation. In fact, in this study, we showed a correlation between sensory stimulation and changes in patient's clinical status. 10.1002/brb3.1241
    Risk factors for postoperative stroke in adults patients with moyamoya disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Wei Wei,Chen Xin,Yu Jun,Li Xu-Qin BMC neurology BACKGROUND:This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify the risk factors for postoperative stroke in adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS:We comprehensively searched MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for eligible published literature with regard to the risk factors and postoperative complications in adult patients with MMD. Statistical analysis was conducted using Stata version 12.0. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed for each risk factor. RESULTS:There were 8 studies encompassing 1649 patients who underwent surgery with MMD were selected for analysis. Preoperative ischemic event significantly increase the risk of postoperative stroke events (OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 1.02-1.92; P = 0.039). PCA involvement correlate with an increased risk of post-infarction (OR = 4.60; 95%CI = 2.61-8.11; P = 0.000). Compared to direct bypass, patients who underwent indirect bypass or combined bypass could significantly increase the risk of postoperative stroke events. (OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.03-1.33; p = 0.017). MMD patients with diabetes were associated with an increased risk of postoperative stroke events (OR = 4.02, 95% CI = 1.59-10.16; p = 0.003). MMD patients with hypertension, age at onset and male sex were not associated with an increased risk of postoperative stroke events (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that preoperative ischemic events, PCA involvement and diabetes were independent risk factors for postoperative stroke in MMD patients. Therefore, in order to ensure the curative effect of patients with MMD, it is very necessary to detect these risk factors and prevent postoperative complications in time. 10.1186/s12883-019-1327-1
    Occlusive radiation cerebral vasculopathy implies medical complexity: a case report. Ghazaleh Dana,Beran Azizullah,Berry Brent,Ghannam Malik Journal of medical case reports BACKGROUND:Cranial irradiation is one of the main treatment modalities for central nervous system tumors. It carries many complications, one being occlusive radiation vasculopathy of large vessels. It is an underrecognized etiology for stroke, especially in the younger population. The pathophysiological process is controversial, but there is much literature supporting the theory of its being a secondary form of moyamoya disease. CASE PRESENTATION:A 31-year-old Caucasian man with a history of pineal blastoma at the age of 3 years, which was treated with resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, presented to our institution with right M1 stroke. Further assessment by computed tomographic perfusion study with acetazolamide demonstrated steal phenomenon of the right middle cerebral artery territory (type III response) with a small internal region of matched cerebral blood volume defect (that is, infarct core). Coincidentally, he was found to have multiple brain masses consistent with meningiomas. Occlusive radiation vasculopathy was the most likely culprit of the patient's stroke. The patient was treated medically with "baby" acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel for 3 months, then continued only on baby acetylsalicylic acid. CONCLUSION:Late-onset occlusive radiation vasculopathy is a potentially severe iatrogenic manifestation of radiotherapy that requires a high index of suspicion as an etiology of stroke in young population, especially those with coexistent meningioma that might be a strong indicator for occlusive radiation vasculopathy as the stroke culprit. We reviewed the available literature to better understand the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment options of occlusive radiation vasculopathy. Applying perfusion studies with acetazolamide measures the cerebrovascular reserve in patients with occlusive radiation vasculopathy, which could help in determining the appropriate available treatment option. 10.1186/s13256-019-2104-x
    Trochlear nerve palsy associated with Moyamoya disease. Cho Donggyu,Walker Francis O,Ryu Byung-Ju Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia A 48-year-old woman with intracranial hemorrhage at the right hemisphere and the right midbrain was diagnosed as Moyamoya disease (MMD). While restoring consciousness, she complained of diplopia. The left hypertropia with a compensatory right head tilt was noted. The follow up brain image showed the evidence of past hemorrhage at the level of the right inferior colliculus. In this case, the hemorrhage directly damaged the right trochlear nucleus or intra-axial trochlear nerve before decussation and caused left (contralateral) hypertropia. To our knowledge, no report has been described of the trochlear nerve palsy in hemorrhagic Moyamoya disease. Here, we present a case of the patient with trochlear nerve palsy after hemorrhagic MMD and summarize the characteristics of trochlear nerve palsy according to its lesion sites. 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.05.046
    Serum Uric Acid and Triglycerides in Chinese Patients with Newly Diagnosed Moyamoya Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study. Ma Wenyuan,Cui Changmeng,Feng Song,Li Genhua,Han Guangkui,Hu Yawei,Li Xiang,Lv Jianwei,Liu Chen,Jin Feng BioMed research international Background:Evidence regarding the relationship between serum uric acid and triglycerides is limited. Therefore, the specific objective of this study was to investigate whether serum uric acid was independently related to triglycerides in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed moyamoya disease after adjusting for other covariates. Methods:The present study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 261 Chinese patients with newly diagnosed moyamoya disease were recruited from a hospital in China from 24 March 2013 to 24 December 2018. The independent variable and the dependent variable were serum uric acid measured at baseline and triglycerides, respectively. The covariates involved in this study included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Results:The average age of the 227 selected participants was 47.5 ± 12.6 years old, and approximately 48.5% of them were male. The results of the fully adjusted linear regression showed that serum uric acid (10 mol/L) was positively associated with triglycerides (mmol/L) after adjusting for confounders ( 0.048, 95% CI 0.032, 0.064). Conclusions:In patients with moyamoya disease, there seemed to be a positive association between serum uric acid and triglycerides. 10.1155/2019/9792412
    The Targeted Bypass Strategy for Preventing Hemorrhage in Moyamoya Disease: Technical Note. Funaki Takeshi,Kataoka Hiroharu,Yoshida Kazumichi,Kikuchi Takayuki,Mineharu Yohei,Okawa Masakazu,Yamao Yukihiro,Miyamoto Susumu Neurologia medico-chirurgica Although direct bypass is effective at preventing intracranial hemorrhage in moyamoya disease, the optimal strategy for achieving this purpose has rarely been addressed. The tailored targeting bypass strategy is a novel technical modification of direct bypass focused on hemorrhage prevention. The strategy is based on the promising theory of periventricular anastomosis, which explains the mechanism of hemorrhage in moyamoya disease. The strategy is defined as the use of multi-imaging modalities to predetermine in a tailored manner a target vessel at the point at which the medullary artery directly extends from the periventricular anastomosis of interest. Direct bypass with a wide craniotomy was performed on 13 hemispheres in eight patients according to this strategy. Marked shrinkage of the periventricular anastomosis of interest was observed in all but one hemisphere after surgery, and no new hemorrhages have occurred as of this writing. The present case series illustrates the technical aspects and preliminary results of the tailored targeting bypass strategy, an approach that might expand the potential of direct bypass in preventing hemorrhage. 10.2176/nmc.tn.2019-0162
    Clinical importance of the superficial temporal artery in neurovascular diseases: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review. Hou Kun,Guo Yunbao,Xu Kan,Yu Jinlu International journal of medical sciences The superficial temporal artery (STA) plays a very important role in neurovascular diseases and procedures. However, until now, no comprehensive review of the role of STA in neurovascular diseases from a neurosurgical perspective has ever been published. To review research on the clinical importance of STA in neurovascular diseases, a literature search was performed using the PubMed database. Articles were screened for suitability and data relevance. This paper was organized following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. According to the literature, STA is one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery and can give off scalp, muscle, and transosseous branches. STA-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass is very useful for intracranial ischemic diseases, including moyamoya disease, chronic ICA and MCA insufficiency, and even acute ischemic stroke. For intracranial complex aneurysms, STA bypass remains a major option that can serve as flow replacement bypass during aneurysmal trapping or insurance bypass during temporary parent artery occlusion. Occasionally, the STA can also be involved in dural AVFs (DAVFs) via to its transosseous branches. In addition, the STA can be used as an intraoperative angiography path and the path to provide endovascular treatments. Therefore, STA is a very important artery in neurovascular diseases. 10.7150/ijms.36698
    Clinical efficacy of extracranial-intracranial bypass for the treatment of adult patients with moyamoya disease: A protocol of systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Yang Jun,Song Guang-Fu,Li Hong-Bin,Zhang Shi-Hua,Yang Fu-Yi Medicine BACKGROUND:Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a major health concern associated with blocked arteries at the base of the brain. The aim of this study will synthesize the current evidence of the efficacy and safety of extracranial-intracranial bypass (EIB) for the treatment of adult patients with MMD. METHODS:A systematically and comprehensively literature search will be performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, AMED, CBM, and CNKI to identify relevant randomized controlled trails (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and safety of EIB for treating MMD. We will search all above electronic databases from their inception to the July 30, 2019. Two review authors will independently perform study selection, data extraction, and conduct risk of bias evaluation using Cochrane risk of bias tool. We will also explore heterogeneity across studies. RevMan 5.3 software will be applied for statistical analysis performance. RESULTS:This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of EIB for the treatment of adult patients with MMD. CONCLUSION:The results of this study will provide latest evidence of the efficacy and safety of EIB for MMD. DISSEMINATION AND ETHICS:This study is based on published studies, thus, no ethical consideration is needed. The results of this study are expected to be published in peer-reviewed journals or will be presented on conference meeting.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42019155839. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018211