The influence of light quality, circadian rhythm, and photoperiod on the CBF-mediated freezing tolerance.
Maibam Punyakishore,Nawkar Ganesh M,Park Joung Hun,Sahi Vaidurya Pratap,Lee Sang Yeol,Kang Chang Ho
International journal of molecular sciences
Low temperature adversely affects crop yields by restraining plant growth and productivity. Most temperate plants have the potential to increase their freezing tolerance upon exposure to low but nonfreezing temperatures, a process known as cold acclimation. Various physiological, molecular, and metabolic changes occur during cold acclimation, which suggests that the plant cold stress response is a complex, vital phenomenon that involves more than one pathway. The C-Repeat Binding Factor (CBF) pathway is the most important and well-studied cold regulatory pathway that imparts freezing tolerance to plants. The regulation of freezing tolerance involves the action of phytochromes, which play an important role in light-mediated signalling to activate cold-induced gene expression through the CBF pathway. Under normal temperature conditions, CBF expression is regulated by the circadian clock through the action of a central oscillator and also day length (photoperiod). The phytochrome and phytochrome interacting factor are involved in the repression of the CBF expression under long day (LD) conditions. Apart from the CBF regulon, a novel pathway involving the Z-box element also mediates the cold acclimation response in a light-dependent manner. This review provides insights into the progress of cold acclimation in relation to light quality, circadian regulation, and photoperiodic regulation and also explains the underlying molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation for introducing the engineering of economically important, cold-tolerant plants.
Physiological and Molecular Mechanism Involved in Cold Stress Tolerance in Plants.
Ritonga Faujiah Nurhasanah,Chen Su
Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Previous studies have reported that low temperature (LT) constrains plant growth and restricts productivity in temperate regions. However, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not well understood. Over the past ten years, research on the process of adaptation and tolerance of plants during cold stress has been carried out. In molecular terms, researchers prioritize research into the field of the ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway which is believed to be the important key to the cold acclimation process. Inducer of CBF Expression () is a pioneer of cold acclimation and plays a central role in C-repeat binding (CBF) cold induction. activate the expression of genes via binding to cis-elements in the promoter of genes. An ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway activates the appropriate expression of downstream genes, which encodes osmoregulation substances. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of cold stress tolerance in plants from molecular and physiological perspectives and other factors, such as hormones, light, and circadian clock. Understanding the process of cold stress tolerance and the genes involved in the signaling network for cold stress is essential for improving plants, especially crops.
Proteomic identification of OsCYP2, a rice cyclophilin that confers salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings when overexpressed.
Ruan Song-Lin,Ma Hua-Sheng,Wang Shi-Heng,Fu Ya-Ping,Xin Ya,Liu Wen-Zhen,Wang Fang,Tong Jian-Xin,Wang Shu-Zhen,Chen Hui-Zhe
BMC plant biology
BACKGROUND:High Salinity is a major environmental stress influencing growth and development of rice. Comparative proteomic analysis of hybrid rice shoot proteins from Shanyou 10 seedlings, a salt-tolerant hybrid variety, and Liangyoupeijiu seedlings, a salt-sensitive hybrid variety, was performed to identify new components involved in salt-stress signaling. RESULTS:Phenotypic analysis of one protein that was upregulated during salt-induced stress, cyclophilin 2 (OsCYP2), indicated that OsCYP2 transgenic rice seedlings had better tolerance to salt stress than did wild-type seedlings. Interestingly, wild-type seedlings exhibited a marked reduction in maximal photochemical efficiency under salt stress, whereas no such change was observed for OsCYP2-transgenic seedlings. OsCYP2-transgenic seedlings had lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes than wild-type seedlings. Spatiotemporal expression analysis of OsCYP2 showed that it could be induced by salt stress in both Shanyou 10 and Liangyoupeijiu seedlings, but Shanyou 10 seedlings showed higher OsCYP2 expression levels. Moreover, circadian rhythm expression of OsCYP2 in Shanyou 10 seedlings occurred earlier than in Liangyoupeijiu seedlings. Treatment with PEG, heat, or ABA induced OsCYP2 expression in Shanyou 10 seedlings but inhibited its expression in Liangyoupeijiu seedlings. Cold stress inhibited OsCYP2 expression in Shanyou 10 and Liangyoupeijiu seedlings. In addition, OsCYP2 was strongly expressed in shoots but rarely in roots in two rice hybrid varieties. CONCLUSIONS:Together, these data suggest that OsCYP2 may act as a key regulator that controls ROS level by modulating activities of antioxidant enzymes at translation level. OsCYP2 expression is not only induced by salt stress, but also regulated by circadian rhythm. Moreover, OsCYP2 is also likely to act as a key component that is involved in signal pathways of other types of stresses-PEG, heat, cold, or ABA.
Transcriptional repressor PRR5 directly regulates clock-output pathways.
Nakamichi Norihito,Kiba Takatoshi,Kamioka Mari,Suzuki Takamasa,Yamashino Takafumi,Higashiyama Tetsuya,Sakakibara Hitoshi,Mizuno Takeshi
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The circadian clock is an endogenous time-keeping mechanism that enables organisms to adapt to external daily cycles. The clock coordinates biological activities with these cycles, mainly through genome-wide gene expression. However, the exact mechanism underlying regulation of circadian gene expression is poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that an Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 5 (PRR5), which acts in the clock genetic circuit, directly regulates expression timing of key transcription factors involved in clock-output pathways. A transient expression assay and ChIP-quantitative PCR assay using mutated PRR5 indicated that PRR5 associates with target DNA through binding at the CCT motif in vivo. ChIP followed by deep sequencing coupled with genome-wide expression profiling revealed the direct-target genes of PRR5. PRR5 direct-targets include genes encoding transcription factors involved in flowering-time regulation, hypocotyl elongation, and cold-stress responses. PRR5-target gene expression followed a circadian rhythm pattern with low, basal expression from noon until midnight, when PRR9, PRR7, and PRR5 were expressed. ChIP-quantitative PCR assays indicated that PRR7 and PRR9 bind to the direct-targets of PRR5. Genome-wide expression profiling using a prr9 prr7 prr5 triple mutant suggests that PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9 repress these targets. Taken together, our results illustrate a genetic network in which PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9 directly regulate expression timing of key transcription factors to coordinate physiological processes with daily cycles.
Circadian clock-regulated physiological outputs: dynamic responses in nature.
Kinmonth-Schultz Hannah A,Golembeski Greg S,Imaizumi Takato
Seminars in cell & developmental biology
The plant circadian clock is involved in the regulation of numerous processes. It serves as a timekeeper to ensure that the onset of key developmental events coincides with the appropriate conditions. Although internal oscillating clock mechanisms likely evolved in response to the earth's predictable day and night cycles, organisms must integrate a range of external and internal cues to adjust development and physiology. Here we introduce three different clock outputs to illustrate the complexity of clock control. Clock-regulated diurnal growth is altered by environmental stimuli. The complexity of the photoperiodic flowering pathway highlights numerous nodes through which plants may integrate information to modulate the timing of flowering. Comparative analyses among ecotypes that differ in flowering response reveal additional environmental cues and molecular processes that have developed to influence flowering. We also explore the process of cold acclimation, where circadian inputs, light quality, and stress responses converge to improve freezing tolerance in anticipation of colder temperatures.
Contribution of time of day and the circadian clock to the heat stress responsive transcriptome in Arabidopsis.
Blair Emily J,Bonnot Titouan,Hummel Maureen,Hay Erika,Marzolino Jill M,Quijada Ivan A,Nagel Dawn H
In Arabidopsis, a large subset of heat responsive genes exhibits diurnal or circadian oscillations. However, to what extent the dimension of time and/or the circadian clock contribute to heat stress responses remains largely unknown. To determine the direct contribution of time of day and/or the clock to differential heat stress responses, we probed wild-type and mutants of the circadian clock genes CCA1, LHY, PRR7, and PRR9 following exposure to heat (37 °C) and moderate cold (10 °C) in the early morning (ZT1) and afternoon (ZT6). Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in response to temperature, time of day, and/or the clock mutation. Approximately 30% more genes were differentially expressed in the afternoon compared to the morning, and heat stress significantly perturbed the transcriptome. Of the DEGs (~3000) specifically responsive to heat stress, ~70% showed time of day (ZT1 or ZT6) occurrence of the transcriptional response. For the DEGs (~1400) that are shared between ZT1 and ZT6, we observed changes to the magnitude of the transcriptional response. In addition, ~2% of all DEGs showed differential responses to temperature stress in the clock mutants. The findings in this study highlight a significant role for time of day in the heat stress responsive transcriptome, and the clock through CCA1 and LHY, appears to have a more profound role than PRR7 and PRR9 in modulating heat stress responses during the day. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the dimension of time in studies on abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.
COR27 and COR28 encode nighttime repressors integrating Arabidopsis circadian clock and cold response.
Wang Peng,Cui Xuan,Zhao Chunsheng,Shi Liyan,Zhang Guowei,Sun Fenglong,Cao Xiaofeng,Yuan Li,Xie Qiguang,Xu Xiaodong
Journal of integrative plant biology
It was noted that circadian components function in plant adaptation to diurnal temperature cycles and freezing tolerance. Our genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that evening-phased COR27 and COR28 mainly repress the transcription of clock-associated evening genes PRR5, ELF4 and cold-responsive genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that CCA1 is recruited to the site containing EE elements of COR27 and COR28 promoters in a temperature-dependent way. Further genetic analysis shows COR28 is essential for the circadian function of PRR9 and PRR7. Together, our results support a role of COR27 and COR28 as nighttime repressors integrating circadian clock and plant cold stress responses.
Coordination of light, circadian clock with temperature: The potential mechanisms regulating chilling tolerance in rice.
Lu Xuedan,Zhou Yan,Fan Fan,Peng JunHua,Zhang Jian
Journal of integrative plant biology
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major staple food crop for over half of the world's population. As a crop species originated from the subtropics, rice production is hampered by chilling stress. The genetic mechanisms of rice responses to chilling stress have attracted much attention, focusing on chilling-related gene mining and functional analyses. Plants have evolved sophisticated regulatory systems to respond to chilling stress in coordination with light signaling pathway and internal circadian clock. However, in rice, information about light-signaling pathways and circadian clock regulation and their roles in chilling tolerance remains elusive. Further investigation into the regulatory network of chilling tolerance in rice is needed, as knowledge of the interaction between temperature, light, and circadian clock dynamics is limited. Here, based on phenotypic analysis of transgenic and mutant rice lines, we delineate the relevant genes with important regulatory roles in chilling tolerance. In addition, we discuss the potential coordination mechanism among temperature, light, and circadian clock in regulating chilling response and tolerance of rice, and provide perspectives for the ongoing chilling signaling network research in rice.
Improvement of Arabidopsis Biomass and Cold, Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance by Modified Circadian Clock-Associated PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORs.
Nakamichi Norihito,Takao Saori,Kudo Toru,Kiba Takatoshi,Wang Yin,Kinoshita Toshinori,Sakakibara Hitoshi
Plant & cell physiology
Plant circadian clocks control the timing of a variety of genetic, metabolic and physiological processes. Recent studies revealed a possible molecular mechanism for circadian clock regulation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) genes, including TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), encode clock-associated transcriptional repressors that act redundantly. Disruption of multiple PRR genes results in drastic phenotypes, including increased biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, whereas PRR single mutants show subtle phenotypic differences due to genetic redundancy. In this study, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of engineered PRR5 (PRR5-VP), which functions as a transcriptional activator, can increase biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, similar to prr multiple mutants. Concomitant analyses of relative growth rate, flowering time and photosynthetic activity suggested that increased biomass of PRR5-VP plants is mostly due to late flowering, rather than to alterations in photosynthetic activity or growth rate. In addition, genome-wide gene expression profiling revealed that genes related to cold stress and water deprivation responses were up-regulated in PRR5-VP plants. PRR5-VP plants were more resistant to cold, drought and salinity stress than the wild type, whereas ft tsf and gi, well-known late flowering and increased biomass mutants, were not. These findings suggest that attenuation of PRR function by a single transformation of PRR-VP is a valuable method for increasing biomass as well as abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Because the PRR gene family is conserved in vascular plants, PRR-VP may regulate biomass and stress responses in many plants, but especially in long-day annual plants.
Allelic polymorphism of GIGANTEA is responsible for naturally occurring variation in circadian period in Brassica rapa.
Xie Qiguang,Lou Ping,Hermand Victor,Aman Rashid,Park Hee Jin,Yun Dae-Jin,Kim Woe Yeon,Salmela Matti Juhani,Ewers Brent E,Weinig Cynthia,Khan Sarah L,Schaible D Loring P,McClung C Robertson
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
GIGANTEA (GI) was originally identified by a late-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis, but subsequently has been shown to act in circadian period determination, light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including tolerance to high salt and cold (freezing) temperature. Genetic mapping and analysis of families of heterogeneous inbred lines showed that natural variation in GI is responsible for a major quantitative trait locus in circadian period in Brassica rapa. We confirmed this conclusion by transgenic rescue of an Arabidopsis gi-201 loss of function mutant. The two B. rapa GI alleles each fully rescued the delayed flowering of Arabidopsis gi-201 but showed differential rescue of perturbations in red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and altered cold and salt tolerance. The B. rapa R500 GI allele, which failed to rescue the hypocotyl and abiotic stress phenotypes, disrupted circadian period determination in Arabidopsis. Analysis of chimeric B. rapa GI alleles identified the causal nucleotide polymorphism, which results in an amino acid substitution (S264A) between the two GI proteins. This polymorphism underlies variation in circadian period, cold and salt tolerance, and red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Loss-of-function mutations of B. rapa GI confer delayed flowering, perturbed circadian rhythms in leaf movement, and increased freezing and increased salt tolerance, consistent with effects of similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these data suggest that allelic variation of GI-and possibly of clock genes in general-offers an attractive target for molecular breeding for enhanced stress tolerance and potentially for improved crop yield.
Different Cold-Signaling Pathways Function in the Responses to Rapid and Gradual Decreases in Temperature.
Kidokoro Satoshi,Yoneda Koshi,Takasaki Hironori,Takahashi Fuminori,Shinozaki Kazuo,Yamaguchi-Shinozaki Kazuko
The Plant cell
In plants, cold temperatures trigger stress responses and long-term responses that result in cold tolerance. In , three dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding protein 1/C-repeat binding factors (DREB1/CBFs) act as master switches in cold-responsive gene expression. Induction of genes triggers the cold stress-inducible transcriptional cascade, followed by the induction of numerous genes that function in the cold stress response and cold tolerance. Many regulatory factors involved in induction have been identified, but how these factors orchestrate the cold stress-specific expression of has not yet been clarified. Here, we revealed that plants recognize cold stress as two different signals, rapid and gradual temperature decreases, and induce expression of the genes. CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR3 (CAMTA3) and CAMTA5 respond to a rapid decrease in temperature and induce the expression of , but these proteins do not respond to a gradual decrease in temperature. Moreover, they function during the day and night, in contrast to some key circadian components, including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, which regulate cold-responsive expression as transcriptional activators only during the day. Thus, plants efficiently control the acquisition of freezing tolerance using two different signaling pathways in response to a gradual temperature decrease during seasonal changes and a sudden temperature drop during the night.
Transcriptional regulation of LUX by CBF1 mediates cold input to the circadian clock in Arabidopsis.
Chow Brenda Y,Sanchez Sabrina E,Breton Ghislain,Pruneda-Paz Jose L,Krogan Naden T,Kay Steve A
Current biology : CB
Circadian clocks allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment to enhance overall fitness. Transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in the molecular mechanism but are incompletely described possibly due to functional redundancy, gene family proliferation, and/or lack of context-specific assays. To overcome these, we performed a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid screen using the LUX ARRYHTHMO (LUX) gene promoter as bait against an Arabidopsis TF library. LUX is a unique gene because its mutation causes severe clock defects and transcript maintains high-amplitude cycling in the cold. We report the well-characterized cold-inducible C-repeat (CRT)/drought-responsive element (DRE) binding factor CBF1/DREB1b is a transcriptional regulator of LUX. We show that CBF1 binds the CRT in the LUX promoter, and both genes overlap in temporal and spatial expression. CBF1 overexpression causes upregulation of LUX and also alters other clock gene transcripts. LUX promoter regions including the CRT and Evening Element (EE) are sufficient for high-amplitude transcriptional cycling in the cold, and cold-acclimated lux seedlings are sensitive to freezing stress. Our data show cold signaling is integrated into the clock by CBF-mediated regulation of LUX expression, thereby defining a new transcriptional mechanism for temperature input to the circadian clock.
OsELF3 is involved in circadian clock regulation for promoting flowering under long-day conditions in rice.
Yang Ying,Peng Qiang,Chen Guo-Xing,Li Xiang-Hua,Wu Chang-Yin
Heading date is a critical trait that determines cropping seasons and regional adaptability in rice (Oryza sativa). Research efforts during the last decade have identified some important photoperiod pathway genes that are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, we identified a novel gene, Oryza sativa ELF3 (OsELF3), which is a putative homolog of the ELF3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. OsELF3 was required for the control of heading date under long-day conditions. Its Tos17-tagging mutants exhibited a delayed heading date phenotype only under long-day, but not short-day, conditions. OsELF3 was highly expressed in leaf blades, and the OsELF3 protein was localized in the nucleolus. An obvious diurnal rhythm of OsELF3 transcript level was observed, with a trough in the early day and a peak in the late night in wild-type plants. However, this expression pattern was disrupted in oself3 mutants. Further investigations showed that the expression of OsGI and Ghd7 was up-regulated in the oself3 mutant, indicating that OsELF3 acts as a negative regulator upstream of OsGI and Ghd7 in the flowering-time control under long-day conditions. The rhythmic expression of circadian clock-related genes, including some OsPRR members, was obviously affected in oself3 mutants. Our results indicated that OsELF3 acts as a floral activator in the long-day photoperiodic pathway via its crosstalk with the circadian clock in rice.
The Rice Circadian Clock Regulates Tiller Growth and Panicle Development Through Strigolactone Signaling and Sugar Sensing.
Wang Fang,Han Tongwen,Song Qingxin,Ye Wenxue,Song Xiaoguang,Chu Jinfang,Li Jiayang,Chen Z Jeffrey
The Plant cell
Circadian clocks regulate growth and development in plants and animals, but the role of circadian regulation in crop production is poorly understood. Rice () grain yield is largely determined by tillering, which is mediated by physiological and genetic factors. Here we report a regulatory loop that involves the circadian clock, sugar, and strigolactone (SL) pathway to regulate rice tiller-bud and panicle development. Rice () positively regulates expression of (, also known as ), (), and (, also known as ) to repress tiller-bud outgrowth. Downregulating and overexpressing increases and reduces tiller numbers, respectively, whereas manipulating () expression results in the opposite effects. also regulates expression to mediate panicle and grain development. Genetic analyses using double mutants and overexpression in the mutants show that , , and act downstream of Sugars repress expression in roots and tiller buds to promote tiller-bud outgrowth. The circadian clock integrates sugar responses and the SL pathway to regulate tiller and panicle development, providing insights into improving plant architecture and yield in rice and other cereal crops.
The Importance of the Circadian Clock in Regulating Plant Metabolism.
Kim Jin A,Kim Hyun-Soon,Choi Seo-Hwa,Jang Ji-Young,Jeong Mi-Jeong,Lee Soo In
International journal of molecular sciences
Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for plant development. Plants synthesize sucrose in source organs and transport them to sink organs during plant growth. This metabolism is sensitive to environmental changes in light quantity, quality, and photoperiod. In the daytime, the synthesis of sucrose and starch accumulates, and starch is degraded at nighttime. The circadian clock genes provide plants with information on the daily environmental changes and directly control many developmental processes, which are related to the path of primary metabolites throughout the life cycle. The circadian clock mechanism and processes of metabolism controlled by the circadian rhythm were studied in the model plant Arabidopsis and in the crops potato and rice. However, the translation of molecular mechanisms obtained from studies of model plants to crop plants is still difficult. Crop plants have specific organs such as edible seed and tuber that increase the size or accumulate valuable metabolites by harvestable metabolic components. Human consumers are interested in the regulation and promotion of these agriculturally significant crops. Circadian clock manipulation may suggest various strategies for the increased productivity of food crops through using environmental signal or overcoming environmental stress.
The regulatory network mediated by circadian clock genes is related to heterosis in rice.
Shen Guojing,Hu Wei,Zhang Bo,Xing Yongzhong
Journal of integrative plant biology
Exploitation of heterosis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has contributed greatly to global food security. In this study, we generated three sets of reciprocal F1 hybrids of indica and japonica subspecies to evaluate the relationship between yield heterosis and the circadian clock. There were no differences in trait performance or heterosis between the reciprocal hybrids, indicating no maternal effects on heterosis. The indica-indica and indica-japonica reciprocal F1 hybrids exhibited pronounced heterosis for chlorophyll and starch content in leaves and for grain yield/biomass. In contrast, the japonica-japonica F1 hybrids showed low heterosis. The three circadian clock genes investigated expressed in an above-high-parent pattern (AHP) at seedling stage in all the hybrids. The five genes downstream of the circadian clock, and involved in chlorophyll and starch metabolic pathways, were expressed in AHP in hybrids with strong better-parent heterosis (BPH). Similarly, three of these five genes in the japonica-japonica F1 hybrids showing low BPH were expressed in positive overdominance, but the other two genes were expressed in additive or negative overdominance. These results indicated that the expression patterns of circadian clock genes and their downstream genes are associated with heterosis, which suggests that the circadian rhythm pathway may be related to heterosis in rice.
Drought stress modulates diurnal oscillations of circadian clock and drought-responsive genes in Oryza sativa L.
Li Jia,Liu Yun-Hua,Zhang Yu,Chen Chen,Yu Xia,Yu Shun-Wu
Yi chuan = Hereditas
Endogenous circadian rhythms play a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and in allowing plants to respond and adapt to changing environments. To understand how drought regulates upland rice(Oryza sativa L.) IRAT109, we examined the expression levels of circadian clock and drought-responsive genes through real-time PCR. The results revealed that, first, drought reduced the relative expression level and amplitude of peak expression of several morning circadian clock components (such as OsPRRs, OsLHY and OsZTL1), increased the relative expression level and amplitude of some evening circadian clock components (such as OsTOC1, OsGI and OsELF3), but did not influence OsFKF1. Secondly, the relative expression level of most drought-responsive genes was generally increased, except for OsDST, a negative regulator. Lastly, expression rhythms of most drought-responsive genes were disturbed, but not that of OsCIPK12, OsCDPK7 and OsDREB1A. The results indicate that drought stress modulates the expression of circadian clock components and the interplay regulates diurnal oscillations of relative genes.
Punctual transcriptional regulation by the rice circadian clock under fluctuating field conditions.
Matsuzaki Jun,Kawahara Yoshihiro,Izawa Takeshi
The Plant cell
Plant circadian clocks that oscillate autonomously with a roughly 24-h period are entrained by fluctuating light and temperature and globally regulate downstream genes in the field. However, it remains unknown how punctual internal time produced by the circadian clock in the field is and how it is affected by environmental fluctuations due to weather or daylength. Using hundreds of samples of field-grown rice (Oryza sativa) leaves, we developed a statistical model for the expression of circadian clock-related genes integrating diurnally entrained circadian clock with phase setting by light, both responses to light and temperature gated by the circadian clock. We show that expression of individual genes was strongly affected by temperature. However, internal time estimated from expression of multiple genes, which may reflect transcriptional regulation of downstream genes, is punctual to 22 min and not affected by weather, daylength, or plant developmental age in the field. We also revealed perturbed progression of internal time under controlled environment or in a mutant of the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA. Thus, we demonstrated that the circadian clock is a regulatory network of multiple genes that retains accurate physical time of day by integrating the perturbations on individual genes under fluctuating environments in the field.
Photoperiodic flowering: time measurement mechanisms in leaves.
Song Young Hun,Shim Jae Sung,Kinmonth-Schultz Hannah A,Imaizumi Takato
Annual review of plant biology
Many plants use information about changing day length (photoperiod) to align their flowering time with seasonal changes to increase reproductive success. A mechanism for photoperiodic time measurement is present in leaves, and the day-length-specific induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes florigen, is a major final output of the pathway. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which photoperiodic information is perceived in order to trigger FT expression in Arabidopsis as well as in the primary cereals wheat, barley, and rice. In these plants, the differences in photoperiod are measured by interactions between circadian-clock-regulated components, such as CONSTANS (CO), and light signaling. The interactions happen under certain day-length conditions, as previously predicted by the external coincidence model. In these plants, the coincidence mechanisms are governed by multilayered regulation with numerous conserved as well as unique regulatory components, highlighting the breadth of photoperiodic regulation across plant species.
Circadian clocks in daily and seasonal control of development.
Schultz Thomas F,Kay Steve A
Science (New York, N.Y.)
The rotation of the earth results in regular changes in the light environment, and organisms have evolved a molecular oscillator that allows them to anticipate these changes. This daily molecular oscillator, known as the circadian clock, regulates a diverse array of physiologies across a wide variety of organisms. This review highlights a few of the insights we have into circadian clock regulation of development, in both plants and animals. A common thread linking plants and animals is the use of the circadian clock to sense changes in day length and to mediate a diverse number of photoperiodic responses.
Circadian clock function in Arabidopsis thaliana: time beyond transcription.
Trends in cell biology
The past decade has seen a remarkable advance in our understanding of the plant circadian system, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. It is now well established that Arabidopsis clock genes and their protein products operate through autoregulatory feedback loops that promote rhythmic oscillations in cellular, metabolic and physiological activities. This article reviews recent studies that have provided evidence for new mechanisms of clock organization and function. These mechanisms include protein-protein interactions and the regulation of protein stability, which, together, directly connect light signalling to the Arabidopsis circadian system. Evidence of rhythmic changes in chromatin structure has also opened new and exciting ways for regulation of clock gene expression. All of these mechanisms ensure an appropriate synchronization with the environment, which is crucial for successful plant growth and development.
Molecular mechanisms at the core of the plant circadian oscillator.
Nohales Maria A,Kay Steve A
Nature structural & molecular biology
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping networks that allow organisms to align their physiology with their changing environment and to perform biological processes at the most relevant times of the day and year. Initial feedback-loop models of the oscillator have been enriched by emerging evidence highlighting the increasing variety of factors and mechanisms that contribute to the generation of rhythms. In this Review, we consider the two major input pathways that connect the circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to its environment and discuss recent advances in understanding of how transcriptional, post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to clock function.
STRESSing the role of the plant circadian clock.
Seo Pil Joon,Mas Paloma
Trends in plant science
The circadian clock is a timekeeper mechanism that is able to regulate biological activities with a period of 24h. Proper matching of the internal circadian time with the environment not only confers fitness advantages but also allows the clock to temporally gate the responses to environmental stresses. By restricting the time of maximal responsiveness, the circadian gating defines an efficient way to increase resistance to stress without substantially decreasing plant growth. Stress signaling in turn appears to influence the clock activity. The feedback regulation might be important to maximize metabolic efficiency under challenging environmental conditions. This review focuses on recent research advances exploring the intricate connection between the clock and osmotic stresses. The role of the circadian clock favoring the proper balance between immune responses and cellular metabolism is also discussed.
Wheels within wheels: the plant circadian system.
Hsu Polly Yingshan,Harmer Stacey L
Trends in plant science
Circadian clocks integrate environmental signals with internal cues to coordinate diverse physiological outputs so that they occur at the most appropriate season or time of day. Recent studies using systems approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis, have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation of the central circadian oscillator and its connections to input and output pathways. Similar approaches have also begun to reveal the importance of the clock for key agricultural traits in crop species. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field, including a new understanding of the molecular architecture underlying the plant clock; mechanistic links between clock components and input and output pathways; and our growing understanding of the importance of clock genes for agronomically important traits.