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    KLK3/PSA and cathepsin D activate VEGF-C and VEGF-D. Jha Sawan Kumar,Rauniyar Khushbu,Chronowska Ewa,Mattonet Kenny,Maina Eunice Wairimu,Koistinen Hannu,Stenman Ulf-Håkan,Alitalo Kari,Jeltsch Michael eLife Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) acts primarily on endothelial cells, but also on non-vascular targets, for example in the CNS and immune system. Here we describe a novel, unique VEGF-C form in the human reproductive system produced via cleavage by kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3), aka prostate-specific antigen (PSA). KLK3 activated VEGF-C specifically and efficiently through cleavage at a novel N-terminal site. We detected VEGF-C in seminal plasma, and sperm liquefaction occurred concurrently with VEGF-C activation, which was enhanced by collagen and calcium binding EGF domains 1 (CCBE1). After plasmin and ADAMTS3, KLK3 is the third protease shown to activate VEGF-C. Since differently activated VEGF-Cs are characterized by successively shorter N-terminal helices, we created an even shorter hypothetical form, which showed preferential binding to VEGFR-3. Using mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated VEGF-C-cleaving activity from human saliva, we identified cathepsin D as a protease that can activate VEGF-C as well as VEGF-D. 10.7554/eLife.44478
    VEGF-C induced lymphangiogenesis is associated with lymph node metastasis in orthotopic MCF-7 tumors. Mattila Mirjami M-T,Ruohola Johanna K,Karpanen Terhi,Jackson David G,Alitalo Kari,Härkönen Pirkko L International journal of cancer The spread of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes through the lymphatic system is the first step in the dissemination of breast cancer. In several human cancers including those of the breast and prostate, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is associated with lymph node metastasis. Our study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of VEGF-C on metastasis of poorly invasive, estrogen dependent human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 breast cancer cells transfected with VEGF-C (MCF-7-VEGF-C) were grown as tumors in the mammary fat pads of nude mice implanted with subcutaneous estrogen pellets. Tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis were studied immunohistochemically using antibodies against lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor -1 (LYVE-1), VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), PECAM-1, pan-cytokeratin and estrogen dependent pS2 protein. Overexpression of VEGF-C in transfected MCF-7 cells stimulated in vivo tumor growth in xenotransplanted mice without affecting estrogen responsiveness. The resulting tumors metastasized to the regional lymph nodes in 75% (in 6 mice out of 8, Experiment I) and in 62% (in 5 mice out of 8, Experiment II) of mice bearing orthotopic tumors formed by MCF-7-VEGF-C cells whereas no metastases were observed in mice bearing tumors of control vector-transfected MCF-7 cells (MCF-7-Mock). The density of intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessels was increased in tumors derived from MCF-7-VEGF-C cells but not MCF-7-Mock cells. Taken together, our results show that VEGF-C overexpression stimulates tumor lymphangiogenesis and induces normally poorly metastatic estrogen-dependent MCF-7 tumors to disseminate to local lymph nodes. These data suggest that VEGF-C has an important role in lymph node metastasis of breast cancer even at its hormone-dependent early stage. 10.1002/ijc.10283
    Lymph and blood vessel architecture in benign and malignant prostatic tissue: lack of lymphangiogenesis in prostate carcinoma assessed with novel lymphatic marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1). Trojan Lutz,Michel Maurice Stephan,Rensch Florian,Jackson David G,Alken Peter,Grobholz Rainer The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Due to the lack of specific markers the analysis of lymphatic vessel density (LVD) has been almost impossible in the past. We report the novel specific marker for lymphatic endothelium, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), in prostatic, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) tissue. Normal blood vessels were additionally quantified in BPH and PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS:LYVE-1 lymphatics (LVD) and CD34 blood vessels were assessed in 20 paraffin sections of BPH and 50 of PCa tissue by immunohistochemistry in a standardized experimental setting. The regions of PCa, periphery of the tumor and nontumorous regions of the PCa specimens, and BPH tissue were evaluated. Double staining was done (LYVE-1/CD34). Acquired data were interrelated and compared to the pathological parameters of the specimens. RESULTS:Double staining revealed numerous CD34 blood vessels but only a few LYVE-1 lymphatic vessels in BPH and PCa sections. Mean LVD +/- SD was distinctly lower (0.55 +/- 0.93) in PCa tissue than in tumor periphery (2.45 +/- 1.93) and nontumorous (3.16 +/- 2.23) tissue (p <0.0001). Maximum LVD was observed in BPH (7.17 +/- 3.61), which differed markedly from nontumorous areas of PCa specimens (p <0.001). In contrast to LVD, significantly more blood vessels were found in PCa (116.00 +/- 39.25) than in BPH (60.30 +/- 19.34) tissue (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:LYVE-1 is a specific lymphatic endothelial marker in benign and malignant prostate tissues. It is a useful new marker for the investigation of lymphatics. To our knowledge we report the immunohistochemical visualization and quantification of lymphatic vessels in prostatic tissue for the first time. In contrast to the stimulated angiogenesis of blood vessels in PCa, the destruction of lymphatic vessels occurs rather than lymphangiogenesis. 10.1097/01.ju.0000128860.00639.9c
    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 by lymphatic endothelial cells is associated with lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer. Zeng Yiping,Opeskin Kenneth,Baldwin Megan E,Horvath Lisa G,Achen Marc G,Stacker Steven A,Sutherland Robert L,Williams Elizabeth D Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:The molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood, despite the well-established clinical importance of lymph node status in many human cancers. Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D have been implicated in the regulation of tumor lymphangiogenesis and enhancement of lymphatic invasion via activation of VEGF receptor-3. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression pattern of the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGF receptor-3 axis in prostate cancer and its relationship with lymph node metastasis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:The expression pattern of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGF receptor-3 in localized prostate cancer specimens (n = 37) was determined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Widespread, heterogeneous staining for VEGF-C and VEGF-D was observed in all cancer specimens. Intensity of VEGF-C staining was lower in benign prostate epithelium than in adjacent carcinoma, whereas no difference between benign epithelium and carcinoma was observed for VEGF-D staining. VEGF receptor-3 immunostaining was detected in endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels in 18 of 37 tissue samples. The presence of VEGF receptor-3-positive vessels was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0002), Gleason grade (P < 0.0001), extracapsular extension (P = 0.0382), and surgical margin status (P = 0.0069). In addition, VEGF receptor-3 staining highlighted lymphatic invasion by VEGF-C-positive/VEGF-D-positive carcinoma cells. CONCLUSIONS:Together, these results suggest that paracrine activation of lymphatic endothelial cell VEGF receptor-3 by VEGF-C and/or VEGF-D may be involved in lymphatic metastasis. Thus the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGF receptor-3 signaling pathway may provide a target for antilymphangiogenic therapy in prostate cancer. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-03-0434
    Inhibition of lymphogenous metastasis using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of a soluble VEGFR-3 decoy receptor. Lin JianMin,Lalani Alshad S,Harding Thomas C,Gonzalez Melissa,Wu Wei-Wei,Luan Bo,Tu Guang Huan,Koprivnikar Kathryn,VanRoey Melinda J,He Yulong,Alitalo Kari,Jooss Karin Cancer research The presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes is a strong indicator of poor patient survival in many types of cancer. It has recently been shown that the lymphangiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), and its receptor, VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR3), may play a pivotal role in the promotion of metastasis to regional lymph nodes. In this study, human prostate and melanoma tumor models that preferentially metastasize to the lymph nodes following s.c. tumor cell implantation were established from lymph node metastases via in vivo selection. Melanoma tumor cell sublines established from lymph node metastasis express higher amounts of VEGF-C than the parental tumor cells. The inhibition of tumor-derived VEGF-C with a soluble VEGFR3 decoy receptor, sVEGFR3-Fc, expressed via a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector, potently blocks tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis to the lymph nodes, when the treatment was initiated before the tumor implantation. In addition, sVEGFR3-Fc serum levels required for efficient blockade of lymph node metastases are strictly dependent on the VEGF-C levels generated by the primary tumor. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of sVEGFR3-Fc may represent a feasible therapeutic strategy for blockade of lymphogenous metastasis. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0408
    Tumor-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor-C is necessary for prostate cancer lymphangiogenesis, but lymphangiogenesis is unnecessary for lymph node metastasis. Wong Sunny Y,Haack Herbert,Crowley Denise,Barry Marc,Bronson Roderick T,Hynes Richard O Cancer research Dissemination to draining lymph nodes is a frequent first step in prostate cancer metastasis. Although tumors metastasize to lymph nodes via the lymphatics, the importance of lymphangiogenesis in mediating the process remains controversial. Here, we inhibit intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in s.c. and surgical orthotopic implantation mouse models of human prostate cancer using several strategies. Stable expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeted against human vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in PC-3 cells reduced intratumoral lymphatics by 99% in s.c. tumors, indicating that tumor-secreted VEGF-C is necessary for lymphangiogenesis. Expression of siRNAs against human VEGF-A somewhat reduced tumor lymphangiogenesis. Secretion of a soluble VEGF receptor-3/Flt4 fusion protein by PC-3 cells reduced intratumoral lymphatics by 100% in s.c. tumors. Combination of soluble Flt4 and VEGF-C siRNA yielded >92% reduction of intratumoral lymphatics in orthotopic prostate tumors. However, metastasis to lymph nodes was not significantly affected regardless of intratumoral lymphatic vessel density. The abundance of marginal lymphatics at the tumor-stromal interface was unchanged in orthotopic tumors whose intratumoral lymphatics were inhibited, suggesting that these marginal vessels could be sufficient for lymph node metastasis. Hematogenous metastasis (blood tumor burden, lung metastasis) correlated with degree of lymph node invasion. We also analyzed the lymphatics in spontaneous transgenic adenocarcinomas of the mouse prostate which metastasize to lymph nodes. Progression from well-differentiated prostate intraepithelial neoplasia to metastatic, undifferentiated adenocarcinoma was accompanied by loss of lymphatics. These results suggest that tumor-secreted VEGF-C and, to a lesser extent, VEGF-A, are important for inducing prostate cancer intratumoral lymphangiogenesis but are unnecessary for lymph node metastasis. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0901
    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF receptor-3 in human prostate cancer is associated with regional lymph node metastasis. Jennbacken Karin,Vallbo Christina,Wang Wanzhong,Damber Jan-Erik The Prostate BACKGROUND:Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and its receptor, VEGFR-3, have been implicated as important factors in the formation of lymphatic vessels and recent evidence suggests that tumor lymphangiogenesis promotes lymphatic metastasis. METHODS:The expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 was examined in 22 human prostate cancer specimens with immunohistochemistry. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used for evaluation of staining. RESULTS:Expression of VEGF-C was stronger in prostate cancer areas in comparison to adjacent benign glands. In addition, patients with lymph node metastases had a significantly higher expression of VEGF-C than patients without lymph node metastases. Interestingly, VEGFR-3 was expressed in malignant prostate epithelial cells and its expression was significantly higher in the lymph node positive group compared to the lymph node negative group. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the present study indicate that increased expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 play a role in prostate cancer progression and in metastasis to regional lymph nodes. 10.1002/pros.20276
    The potential lymphangiogenic effects of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in vitro and in vivo. Jiang Wen G,Davies Gaynor,Martin Tracey A,Parr Christian,Watkins Gareth,Mansel Robert E,Mason Malcolm D International journal of molecular medicine Lymphangiogenesis is key to the lymphatic spread of cancer cells. The current study examined the potential effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a factor known to have strong biological effects on endothelial cells, on the lymphangiogenic function of endothelial cells and the formation of lymphatic vessels using both in vitro and in vivo models. Human endothelial cells that have lymphatic characteristics, human prostate and breast cancer cells PC-3 and MDA MB 231, were used. Expression of lymphatic markers, podoplanin, Prox-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGF-R3) and LYVE-1 was determined using reverse transcription polymerase reaction and quantitative PCR. In nude mice prostate and breast xenograft tumour models, either HGF or an HGF-producing fibroblast cell line MRC-5 was given with or without the HGF antagonist, NK4. The lymphangiogenic marker and lymphatic vessels in tumour tissues were also assessed using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In the mice tumour models, infusion of rhHGF significantly increased the levels of podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the tumour (p=0.05 for podoplanin and p<0.05 for LYVE-1 vs. without HGF in the prostate tumour model, p<0.05 for podoplanin and p<0.01 for LYVE-1 vs. without HGF for the breast tumour model; p<0.05 for podoplanin and p<0.01 for LYVE-1 vs. without HGF in the breast tumour model). The increased level of LYVE-1 transcript was supported by an increase in the number of LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels in tumours, using immunohistochemical analysis. Co-injection of MRC5 cells also increased the levels of LYVE-1 and number of LYVE-1-positive vessels in tumour tissues. The effects of HGF and MRC5 were significantly reduced by the HGF antagonist, NK4. In the in vitro models, rhHGF significantly increased the level of both podoplanin and LYVE-1, as shown by quantitative PCR analysis. Hepatocyte growth factor has potential lymphangiogenic activities, and this may have important implications in the nodal spread of cancer cells.
    Peritumoral lymphatic invasion is associated with regional lymph node metastases in prostate adenocarcinoma. Roma Andres A,Magi-Galluzzi Cristina,Kral Melinda A,Jin Tao T,Klein Eric A,Zhou Ming Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Lymphangiogenesis, detected by antibodies specific for lymphatic endothelial cells, has been associated with regional lymph node metastases and poor prognosis in carcinomas of head and neck, breast and uterine cervix, but remains largely uninvestigated in prostate adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic vessel invasion by prostate cancer cells in the intratumoral, peritumoral and normal prostate tissue compartments in cancer-bearing prostate glands and correlated them with lymph node metastases, Gleason score and other pathological parameters. Lymphatic vessels were detected by immunohistochemical stain using an antibody specific for the lymphatic endothelial cells (clone D2-40) on 33 radical prostatectomies. In all, 26 patients had lymph node dissection, and 14 of them had lymph node metastasis. The lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic vessel invasion were then recorded for each of the three compartments microscopically. Lymphatic vessel density in the intratumoral, peritumoral and normal prostate compartments was 0.91+/-0.80, 1.54+/-0.68 and 1.58+/-0.96/mm2, respectively. The intratumoral lymphatic vessel density was significantly lower than that of the peritumoral and normal prostate compartments, and the latter two were not significantly different. The lymphatic vessel density of the three compartments was not significantly different between cases with and without lymph node metastasis. The peritumoral lymphatic vessel density correlated inversely with the Gleason score. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in significantly higher percentage of cases with lymph node metastasis (9/14, 62.3%), as compared to those without lymph node metastasis (1/12, 8.3%, P<0.01). The peritumoral lymphatic vessel invasion had a better correlation with the presence of lymph node metastases than intratumoral lymphatic vessel invasion. There is no evidence of lymphangiogenesis in prostate adenocarcinoma. Peritumoral lymphatic vessel invasion correlates with regional lymph node metastases, suggesting that the peritumoral lymphatic vessels are functionally important and identification of lymphatic vessel invasion in this compartment implies a high probability of regional lymph node metastases. 10.1038/modpathol.3800546
    Increased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-C and VEGF receptor-3 in prostate cancer tissue are associated with tumor progression. Yang Jie,Wu Hong-Fei,Qian Li-Xin,Zhang Wei,Hua Li-Xin,Yu Mei-Lin,Wang Zhen,Xu Zheng-Quan,Sui Yuan-Geng,Wang Xin-Ru Asian journal of andrology AIM:To investigate the differences in microvessel densities (MVD) and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-C and VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) between prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and adjacent benign tissues, and to explore the correlations among MVD, Jewett-Whitmore staging, Gleason scores and expressions of VEGF, VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in the progression of PCa. METHODS:An immunohistochemical approach was adopted to detect the expressions of CD34, VEGF, VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in both cancer areas and peripheral benign areas of 71 primary prostatic adenocarcinoma specimens. A statistic analysis was then performed according to the experimental and clinic data. RESULTS:Significantly upregulated expressions of VEGF, VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 were all found in malignant epithelium/cancer cells compared with adjacent benign epithelium (P<0.01). Patients in stage D had a significantly higher score than patients in stage A, B or C when comparing the expression of VEGF-C or VEGFR-3 in the tumor area (P<0.01). In addition, significant correlations were observed between Jewett-Whitmore staging and VEGF-C (r(s)=0.738, P<0.01), clinical staging and VEGFR-3 (r(s)=0.410, P<0.01), VEGF-C and Gleason scores (r(s)=0.401, P<0.01), VEGFR-3 and Gleason scores (r(s)=0.581, P<0.001) and MVD and VEGF (r(s)=0.492, P<0.001). CONCLUSION:Increased expressions of VEGF and VEGF-C were closely associated with progression of PCa. The main contribution of increased VEGF expression for PCa progression was to upregulate MVD, which maintained the growth advantage of tumor tissue. However, the chief role of increased expressions of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 was to enhance lymphangiogenesis and provide a main pathway for cancer cells to disseminate. 10.1111/j.1745-7262.2006.00120.x
    Modulating metastasis by a lymphangiogenic switch in prostate cancer. Brakenhielm Ebba,Burton Jeremy B,Johnson Mai,Chavarria Nelson,Morizono Kouki,Chen Irvin,Alitalo Kari,Wu Lily International journal of cancer Prostate cancer dissemination is difficult to detect in the clinic, and few treatment options exist for patients with advanced-stage disease. Our aim was to investigate the role of tumor lymphangiogenesis during metastasis. Further, we implemented a noninvasive molecular imaging technique to facilitate the assessment of the metastatic process. The metastatic potentials of several human prostate cancer xenograft models, LAPC-4, LAPC-9, PC3 and CWR22Rv-1 were compared. The cells were labeled with luciferase, a bioluminescence imaging reporter gene, to enable optical imaging. After tumor implantation the animals were examined weekly during several months for the appearance of metastases. Metastatic lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic profiles of the tumors were characterized. To confirm the role of lymphangiogenesis in mediating metastasis, the low-metastatic LAPC-9 tumor cells were engineered to overexpress VEGF-C, and the development of metastases was evaluated. Our results show CWR22Rv-1 and PC3 tumor cell lines to be more metastatic than LAPC-4, which in turn disseminates more readily than LAPC-9. The difference in metastatic potential correlated with the endogenous production levels of lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGF-C and the presence of tumor lymphatics. In agreement, induced overexpression of VEGF-C in LAPC-9 enhanced tumor lymphangiogenesis leading to the development of metastatic lesions. Taken together, our studies, based on a molecular imaging approach for semiquantitative detection of micrometastases, point to an important role of tumor lymphatics in the metastatic process of human prostate cancer. In particular, VEGF-C seems to play a key role in prostate cancer metastasis. 10.1002/ijc.22900
    Lymphatic vessel density in radical prostatectomy specimens. Cheng Liang,Bishop Elena,Zhou Honghong,Maclennan Gregory T,Lopez-Beltran Antonio,Zhang Shaobo,Badve Sunil,Baldridge Lee Ann,Montironi Rodolfo Human pathology Formation of new lymphatic channels, or lymphangiogenesis, has been associated with poor prognosis in a number of human cancers. Its prognostic significance in prostate cancer is uncertain. We analyzed 122 radical prostatectomy specimens. Immunohistochemistry for lymphatic vessels was performed using a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with an O-linked sialoglycoprotein found on lymphatic endothelium (clone D2-40, Signet Laboratories, Dedham, Mass). The mean lymphatic vessel densities (LVDs) of the 3 prostate compartments were compared. Lymphatic vessel densities were correlated with other clinical and pathologic characteristics. Mean values for intratumoral, peritumoral, and normal prostate LVD were 3.0, 5.2, and 4.8 lymphatic vessels per 200x field, respectively. The intratumoral LVD was significantly lower than the peritumoral or normal LVD (P < .001), and the LVD of the latter 2 compartments was not significantly different (P = .29). The prostate LVD did not correlate with other clinical and pathologic parameters. In conclusion, LVD is reduced in the intratumoral compartment compared with the peritumoral and normal prostate compartments, whereas the latter 2 have similar LVD. In contrast to other malignancies, quantitation of lymphangiogenesis in prostatic adenocarcinoma does not appear to offer useful prognostic information. 10.1016/j.humpath.2007.09.006
    Prediction of lymphatic invasion by peritumoral lymphatic vessel density in prostate biopsy cores. Kuroda Kenji,Horiguchi Akio,Asano Takako,Asano Tomohiko,Hayakawa Masamichi The Prostate BACKGROUND:Lymphatic invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens has been suggested to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in clinically localized prostate cancer. Lymphangiogenesis detected by antibodies specific for lymphatic endothelial cells has been associated with lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer. This study was designed to examine whether lymphangiogenesis in prostate biopsy could predict lymphatic spread in radical prostatectomy specimens. METHODS:Paraffin-embedded positive biopsy cores obtained from 99 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution were immunostained with D2-40 monoclonal antibody, which specifically recognizes lymphatic endothelium. The association between lymphatic parameters in prostate biopsy and pathological parameters in radical prostatectomy specimens was analyzed. RESULTS:Peritumoral and intratumoral lymphatic (ITL) vessels were observed in 90 (90.9%) and 23 cases (23.2%). Average and maximal peritumoral lymphatic vessel density (PTLD) and the presence of ITL in positive biopsy cores were significantly associated with positive biopsy core rates (P = 0.0015 for average PTLD, P < 0.0001 for maximal PTLD, and P = 0.0038 for ITL) and lymphatic vessel invasion (P < 0.0001 for average PTLD, P < 0.0001 for maximal PTLD, and P = 0.0322 for ITL). Among preoperative parameters, the biopsy Gleason score (P = 0.0092, HR = 6.108) and average PTLD (P = 0.0034, HR = 1.860) were significant predictors of lymphatic invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS:PTLD in prostate biopsy specimens assessed by immunohistochemistry using D2-40 antibody could be a useful parameter for predicting lymphatic spread of clinically localized prostate cancer. 10.1002/pros.20768
    Suppression of prostate cancer nodal and systemic metastasis by blockade of the lymphangiogenic axis. Burton Jeremy B,Priceman Saul J,Sung James L,Brakenhielm Ebba,An Dong Sung,Pytowski Bronislaw,Alitalo Kari,Wu Lily Cancer research Lymph node involvement denotes a poor outcome for patients with prostate cancer. Our group, along with others, has shown that initial tumor cell dissemination to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics also promotes systemic metastasis in mouse models. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of suppressive therapies targeting either the angiogenic or lymphangiogenic axis in inhibiting regional lymph node and systemic metastasis in subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate tumor xenografts. Both androgen-dependent and more aggressive androgen-independent prostate tumors were used in our investigations. Interestingly, we observed that the threshold for dissemination is lower in the vascular-rich prostatic microenvironment compared with subcutaneously grafted tumors. Both vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) ligand trap (sVEGFR-3) and antibody directed against VEGFR-3 (mF4-31C1) significantly reduced tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis to regional lymph nodes and distal vital organs without influencing tumor growth. Conversely, angiogenic blockade by short hairpin RNA against VEGF or anti-VEGFR-2 antibody (DC101) reduced tumor blood vessel density, significantly delayed tumor growth, and reduced systemic metastasis, although it was ineffective in reducing lymphangiogenesis or nodal metastasis. Collectively, these data clarify the utility of vascular therapeutics in prostate tumor growth and metastasis, particularly in the context of the prostate microenvironment. Our findings highlight the importance of lymphangiogenic therapies in the control of regional lymph node and systemic metastasis. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1488
    Loss of NKX3.1 favors vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in prostate cancer. Zhang Heyu,Muders Michael H,Li Jinping,Rinaldo Francesca,Tindall Donald J,Datta Kaustubh Cancer research Decreased levels of the prostate-specific homeobox protein NKX3.1 are correlated with hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer. Thus, it is compelling to define the NKX3.1-regulated genes that may be important for the progression of the advanced stage of the disease. In this study, we showed that vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is one such target gene of NKX3.1. NKX3.1 inhibited VEGF-C expression in prostate cancer, and the loss of NKX3.1 led to increased VEGF-C expression. Histone deacetylase 1 acted as a corepressor of VEGF-C expression along with NKX3.1. Activated RalA acted in synergy with the loss of NKX3.1 for VEGF-C transcription. Patients with deletions at chromosome 8p21.1-p21.2 as a sole deletion developed lymph node metastasis. Interestingly, the higher expression of VEGF-C in prostate cancer is also correlated with lymph node metastasis. Therefore, regulation of VEGF-C expression by NKX3.1 provides a possible mechanism by which the loss of NKX3.1 protein level leads to lymphangiogenesis in the late stages of advanced prostate cancer. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1912
    Role of lymphangiogenesis in lung cancer. Weryńska Bozena,Dziegiel Piotr,Jankowska Renata Folia histochemica et cytobiologica Lung cancer represents one of the most frequent causes of death due to neoplastic disease in Poland and around the world. The high mortality which accompany neoplastic diseases used to be ascribed mainly to dissemination of cancerous cells. Studies on animal models suggest that tumour lymphangiogenesis represents the principal factor in the process of metastases formation. Lymphangiogenesis involves a process of formation of new lymphatic vessels from already existing lymphatic capillaries. Lymphangiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and other, recently reported factors, such as, e.g., cyclooxygenase 2, fibroblast growth factor 2, angiopoetin-1 and the insulin-resembling growth factor. In lymphangiogenesis a key role is played by neutropilin 2 or podoplanin and this promoted development of studies on lymphangiogenesis. Activation of VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumours such as, e.g., lung cancer, mammary carcinoma, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. In recent years lymphangiogenesis provided topic of many studies. A positive correlation was detected between expressions of VEGF-C/D and VEGFR-3 in non-small cell lung cancer. In patients with lung cancer with high expression of VEGF-C a markedly abbreviated survival was noted. Positive correlation was detected between expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on one hand and expression of LYVE-1 on the other in sentinel lymph nodes with metastases of neoplastic cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Also, high density of lymphatic vessels and high density of intraneoplastic microvessels proved to be independent poor prognostic indices in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Extensive hope is linked to studies on inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis, which may improve results of treatment also in tumour patients. 10.2478/v10042-009-0090-3
    Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with vascular endothelial growth factor-C and lymph node metastases in human prostate cancer. Di Jin-Ming,Zhou Jing,Zhou Xu-Long,Gao Xin,Shao Chun-Qui,Pang Jun,Sun Qi-Peng,Zhang Yan,Ruan Xing-Xing Archives of medical research BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Recent observations suggest an implication of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tumor lymphangiogenesis through an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression. However, it is unclear whether COX-2 is also associated with VEGF-C expression, tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in human prostate cancer. METHODS:COX-2 and VEGF-C expression were examined in tumor tissues from 58 prostate cancer patients using immunohistochemical staining. We also analyzed the association of COX-2 and VEGF-C expression with tumor lymphangiogenesis quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD), lymph node metastasis, and patients' biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS). RESULTS:High expression of either COX-2 or VEGF-C was correlated with tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis, as well as poor b-PFS. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between expression of COX-2 and VEGF-C (r = 0.631, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:COX-2 is positively associated with VEGF-C expression, tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in prostate cancer. These findings suggest that COX-2 may play a pivotal role in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer via the regulation of VEGF-C expression. 10.1016/j.arcmed.2009.03.002
    Lymphangiogenesis and cancer metastasis. Mumprecht Viviane,Detmar Michael Journal of cellular and molecular medicine Metastasis is a characteristic trait of most tumour types and the cause for the majority of cancer deaths. Many tumour types, including melanoma and breast and prostate cancers, first metastasize via lymphatic vessels to their regional lymph nodes. Although the connection between lymph node metastases and shorter survival times of patients was made decades ago, the active involvement of the lymphatic system in cancer, metastasis has been unravelled only recently, after molecular markers of lymphatic vessels were identified. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumour-induced lymphangiogenesis is a predictive indicator of metastasis to lymph nodes and might also be a target for prevention of metastasis. This article reviews the current understanding of lymphangiogenesis in cancer anti-lymphangiogenic strategies for prevention and therapy of metastatic disease, quantification of lymphangiogenesis for the prognosis and diagnosis of metastasis and in vivo imaging technologies for the assessment of lymphatic vessels, drainage and lymph nodes. 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00834.x
    Vascular endothelial growth factor-C protects prostate cancer cells from oxidative stress by the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 and AKT-1. Muders Michael H,Zhang Heyu,Wang Enfeng,Tindall Donald J,Datta Kaustubh Cancer research Recurrence and subsequent metastatic transformation of cancer develops from a subset of malignant cells, which show the ability to resist stress and to adopt to a changing microenvironment. These tumor cells have distinctly different growth factor pathways and antiapoptotic responses compared with the vast majority of cancer cells. Long-term therapeutic success can only be achieved by identifying and targeting factors and signaling cascades that help these cells survive during stress. Both microarray and immunohistochemical analysis on human prostate cancer tissue samples have shown an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in metastatic prostate cancer. We have discovered that VEGF-C acts directly on prostate cancer cells to protect them against oxidative stress. VEGF-C increased the survival of prostate cancer cells during hydrogen peroxide stress by the activation of AKT-1/protein kinase Balpha. This activation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 and was not observed in the absence of oxidative stress. Finally, the transmembrane nontyrosine kinase receptor neuropilin-2 was found to be essential for the VEGF-C-mediated AKT-1 activation. Indeed, our findings suggest a novel and distinct function of VEGF-C in protecting cancer cells from stress-induced cell death, thereby facilitating cancer recurrence and metastasis. This is distinctly different from the known function of VEGF-C in inducing lymphangiogenesis. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0552
    Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors. Tuomela Johanna,Valta Maija,Seppänen Jani,Tarkkonen Kati,Väänänen H Kalervo,Härkönen Pirkko BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. METHODS:We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig) and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. RESULTS:VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p < 0.05) and inhibited metastasis to iliac and sacral lymph nodes. In addition, tumor volumes were smaller in the VEGFR3-Ig-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Transfection of PC-3 cells with the VEGF-C gene led to a high level of 29/31 kD VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. The size of orthotopic and subcutaneous PC-3/VEGF-C tumors was significantly greater than that of PC-3/mock tumors (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, while most orthotopic PC-3 and PC-3/mock tumors grown for 4 weeks metastasized to prostate-draining lymph nodes, orthotopic PC-3/VEGF-C tumors primarily metastasized to the lungs. PC-3/VEGF-C tumors showed highly angiogenic morphology with an increased density of blood capillaries compared with PC-3/mock tumors (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites. 10.1186/1471-2407-9-362
    Mechanism of lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer. Datta Kaustubh,Muders Michael,Zhang Heyu,Tindall Donald J Future oncology (London, England) Detection of lymph node metastases indicates poor prognosis for prostate cancer patients. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism(s) of lymph node metastasis is important to understand the progression of prostate cancer and also to develop therapeutic interventions. In this article, the known mechanisms for lymph node metastasis are discussed and the involvement of lymphatic vessels in prostate cancer lymph node metastasis is comprehensively summarized. In addition, contradictory findings regarding the importance of lymphangiogenesis in facilitating lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer are pointed out and reconcilation is attempted. 10.2217/fon.10.33
    Lysophosphatidic acid enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Lin Chuan-En,Chen Shee-Uan,Lin Chu-Cheng,Chang Chi-Hao,Lin Yueh-Chien,Tai Yu-Ling,Shen Tang-Long,Lee Hsinyu PloS one Clinical evidence suggests that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis are important processes during the progression of prostate cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C was shown to be a key regulator in these processes. Our previous studies demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a low-molecular-weight lipid growth factor, enhances VEGF-C expression in human endothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that the LPA receptor plays an important role in lymphatic development in zebrafish embryos. However, the effects of LPA on VEGF-C expression in prostate cancer are not known. Herein, we demonstrate that LPA up-regulated VEGF-C expression in three different human prostate cancer cell lines. In PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, the enhancing effects of LPA were mediated through both LPA1 and LPA3. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) expression were involved in LPA(1/3)-dependent VEGF-C expression. Furthermore, autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme responsible for LPA synthesis, also participates in regulating VEGF-C expression. By interrupting LPA(1/3) of PC-3, conditioned medium (CM) -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lymphatic markers expression was also blocked. In summary, we found that LPA enhances VEGF-C expression through activating LPA(1/3)-, ROS-, and LEDGF-dependent pathways. These novel findings could potentially shed light on developing new strategies for preventing lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer. 10.1371/journal.pone.0041096
    Associations of nm23H1, VEGF-C, and VEGF-3 receptor in human prostate cancer. Yang Zui-Su,Xu Yin-Feng,Huang Fang-Fang,Ding Guo-Fang Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) We studied the expression of the non-metastatic clone 23 type 1 (nm23H1) gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and its receptor VEGFR-3 using an in situ hybridization technique and immunohistochemical analyses with prostate cancer tissues and adjacent benign tissues of 52 human archival cases. The association between VEGF-C expression, microlymphatic count (MLC), and staining intensity for nm23H1 and VEGFR-3 was used to evaluate tumor metastasis and survival rate. MLC values were significantly higher in tumorous tissue than in non-cancerous tissue. VEGF-C mRNA, VEGFR-3, and nm23H1 were highly expressed in tumorous tissue. VEGFR-3 expression was greater in VEGF-C mRNA-positive tumors than in VEGF-C mRNA-negative tumors. The association of VEGFR-3 expression with VEGF-C mRNA and MLC suggested that the poor prognosis and tumor metastasis associated with VEGFR-3 expression may be due, in part, to its role in promoting angiogenesis. VEGF-C expression was significantly associated with tumor lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and immune response as a potent multifunctional stimulating factor in prostate cancer. Expression of nm23H1 was significantly inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the expression of nm23H1, VEGF-C mRNA, and MLC. These findings provide important information for prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer. 10.3390/molecules19056851
    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C correlates with lymphatic microvessel density and lymph node metastasis in prostate carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study. Kostis Gyftopoulos,Ioannis Lilis,Helen Kourea,Helen Papadaki Urology annals AIM:To evaluate the expression of two different lymphatic vascular density (LVD) markers (D2-40 and LYVE-1) and a lymphangiogenic cytokine (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C, [VEGF-C]) in prostate carcinoma and to investigate their relationship with the lymph node status. SETTINGS AND DESIGN:Archival material study of 92 non-consecutive radical prostatectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The mean LVD was assessed immunohistochemically in 24 prostate carcinoma specimens from patients with clinically localized disease, who were found to have nodal metastasis (pN1), and was compared with 68 pN0 cases. Furthermore, the mean LVD, VEGF-C expression, and lymphatic invasion were examined in relation to lymph node involvement. RESULTS:Peritumoral (but not intratumoral) mean LVD assessed by D2-40 was higher in pN1 tumors (P = 0.015). LYVE-1 expression was limited and not associated with lymph node status. The VEGF-C expression was higher in the N1 cases and also correlated with the increased mean LVD in both the peri- and intratumoral compartments. Lymphatic invasion was strongly associated with nodal metastasis and higher VEGF-C expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that increased peritumoral (but not intratumoral) LVD in the tumor specimen is associated with lymph node metastasis. Increased expression of VEGF-C is associated with higher LVD (in both intratumoral and peritumoral compartments) and with positive lymph node status, indicating a possible dual role in both lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic vessel invasion. 10.4103/0974-7796.134275
    Overexpression of AKIP1 promotes angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Lin C,Song L,Liu A,Gong H,Lin X,Wu J,Li M,Li J Oncogene A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is found to be overexpressed in breast and prostate cancers, suggesting that AKIP1 might act as a potent oncogenic protein. However, the clinical significance and biological role of AKIP1 in cancer progression remain largely unknown. Herein, we report that AKIP1 is markedly overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines and clinical ESCC samples. AKIP1 expression significantly correlates with ESCC progression and patients' shorter survival time. Furthermore, we find that overexpressing AKIP1 induces, whereas silencing AKIP1 reduces, ESCC angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that AKIP1 transcriptionally upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) via interaction with its promoter through cooperation with multiple transcriptional factors, including SP1, AP2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Importantly, significant correlation between levels of AKIP1 and VEGF-C is observed in a cohort of human ESCC, as well as in non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian cancer. Hence, these findings indicate an important role for AKIP1 in ESCC angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, and uncover a novel mechanism for the upregulation of VEGF-C in cancers. 10.1038/onc.2013.559
    Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations. Benharroch Daniel,Prinsloo Isebrand,Gopas Jacob,Lazarev Irena Journal of Cancer A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. 10.7150/jca.16389
    Changes in Lymphangiogenesis and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression by Neo-Adjuvant Hormonal Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients. Asai Akihiro,Miyata Yasuyoshi,Matsuo Tomohiro,Shida Yohei,Hakariya Tomoaki,Ohba Kojiro,Sakai Hideki The Prostate BACKGROUND:The anti-cancer mechanism of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) is not well understood. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in cancer progression and is regulated by a complex mechanism that includes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. However, there is little information regarding relationship between lymphangiogenesis and androgen deprivation. The aim of this study was to clarify changes in lymphangiogenesis and VEGF expression induced by androgen deprivation in prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro. METHODS:Patients who had undergone a radical prostatectomy were enrolled in the study (NHT, n = 60 and non-NHT, n = 64). Lymph vessels were identified by D2-40 immunoreactivity and lymph vessel density and lymph vessel area (LVD and LVA, respectively) were measured from micrographs. The expression of VEGF-A, -B, -C, and -D was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of LVD and LVA for biochemical recurrence was also investigated. RESULTS:Mean LVD ± SD was higher in the NHT than in the non-NHT group (11.3 ± 3.0 vs. 7.1 ± 3.4 per high power field; P < 0.001). LVA was larger in the NHT than in the non-NHT group (512.8 ± 174.9 vs. 202.7 ± 72.8 µm ; P < 0.001). VEGF-A expression was lower whereas VEGF-C and -D levels were higher in the NHT than in the non-NHT group. VEGF-B expression in specimens with NHT was lower than that in biopsy specimens at diagnosis. These results were confirmed by in vitro studies used androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line. LVA was found to be an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients who received NHT. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that NHT stimulates lymphangiogenesis via upregulation of VEGF-C and -D, which may increase LVA and affect the outcome of prostate cancer patients. This findings were supported by in vitro data of prostate cancer cell. Prostate 77:255-262, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/pros.23244
    High Glucose Induces VEGF-C Expression via the LPA1/3-Akt-ROS-LEDGF Signaling Axis in Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells. Huang Yuan-Li,Lin Yueh-Chien,Lin Chu-Cheng,Chen Wei-Min,Chen Benjamin P C,Lee Hsinyu Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase the incidence and metastasis in various types of cancers. However, the correlation between hyperglycemia and lymphatic metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression, a lymphangiogenic factor, through activating it receptors LPA1/3 in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Moreover, hyperglycemia up-regulates autotaxin (ATX) expression, a LPA-generating enzyme. Therefore, we propose that high glucose promotes VEGF-C expression through LPA signaling in PCa cells. METHODS:Pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs were utilized to investigate the molecular mechanism of high glucose-induced VEGF-C expression. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the mRNA and protein expressions, respectively. Cellular bioenergetics analysis was performed to determine the glycolysis levels. RESULTS:We demonstrated that the expressions of VEGF-C, ATX, and calreticulin were increased upon high glucose treatments in PC-3 cells. Moreover, high glucose-induced VEGF-C expression was mediated through the LPA1/3, PLC, Akt, ROS and LEDGF-dependent pathways. Additionally, high glucose enhanced the aerobic glycolysis via LPA1/3. CONCLUSION:These results indicated that hyperglycemia leads to LPA synthesis, and subsequent promoting pathological consequence of PCa. These novel findings could potentially provide new strategies for PCa treatments. 10.1159/000494177
    LPA signaling mediates tumor lymphangiogenesis through promoting CRT expression in prostate cancer. Lin Yueh-Chien,Chen Chien-Chin,Chen Wei-Min,Lu Kuan-Ying,Shen Tang-Long,Jou Yeong-Chin,Shen Cheng-Huang,Ohbayashi Norihiko,Kanaho Yasunori,Huang Yuan-Li,Lee Hsinyu Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid growth factor which is present in high levels in serum and platelets. LPA binds to its specific G-protein-coupled receptors, including LPA to LPA, thereby regulating various physiological functions, including cancer growth, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. Our previous study showed that LPA promotes the expression of the lymphangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Interestingly, LPA has been shown to regulate the expression of calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional chaperone protein, but the roles of CRT in PCa progression remain unclear. Here we investigated the involvement of CRT in LPA-mediated VEGF-C expression and lymphangiogenesis in PCa. Knockdown of CRT significantly reduced LPA-induced VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. Moreover, LPA promoted CRT expression through LPA receptors LPA and LPA, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Tumor-xenografted mouse experiments further showed that CRT knockdown suppressed tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis. Notably, clinical evidence indicated that the LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX) is related to CRT and that CRT level is highly associated with lymphatic vessel density and VEGF-C expression. Interestingly, the pharmacological antagonist of LPA receptors significantly reduced the lymphatic vessel density in tumor and lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Together, our results demonstrated that CRT is critical in PCa progression through the mediation of LPA-induced VEGF-C expression, implying that targeting the LPA signaling axis is a potential therapeutic strategy for PCa. 10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.07.005
    Mechanisms of Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis in Prostate Cancer. Wu Pei-Yi,Lin Yueh-Chien,Huang Yuan-Li,Chen Wei-Min,Chen Chien-Chin,Lee Hsinyu Cancers Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer in men worldwide. One of its major treatments is androgen deprivation therapy, but PCa frequently relapses as aggressive castration resistant local tumors and distal metastases. Hence, the development of novel agents or treatment modalities for advanced PCa is crucial. Many tumors, including PCa, first metastasize to regional lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels. Recent findings demonstrate that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promotes PCa progression by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a critical mediator of tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Many of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the LPA⁻VEGF-C axis have been described, revealing potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced PCa. Herein, we review the literature that illustrates a functional role for LPA signaling in PCa progression. These discoveries may be especially applicable to anti-lymphangiogenic strategies for the prevention and therapy of metastatic PCa. 10.3390/cancers10110413
    PKCζ facilitates lymphatic metastatic spread of prostate cancer cells in a mice xenograft model. Zang Guangxiang,Mu Yabing,Gao Linlin,Bergh Anders,Landström Marene Oncogene Prostate cancer disseminates primarily into the adjacent lymph nodes, which is related to a poor outcome. Atypical protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) is highly expressed in aggressive prostate cancer and correlates with Gleason score, clinical stage, and poor prognosis. Here, we report the molecular mechanisms of PKCζ in lymphatic metastasis during prostate cancer progression. Using zinc-finger nuclease technology or PKCζ shRNA lentiviral particles, and orthotopic mouse xenografts, we show that PKCζ-knockout or knockdown from aggressive prostate cancer (PC3 and PC3U) cells, decreasesd tumor growth and lymphatic metastasis in vivo. Intriguingly, PKCζ-knockout or knockdown impaired the activation of AKT, ERK, and NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells, thereby impairing the expression of lymphangiogenic factors and macrophage recruitment, resulting in aberrant lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, PKCζ regulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase enzymes, which is important for hyaluronan-mediated lymphatic drainage and tumor dissemination. Thus, PKCζ plays a crucial oncogenic role in the lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer and is predicted to be a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer. 10.1038/s41388-019-0722-9
    Tumor necrosis factor-α induces prostate cancer cell migration in lymphatic metastasis through CCR7 upregulation. Maolake Aerken,Izumi Kouji,Natsagdorj Ariunbold,Iwamoto Hiroaki,Kadomoto Suguru,Makino Tomoyuki,Naito Renato,Shigehara Kazuyoshi,Kadono Yoshifumi,Hiratsuka Kaoru,Wufuer Guzailinuer,Nastiuk Kent L,Mizokami Atsushi Cancer science Understanding the mechanism of lymph node metastasis, a poor prognostic sign for prostate cancer, and the further dissemination of the disease is important to develop novel treatment strategies. Recent studies have reported that C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), whose ligand is CCL21, is abundantly expressed in lymph node metastasis and promotes cancer progression. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is chronically produced at low levels within the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to determine whether TNF-α promotes prostate cancer dissemination from metastatic lymph nodes through activation of the CCL21/CCR7 axis. First, human prostate cancer cells were determined to express both TNF-α and CCR7. Second, low concentrations of TNF-α were confirmed to induce CCR7 in prostate cancer cells through phosphorylation of ERK. Finally, CCL21 was found to promote the migration of prostate cancer cells through phosphorylation of the protein kinase p38. Our results suggest that TNF-α leads to the induction of CCR7 expression and that the CCL21/CCR7 axis might increase the metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells in lymph node metastasis. 10.1111/cas.13586
    Development and validation of hub genes for lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. Xu Ning,Chen Shao-Hao,Lin Ting-Ting,Cai Hai,Ke Zhi-Bin,Dong Ru-Nan,Huang Peng,Li Xiao-Dong,Chen Ye-Hui,Zheng Qing-Shui Journal of cellular and molecular medicine Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important independent risk factors that can negatively affect the prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa); however, the exact mechanisms have not been well studied. This study aims to better understand the underlying mechanism of lymph node metastasis in PCa by bioinformatics analysis. We analysed a total of 367 PCa cases from the cancer genome atlas database and performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis to explore some modules related to lymph node metastasis. Gene Ontology analysis and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted for functional annotation, and a protein-protein interaction network was built. Samples from the International Cancer Genomics Consortium database were used as a validation set. The turquoise module showed the most relevance with lymph node metastasis. Functional annotation showed that biological processes and pathways were mainly related to activation of the processes of cell cycle and mitosis. Four hub genes were selected: CKAP2L, CDCA8, ERCC6L and ARPC1A. Further validation showed that the four hub genes well-distinguished tumour and normal tissues, and they were good biomarkers for lymph node metastasis of PCa. In conclusion, the identified hub genes facilitate our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanism for lymph node metastasis of PCa. 10.1111/jcmm.15098