Methamphetamine mediates apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells via the chop-related endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.
Tan Xiaohui,Cai Dunpeng,Chen Na,Du Sihao,Qiao Dongfang,Yue Xia,Wang Tao,Li Jia,Xie Weibing,Wang Huijun
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive amphetamine-type drug that has caused persistent harm to society and human health in recent years. Most studies have shown that METH severely damages the central nervous system, and this drug has been found to be toxic to the cardiovascular system in recent years. Therefore, we hypothesized that METH may also damage vascular smooth muscle. We examined the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Caspase 3 and PARP after METH treatment in vivo and in vitro and detected the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins. After treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor 4-PBA, changes in the above indicators were examined. C/EBP homologous protein (Chop) expression was also detected, and the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis was further determined by siRNA silencing of Chop. The results indicated that METH can induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and upregulate the expression of Chop and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins. Chop inhibits protein kinase B phosphorylation and further inhibits forkhead box class O3a (Foxo3a) dephosphorylation, resulting in increased p53 upregulated molecular of apoptosis (PUMA) transcription. Increased PUMA induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. These results indicate that Chop is involved in the METH-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in VSMCs and may be a potential therapeutic target for METH-induced VSMC injury.
Effect of reperfusion on vascular smooth muscle reactivity in three contraction models.
Grześk Elżbieta,Darwish Nasser,Stolarek Wioleta,Wiciński Michał,Malinowski Bartosz,Burdziński Igor,Grześk Grzegorz
BACKGROUND:Ischemia and reperfusion remain inseparable elements of numerous medical procedures such as by-pass surgery, organ transplantation or other cardiology and intervention radiology. The contraction of the smooth muscle of the vessel is considered to be one of the basic components leading to impaired perfusion, an increase in the oxygen deficit of the endothelium of the vessel, and subsequently also to tissues vascularized by the vessel. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ischemia and reperfusion on vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated pharmacologically with mastoparan-7 (direct G-protein activator) in comparison to stimulation of G-protein coupled receptor agonist - phenylephrine, and direct calcium channel activator - Bay K8644. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Experiments were performed on isolated and perfused tail artery of Wistar rats. Contraction force in our model was measured by increased level of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. RESULTS:Concentration-response curves obtained for phenylephrine, mastoparan-7 and Bay K8644 presented a sigmoidal relation. Ischemia induced hyporreactivity of vessels, whereas during reperfusion the significant time related hyperreactivity for phenylephrine and mastoparan-7 only but not for Bay K8644. These reactions were secondary to the modulation of calcium influx from intra- and extracellular calcium stores. CONCLUSIONS:Results of our experiments suggest that mastoparan-7 significantly induces contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells not only for controls but in the presence of ischemia and reperfusion too. Potential therapeutic applications of the observed reactions are important. They may include regenerative processes within the nervous system, studies on the improvement of blood flow within the microcirculation, or antimicrobial activity. Modulation of the G protein-phospholipase C response may also be an interesting point of action of future drugs modifying the response to stimulation during ischemia in particular, such activities could take place during the transport of organs for transplantation.
The effects of anti-hypertensive drugs and the mechanism of hypertension in vascular smooth muscle cell-specific ATP2B1 knockout mice.
Okuyama Yuki,Hirawa Nobuhito,Fujita Megumi,Fujiwara Akira,Ehara Yosuke,Yatsu Keisuke,Sumida Koichiro,Kagimoto Minako,Katsumata Mari,Kobayashi Yusuke,Saka Sanae,Umemura Satoshi,Tamura Kouichi
Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
ATP2B1 is a gene associated with hypertension. We reported previously that mice lacking ATP2B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC ATP2B1 KO mice) exhibited high blood pressure and increased intracellular calcium concentration. The present study was designed to investigate whether lack of the ATP2B1 gene causes a higher response to calcium channel blockers (CCBs) than to other types of anti-hypertensive drugs. Both VSMC ATP2B1 KO and control mice were administered anti-hypertensive drugs while monitoring blood pressure shifts. We also examined the association of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in those mice to investigate whether another mechanism of hypertension existed. VSMC ATP2B1 KO mice exhibited significantly greater anti-hypertensive effects with a single injection of nicardipine, but the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), an α-blocker and amlodipine on blood pressure were all similar to control mice. However, long-term treatment with amlodipine, but not an ARB, significantly decreased the blood pressure of KO mice compared with control mice. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of the L-type calcium channel were significantly upregulated in KO VSMCs. There were no alterations in neural NOS protein expression of VSMCs or in urinary NO production between the two groups. VSMC ATP2B1 KO mice had a higher response to CCBs for blood pressure-lowering effects than other anti-hypertensive drugs. These results mean that increased intracellular calcium concentration in VSMCs due to lack of ATP2B1 and subsequent activation of L-type calcium channels mainly affects blood pressure and suggests increased susceptibility to CCBs in this type of hypertension.
Hyperoxia does not directly affect vascular tone in isolated arteries from mice.
Smit B,Smulders Y M,de Waard M C,Oudemans-van Straaten H M,Girbes A R J,Eringa E C,Spoelstra-de Man A M E
Hospitalized patients often receive oxygen supplementation, which can lead to a supraphysiological oxygen tension (hyperoxia). Hyperoxia can have hemodynamic effects, including an increase in systemic vascular resistance. This increase suggests hyperoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet reported direct effects of hyperoxia on vessel tone have been inconsistent. Furthermore, hyperoxia-induced changes in vessel diameter have not been studied in mice, currently the most used mammal model of disease. In this study we set out to develop a pressure-myograph model using isolated vessels from mice for investigation of pathways involved in hyperoxic vasoconstriction. Isolated conduit and resistance arteries (femoral artery and gracilis arteriole, respectively) from C57BL/6 mice were exposed to normoxia (PO2 of 80 mmHg) and three levels of hyperoxia (PO2 of 215, 375 and 665 mmHg) in a no-flow pressure myograph setup. Under the different PO2 levels, dose-response agonist induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation (acetylcholine, arachidonic acid), endothelium-independent vasodilation (s-nitroprusside), as well as vasoconstriction (norepinephrine, prostaglandin F2α) were examined. The investigated arteries did not respond to oxygen by a change in vascular tone. In the dose-response studies, maximal responses and EC50 values to any of the aforementioned agonists were not affected by hyperoxia either. We conclude that arteries and arterioles from healthy mice are not intrinsically sensitive to hyperoxic conditions. The present ex-vivo model is therefore not suitable for further research into mechanisms of hyperoxic vasoconstriction.
The biphasic effects of the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis.
Wang Ting,Zhou Hong,Chen Yudan,Zhang Peng,Wang Ting
In our previous study, the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex was demonstrated to further enhance the foam cell formation and migration of VSMC, as well as the expression of inflammatory cytokines, via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. However, sparse information is available on other pro-atherogenic pathogenic effects of the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex, such as effects on proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, we focused on the biphasic effects and underlying mechanisms of the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex on VSMC survival. The data showed that short exposure to the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex could activate NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways and stimulate cell proliferation in VSMC. In contrast, longer exposure increased the level of p38 pathway activation and cell apoptosis. Additionally, the promotion effect of the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex on both proliferation and apoptosis, as well as signaling pathway activation, was stronger than that of the other control groups. The use of selective blockers showed that TLR4/NF-κB and ERK1/2 partly mediated oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex-induced proliferation and had an inhibitory effect on complex-stimulated apoptosis. Conversely, TLR2/p38 partly mediated oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex-induced apoptosis and had a negative effect on complex-stimulated proliferation. Specific inhibitors of NF-κB and ERK1/2 activation could augment the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex-induced phosphorylation of p38 and vice versa. Under pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors, intracellular ROS generation was confirmed to participate in oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex-induced proliferation and apoptosis, as well as the phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. Taken together, our data clearly revealed that the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex had biphasic effects on VSMC survival, partly mediated by ROS-induced NF-κB and MAPKs activation. The TLR4/NF-κB and TLR2/p38 pathways played supporting roles in this dual effects-initiated signal network, and there is a trade-off relationship between the phosphorylation of NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38. The dual effects of the oxLDL/βGPI/anti-βGPI complex on VSMC survival contribute to the development of the structure typical of atherosclerotic lesions, particularly focal excessive growth alternating with necrosis.
Cytokine regulation of apoptosis-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-induced cell proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Aravani Dimitra,Foote Kirsty,Figg Nichola,Finigan Alison,Uryga Anna,Clarke Murray,Bennett Martin
Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the main structural cell of blood vessels, and VSMC apoptosis occurs in vascular disease, after injury, and in vessel remodeling during development. Although VSMC apoptosis is viewed as silent, recent studies show that apoptotic cells can promote apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (AICP), apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AIA), and migration of both local somatic and infiltrating inflammatory cells. However, the effects of VSMC apoptosis on adjacent VSMCs, and their underlying signaling and mechanisms are unknown. We examined the consequences of VSMC apoptosis after activating extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways. VSMCs undergoing apoptosis through Fas/CD95 or the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine transcriptionally activated interleukin 6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leading to their secretion. Apoptosis induced activation of p38MAPK, JNK, and Akt, but neither p38 and JNK activation nor IL-6 or GM-CSF induction required caspase cleavage. IL-6 induction depended upon p38 activity, while Fas-induced GM-CSF expression required p38 and JNK. Conditioned media from apoptotic VSMCs induced VSMC apoptosis in vitro, and IL-6 and GM-CSF acted as pro-survival factors for AIA. VSMC apoptosis was studied in vivo using SM22α-DTR mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor in VSMCs only. DT administration induced VSMC apoptosis and VSMC proliferation, and also signficantly induced IL-6 and GM-CSF. We conclude that VSMC apoptosis activates multiple caspase-independent intracellular signaling cascades, leading to release of soluble cytokines involved in regulation of both cell proliferation and apoptosis. VSMC AICP may ameliorate while AIA may amplify the effects of pro-apoptotic stimuli in vessel remodeling and disease.
Dissecting out the complex Ca2+-mediated phenylephrine-induced contractions of mouse aortic segments.
Fransen Paul,Van Hove Cor E,Leloup Arthur J A,Martinet Wim,De Meyer Guido R Y,Lemmens Katrien,Bult Hidde,Schrijvers Dorien M
L-type Ca2+ channel (VGCC) mediated Ca2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to the functional properties of large arteries in arterial stiffening and central blood pressure regulation. How this influx relates to steady-state contractions elicited by α1-adrenoreceptor stimulation and how it is modulated by small variations in resting membrane potential (Vm) of VSMC is not clear yet. Here, we show that α1-adrenoreceptor stimulation of aortic segments of C57Bl6 mice with phenylephrine (PE) causes phasic and tonic contractions. By studying the relationship between Ca2+ mobilisation and isometric tension, it was found that the phasic contraction was due to intracellular Ca2+ release and the tonic contraction determined by Ca2+ influx. The latter component involves both Ca2+ influx via VGCC and via non-selective cation channels (NSCC). Influx via VGCC occurs only within the window voltage range of the channel. Modulation of this window Ca2+ influx by small variations of the VSMC Vm causes substantial effects on the contractile performance of aortic segments. The relative contribution of VGCC and NSCC to the contraction by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation could be manipulated by increasing intracellular Ca2+ release from non-contractile sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores. Results of this study point to a complex interactions between α1-adrenoceptor-mediated VSMC contractile performance and Ca2+ release form contractile or non-contractile Ca2+ stores with concomitant Ca2+ influx. Given the importance of VGCC and their blockers in arterial stiffening and hypertension, they further point toward an additional role of NSCC (and NSCC blockers) herein.
CKLF1 aggravates neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells through PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling.
Duan Yanyu,Zhang Yongbao,Qu Chengjia,Yu Weidong,Tana ,Shen Chenyang
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) is a cytokine, which has a detrimental effect on the multiple disease progression. Our previous studies reported that arterial injury induced the upregulation of CKLF1 expression in artery at 7-14 days after injury. Here, using a rat carotid balloon injury model, we found that CKLF1 knockdown in the injured site abolished neointimal formation and even decreased medial area; contrarily, CKLF1 overexpression developed a thicker neointima than controls, demonstrating that CKLF1 exerted positive effects on neointimal hyperplasia and the accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The mechanism study indicated that CKLF1 reduced susceptibility to the cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis, and thereby speeding up VSMC accumulation. This role of CKLF1 was tightly associated with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signaling pathway. CKLF1 increased the expression of four isoforms of the PI3-kinase catalytic subunits, which in turn activated its downstream targets Akt and an effector NF-κB accepted as critical transcription factors of cell survival and proliferation. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that CKLF1 had wide-ranging roles in regulating the expression of genes that mainly engaged in cell apoptosis and innate immune response. Collectively, the data allow us to conclude that high level CKLF1 after artery injury switches the balance of VSMC proliferation and apoptosis through PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling and consequently leads to neointimal hyperplasia. The findings shed insight into new treatment strategies to limit restenosis based on CKLF1 as a future target.
Human colorectal cancer cells induce vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis in an exocrine manner.
Li Wei-Wei,Wang Hai-Yue,Nie Xi,Liu Ya-Bin,Han Mei,Li Bing-Hui
Tumor vessels often lack the smooth muscle layer, and the instability is conducive to tumor invasion and metastasis. The effect of tumor microenvironment on vascular smooth muscle cells needs to be explored. In the present study, we examined the density of the tumor vessels in human colorectal cancer tissues, and used the tumor conditioned medium of human colorectal cancer HT29 cells to mimic the tumor microenvironment. We showed that the vessel density in colorectal cancer tissues increased, which displayed a decreased expression of smooth muscle α-actin, a specific marker of vascular smooth muscle cells and an attenuated or a discontinuous layer of vascular smooth muscle cells compared with the matched normal tissues. We also showed that the tumor conditioned medium decreased the cell viability, and induced the apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of pro-Caspase-3 was down-regulated, accompanied by increasing of cleaved-Caspase-3 in the cells treated with the tumor conditioned medium, suggesting that Caspase-3 was activated. Moreover, the expression of Bax was increased, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased under the same conditions. Furthermore, the treatment with the tumor conditioned medium resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that HT29 cells induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an exocrine manner, associated with activating caspase-3 via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This may be one of the mechanisms underlying tumor vascular structural abnormalities.
Transmembrane member 16A participates in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by facilitating mitochondria-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Zeng Jia-Wei,Chen Bao-Yi,Lv Xiao-Fei,Sun Lu,Zeng Xue-Lin,Zheng Hua-Qing,Du Yan-Hua,Wang Guan-Lei,Ma Ming-Ming,Guan Yong-Yuan
British journal of pharmacology
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), an intrinsic constituent of the Ca -activated Cl channel, is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and hypertension-induced cerebrovascular remodelling. However, the functional significance of TMEM16A for apoptosis in basilar artery smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how TMEM16A contributes to apoptosis in BASMCs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, Western blot, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, immunogold labelling and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) were performed. KEY RESULTS:Hydrogen peroxide (H O ) induced BASMC apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, including by increasing the apoptosis rate, down-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and potentiating the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. These effects were all reversed by the silencing of TMEM16A and were further potentiated by the overexpression of TMEM16A. Endogenous TMEM16A was detected in the mitochondrial fraction. Co-IP revealed an interaction between TMEM16A and cyclophilin D, a component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). This interaction was up-regulated by H O but restricted by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D. TMEM16A increased mPTP opening, resulting in the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The results obtained with cultured BASMCs from TMEM16A smooth muscle-specific knock-in mice were consistent with those from rat BASMCs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:These results suggest that TMEM16A participates in H O -induced apoptosis via modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability in VSMCs. This study establishes TMEM16A as a target for therapy of several remodelling-related diseases.
Regulation of renalase expression by D5 dopamine receptors in rat renal proximal tubule cells.
Wang Shaoxiong,Lu Xi,Yang Jian,Wang Hongyong,Chen CaiYu,Han Yu,Ren Hongmei,Zheng Shuo,He Duofen,Zhou Lin,Asico Laureano D,Wang Wei Eric,Jose Pedro A,Zeng Chunyu
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
The dopaminergic and sympathetic systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Our previous studies showed regulation of α1-adrenergic receptor function by D1-like dopamine receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells. Because renalase could regulate circulating epinephrine levels and dopamine production in renal proximal tubules (RPTs), we tested the hypothesis that D1-like receptors regulate renalase expression in kidney. The effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on renalase expression and function was measured in immortalized RPT cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We found that the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam (10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l) increased renalase protein expression and function in WKY RPT cells but decreased them in SHR cells. Fenoldopam also increased renalase mRNA levels in WKY but not in SHR cells. In contrast, fenoldopam increased the degradation of renalase protein in SHR cells but not in WKY cells. The regulation of renalase by the D1-like receptor was mainly via the D5 receptor because silencing of the D5 but not D1 receptor by antisense oligonucleotides blocked the stimulatory effect of the D1-like receptor on renalase expression in WKY cells. Moreover, inhibition of PKC, by the PKC inhibitor 19-31, blocked the stimulatory effect of fenoldopam on renalase expression while stimulation of PKC, by a PKC agonist (PMA), increased renalase expression, indicating that PKC is involved in the process. Our studies suggest that the D5 receptor positively regulates renalase expression in WKY but not SHR RPT cells; aberrant regulation of renalase by the D5 receptor may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
Reactive Oxygen Species: Modulators of Phenotypic Switch of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Badran Adnan,Nasser Suzanne A,Mesmar Joelle,El-Yazbi Ahmed F,Bitto Alessandra,Fardoun Manal M,Baydoun Elias,Eid Ali H
International journal of molecular sciences
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are natural byproducts of oxygen metabolism in the cell. At physiological levels, they play a vital role in cell signaling. However, high ROS levels cause oxidative stress, which is implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after angioplasty. Despite the great amount of research conducted to identify the role of ROS in CVD, the image is still far from being complete. A common event in CVD pathophysiology is the switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. Interestingly, oxidative stress is a major contributor to this phenotypic switch. In this review, we focus on the effect of ROS on the hallmarks of VSMC phenotypic switch, particularly proliferation and migration. In addition, we speculate on the underlying molecular mechanisms of these cellular events. Along these lines, the impact of ROS on the expression of contractile markers of VSMCs is discussed in depth. We conclude by commenting on the efficiency of antioxidants as CVD therapies.
Angiotensin-(1-9) prevents vascular remodeling by decreasing vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through a FoxO1-dependent mechanism.
Norambuena-Soto Ignacio,Ocaranza Maria Paz,Cancino-Arenas Nicole,Sanhueza-Olivares Fernanda,Villar-Fincheira Paulina,Leiva-Navarrete Sebastian,Mancilla-Medina Cristian,Moya Jacqueline,Novoa Ulises,Jalil Jorge E,Castro Pablo F,Lavandero Sergio,Chiong Mario
The renin-angiotensin system, one of the main regulators of vascular function, controls vasoconstriction, inflammation and vascular remodeling. Antagonistic actions of the counter-regulatory renin-angiotensin system, which include vasodilation, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects, have also been described. However, little is known about the direct effects of angiotensin-(1-9), a peptide of the counter-regulatory renin-angiotensin system, on vascular smooth muscle cells. Here, we studied the anti-vascular remodeling effects of angiotensin-(1-9), with special focus on the control of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype. Angiotensin-(1-9) decreased blood pressure and aorta media thickness in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Reduction of media thickness was associated with decreased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In the A7r5 VSMC cell line and in primary cultures of rat aorta smooth muscle cells, angiotensin-(1-9) did not modify basal proliferation. However, angiotensin-(1-9) inhibited proliferation, migration and contractile protein decrease induced by platelet derived growth factor-BB. Moreover, angiotensin-(1-9) reduced Akt and FoxO1 phosphorylation at 30 min, followed by an increase of total FoxO1 protein content. Angiotensin-(1-9) effects were blocked by the AT2R antagonist PD123319, Akt-Myr overexpression and FoxO1 siRNA. These data suggest that angiotensin-(1-9) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation by an AT2R/Akt/FoxO1-dependent mechanism.
VCAM-1-targeted and PPARδ-agonist-loaded nanomicelles enhanced suppressing effects on apoptosis and migration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced vascular smooth muscle cells.
Wei Gang,Hao Liangang,Li Xueli,Xu Wen,Liu Fuxiang,Peng Qian,Lv Shoutian
PURPOSE:Nanomicelles (NMs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to its unique physiochemical properties. The present study aims to investigate the effects of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-targeted and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonist (GW0742)-loaded NMs on apoptosis and migration in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMCs). METHODS:The GW0742-loaded NMs (M-GW) and VCAM-1-targeted NMs loaded with GW0742 (TM-GW) were prepared, and then the morphologies and the size distribution of M-GM and TM-GM were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. In vitro drug release assay of M-GM and TM-GM were performed as well. Next, HAVSMCs were cultured in medium containing ox-LDL to mimic atherosclerotic environment, and the effects of free GW0742, M-GM and TM-GM on endocytosis, cell migration and apoptosis, as well as the expression of VCAM-1, and proteins associated with migration and apoptosis were measured in HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL. RESULTS:M-GM and TM-GM were successfully prepared. VCAM-1 was overexpressed in HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL, and TM-GM had a strong targeting ability to HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL compared with M-GM. In addition, compared with free GW0742, both M-GM and TM-GM significantly diminished cell apoptosis and migration in HAVSMCs treated with ox-LDL. CONCLUSIONS:TM-GM had a superior suppressing effect on apoptosis and migration of ox-LDL-induced HAVSMCs.
Overexpressed EDIL3 predicts poor prognosis and promotes anchorage-independent tumor growth in human pancreatic cancer.
Jiang Shu-Heng,Wang Yang,Yang Jian-Yu,Li Jun,Feng Ming-Xuan,Wang Ya-Hui,Yang Xiao-Mei,He Ping,Tian Guang-Ang,Zhang Xiao-Xin,Li Qing,Cao Xiao-Yan,Huo Yan-Miao,Yang Min-Wei,Fu Xue-Liang,Li Jiao,Liu De-Jun,Dai Miao,Wen Shan-Yun,Gu Jian-Ren,Hong Jie,Hua Rong,Zhang Zhi-Gang,Sun Yong-Wei
Epidermal Growth Factor-like repeats and Discoidin I-Like Domains 3 (EDIL3), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein associated with vascular morphogenesis and remodeling, is commonly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and correlates with tumor progression. However, its expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain largely unexplored. In current study, we observed that expression of EDIL3 was significantly up-regulated in PDAC compared with normal controls in both cell lines and clinical specimens. In addition, elevated EDIL3 expression was positively correlated with patients' TNM stage and T classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high EDIL3 expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival times in PDAC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed EDIL3 expression, age, lymph node metastasis and histological differentiation as independent prognostic factors in PDAC. Knockdown of EDIL3 showed no significant influence on cell viability, migration, invasion and starvation-induced apoptosis, but compromised anoikis resistance and anchorage independent tumor growth of PDAC cells. Meanwhile, treatment with recombinant EDIL3 protein markedly promoted anoikis resistance and anchorage independent tumor growth. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family might contribute to the oncogenic activities of EDIL3. In conclusion, this study provides evidences that EDIL3 is a potential predictor and plays an important role in anchorage independent tumor growth of PDAC and EDIL3-related pathways might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer.
ER stress dependent microparticles derived from smooth muscle cells promote endothelial dysfunction during thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.
Jia Li-Xin,Zhang Wen-Mei,Li Tao-Tao,Liu Yan,Piao Chun-Mei,Ma You-Cai,Lu Yu,Wang Yuan,Liu Ting-Ting,Qi Yong-Fen,Du Jie
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
The degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cell(s) (SMC) is one of the key features of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). We and others have shown that elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes SMC loss and TAAD formation, however, the mechanism of how SMC dysfunction contributes to intimal damage, leading to TAAD, remains to be explored. In the present study, assay demonstrated that elevated mechanical stretch (18% elongation, 3600 cycles/h) stimulated the ER stress response and microparticle(s) (MP) production from both SMC and endothelial cell(s) (EC) in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of EC with isolated MP led to anoikis, which was determined by measuring the fluorescence of the ethidium homodimer (EthD-1) and Calcein AM cultured in hydrogel-coated plates and control plates. MP stimulation of EC also up-regulated the mRNA levels of inflammatory molecules (i.e. Vascular cellular adhesion molecular-1 (VCAM-1)), intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Use of an ER stress inhibitor or knockout of CHOP decreased mechanical stretch-induced MP production in SMC. , administration of an ER stress inhibitor or knockout of CHOP suppressed both apoptosis of EC and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, TAAD formation was also suppressed by the administration of an ER stress inhibitor. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that elevated mechanical stretch induces MP formation in SMC leading to endothelial dysfunction, which is ER stress dependent. The inhibition of ER stress suppressed EC apoptosis, inflammation in the aorta, and TAAD development.
Cell surface adhesion molecules and adhesion-initiated signaling: understanding of anoikis resistance mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.
Zhong Xiaoling,Rescorla Frederick J
Cells express various cell surface adhesion molecules (receptors) that not only mechanically serve as contacting sites between the cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) or adjacent cells, but also initiate intracellular signaling pathways modulating important cellular events including survival and proliferation. Normal cells undergo apoptosis when lacking ECM attachment. This type of cell death has been termed anoikis. Anoikis can be viewed as a normal process which ensures tissue homeostasis and failure to execute the anoikis program or resistance to anoikis could result in adherent cells surviving under suspension condition and proliferating at ectopic sites where the matrix proteins are different from those the cells originally contact. Resistance to anoikis is emerging as a hallmark of metastatic cancers which enables cancer cells to disseminate to distant organs through systemic circulation. In this review, we will discuss the molecular basis of adhesion-initiated signaling, the impact of loss of cell-ECM adhesion on normal cell survival, the role of cancer cell aggregate formation via intercellular adhesion under non-adherent condition, and mechanisms of anoikis resistance developed in metastatic cancer cells. Understanding of these aspects will provide opportunities to find new potential molecular targets, and therapeutic strategies based on these findings will likely prove to be more specific and effective.
The sensors and regulators of cell-matrix surveillance in anoikis resistance of tumors.
Nagaprashantha Lokesh Dalasanur,Vatsyayan Rit,Lelsani Poorna Chandra Rao,Awasthi Sanjay,Singhal Sharad S
International journal of cancer
Normal cells continuously monitor the nature of their respective cellular microenvironment. They are equipped with an inherent molecular defense to detect changes that can precipitate and trigger an oncogenic cascade in the internal and external environment of cells. The process called anoikis unleashes many a characteristic molecular change in the cells which eventually program to cell death in response to cell detachment and inappropriate cellular attachment, both of which can otherwise potentiate the ability of cells to preferentially pursue a malignant course due to the release of molecular discipline which conforms them to a benign structural and functional spectrum. The initiation and propagation of signaling that serves as a switch to cell survival or cell death mediated by surveillance of cell microenvironment is comprised of many heterogeneous sets of molecules interacting mainly at the interface of cell-extracellular matrix. Transforming cells continuously reprogram their signaling characteristics in sensing and modulating the stimuli from cell surface molecules like integrins, cadherins and immunoglobulin family of cell adhesion molecules at adhesion complexes, which enables them to resist anoikis and metastasize to different organs. Actin cytoskeleton binds BIM and Bcl2 modifying factor (BMF), which are regulated by the adhesion status and consequent conformation of cytoskeleton in the cells. This review aims at an integrated synopsis of fundamental mechanisms of the critical interactions of cell surface molecules to facilitate a focused analysis of the differential regulation of signaling processes at cell-ECM junctions that collectively rein the anoikis resistance, which in turn impacts metastatic aggressiveness and drug resistance of tumors originating from respective organs.
Acquisition of anoikis resistance promotes alterations in the Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and matrix remodeling in endothelial cells.
de Sousa Mesquita Ana Paula,de Araújo Lopes Silvana,Pernambuco Filho Paulo Castanho A,Nader Helena B,Lopes Carla Cristina
Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death
Anoikis is a programmed cell death induced upon cell detachment from extracellular matrix. Anoikis resistance is a critical mechanism in tumor metastasis. Cancer cells deregulate and adapt their metabolism to survive in the absence of adhesion, spreading metastases to distant organs. These adaptations include abnormal regulation of growth factor receptors activating prosurvival signaling pathways, such as the Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and extracellular matrix remodeling, leading to metastasis by an increase of invasiveness and inhibiting anoikis. This study investigates the possible involvement of ECM components and signaling pathways in the regulation of resistance to anoikis in endothelial cells (EC). Endothelial cells submitted to stressful conditions by blocking adhesion to substrate (anoikis resistance) display an up-regulation of Ras/ERK and PI3k/Akt pathways by high expression of Ras, ERK, PI3K (p110α) and Akt (Thr 308). After ERK and PI3K inhibiting, all EC-derived cell lines studied showed lower growth, a decrease in invasive potential and a higher rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, anoikis-resistant cell lines display a decrease in the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and hyaluronic acid and an increase in the expression of laminin, perlecan, αv, β3, α5 and β1 integrins subunits, hyaluronidades 1, 2 and 3 and metalloproteinases 2 and 9. These results indicate that the acquisition of anoikis resistance induced remodeling of the extracellular matrix and overexpression of the PI3K/Akt and Ras/ERK pathway components. Acquisition of resistance to anoikis is a potentially crucial step in endothelial cell transformation.
Caspase-3 Deletion Promotes Necrosis in Atherosclerotic Plaques of ApoE Knockout Mice.
Grootaert Mandy O J,Schrijvers Dorien M,Hermans Marthe,Van Hoof Viviane O,De Meyer Guido R Y,Martinet Wim
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Apoptosis of macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in advanced atherosclerotic plaques contributes to plaque progression and instability. Caspase-3, a key executioner protease in the apoptotic pathway, has been identified in human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques but its role in atherogenesis is not fully explored. We therefore investigated the impact of caspase-3 deletion on atherosclerosis by crossbreeding caspase-3 knockout (Casp3) mice with apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE) mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages and VSMCs isolated from Casp3ApoE mice were resistant to apoptosis but showed increased susceptibility to necrosis. However, caspase-3 deficiency did not sensitize cells to undergo RIP1-dependent necroptosis. To study the effect on atherosclerotic plaque development, Casp3ApoE and Casp3ApoE mice were fed a western-type diet for 16 weeks. Though total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels were not altered, both the plaque size and percentage necrosis were significantly increased in the aortic root of Casp3ApoE mice as compared to Casp3ApoE mice. Macrophage content was significantly decreased in plaques of Casp3ApoE mice as compared to controls, while collagen content and VSMC content were not changed. To conclude, deletion of caspase-3 promotes plaque growth and plaque necrosis in ApoE mice, indicating that this antiapoptotic strategy is unfavorable to improve atherosclerotic plaque stability.
Bcl2 enhances c-Myc-mediated MMP-2 expression of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Lu Qun,Hong Wang
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a major group of enzymes that regulate cell matrix composition. In this paper, our results show that c-Myc significantly induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and invasion, compared with the results, the T58A had more effectively than WT c-Myc, which was associated with c-Myc increased MMP-2 gene expression and activity. Silenced c-Myc led to reduce MMP-2 gene expression and activity, as well as decrease VSMC migration and invasion, indicating c-Myc is required for MMP-2 mediated VSMC migration and invasion. However, S62A had no effect on VSMC migration and invasion, which was in line with S62A had no effect on the c-Myc transcriptional activity. To better understand whether Bcl2 cooperate with c-Myc on MMP-2 function, our data show that although Bcl2 had no effect on the MMP-2 activity, the coexpressing c-Myc and Bcl2 significantly increased MMP-2 gene expression and activity. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of Bcl2 (T70E and EEE) had more effectively on the MMP-2 activity, which resulted from T70E and EEE severely increased c-Myc transcriptional activity by directly binding to c-Myc. The findings show that phosphorylation of Bcl2 enhanced c-Myc-mediated MMP-2 activity.
Apoptotic vascular smooth muscle cell depletion via BCL2 family of proteins in human ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection.
Durdu Serkan,Deniz Gunseli C,Balci Deniz,Zaim Cagin,Dogan Arin,Can Alp,Akcali Kamil C,Akar Ahmet Ruchan
AIMS:This study investigates the expression patterns of BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma2) family of proteins and the extent of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), type-A aortic dissections (TAD), and nondilated ascending aortic samples. METHODS:Aortic wall specimens were obtained from patients undergoing surgical repair for TAA (n = 24), TAD (n = 20), and normal aortic tissues from organ donors (n = 6). The expression pattern of BCL2, BCL2L1 (BCL2-like1), BAK1 (BCL2-antagonist/killer1), and BAX (BCL2-associated X protein) proteins was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, colocalization of alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) and caspase3 (CASP3) in aortic VSMCs was analyzed by double-immunofluorescence staining. Onset of DNA fragmentation was measured by TUNEL assay. RESULTS:Apoptotic index was significantly increased in both TAD group (31.3 ± 17.2, P < 0.001) and TAA group (21.1 ± 12.7, P = 0.001) relative to control aortas (2.0 ± 1.2). Anti-CASP3 and ACTA2 double-immunostaining confirmed apoptosis in VSMCs in TAA and TAD groups but not in controls. Proapoptotic BAX expression was significantly elevated in VSMCs of TAA patients, compared with that of controls (OR = 20; P = 0.02; 95% CI, 16-250). In contrast, antiapoptotic BCL2L1 expression was higher in controls compared with that of TAA group (OR = 11.2; P = 0.049; 95% CI, 1.0-123.9). Furthermore, BAX/BCL2 ratio was significantly increased in both TAA (1.2 ± 0.7, P < 0.001) and TAD (0.6 ± 0.4, P = 0.05) groups relative to controls (0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Apoptotic VSMC depletion in human TAA/TAD is associated with disturbance of the balance between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic members of the BCL2 family proteins, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodelling in aortic disease. In light of the future studies, targeting apoptotic pathways in TAA and TAD pathogenesis may provide therapeutic benefits to patients by slowing down the progression and even possibly preventing the TAD.
Vitamin K2 inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by restoring the Gas6/Axl/Akt anti-apoptotic pathway.
Qiu Cuiting,Zheng Haijun,Tao Huiren,Yu Wenjun,Jiang Xiaoyu,Li Aiqin,Jin Hui,Lv Anlin,Li Huan
Molecular and cellular biochemistry
Vascular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. Vitamin K2 (VK2) delays vascular calcification by an unclear mechanism. Moreover, apoptosis modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. This paper aimed to study VK2-modified VSMC calcification and survival cell signaling mediated by growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. Primary-cultured VSMCs were dose-dependently treated with VK2 in the presence of calcification medium for 8 days, or pre-treated for 1 h with/without the Axl inhibitor R428 (2 μmol/L) or the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk (20 μmol/L) followed by treatment with VK2 (10 μmol/L) or rmGas6 (200 nmol/L) in calcification medium for 8 days. Calcium deposition was determined by the o-cresolphthalein complexone assay and Alizarin Red S staining. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blotting detected the expressions of Axl, Gas6, p-Akt, Akt, and Bcl2. VK2 significantly inhibited CaCl- and β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis, which was dependent on restored Gas6 expression and activated downstream signaling by Axl, p-Akt, and Bcl2. Z-VAD-fmk significantly inhibited CaCl- and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Augmented recombinant mouse Gas6 protein (rmGas6) expression significantly reduced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Furthermore, the Gas6/Axl interaction was inhibited by R428, which abolished the preventive effect of VK2 on CaCl- and β-GP-induced apoptosis and calcification. These results suggest that Gas6 is critical in VK2-mediated functions that attenuate CaCl- and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification by blocking apoptosis.
KDM3A inhibition attenuates high concentration insulin‑induced vascular smooth muscle cell injury by suppressing MAPK/NF‑κB pathways.
Zhang Bo-Fang,Jiang Hong,Chen Jing,Guo Xin,Hu Qi,Yang Shuo
International journal of molecular medicine
Previous studies have indicated that lysine (K)‑specific demethylase 3A (KDM3A) is associated with diverse diabetes‑associated cardiovascular complications in response to high glucose levels. However, the effects of KDM3A on the pathological progression of cardiovascular injuries in response to high insulin levels remain unknown. The present study aimed to explore whether KDM3A knockdown may attenuate high insulin‑induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction, and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Primary VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aorta of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Lentiviral vectors encoding control‑small interfering (si)RNA or KDM3A‑siRNA were transduced into VSMCs for 72 h, and cells were subsequently incubated in medium containing 100 nM insulin for a further 5 days. Cellular proli-feration, migration and apoptosis were measured by Cell Counting kit‑8, Transwell chamber assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using the dihydroethidium fluorescent probe. The mRNA expression levels of interleukin‑6 and monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of KDM3A, mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB/p65, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein and Bcl‑2 were evaluated by west-ern blotting. Lentivirus transduction with KDM3A‑siRNA markedly reduced the elevated expression of KDM3A induced by high insulin stimulation in VSMCs. In addition, inhibition of KDM3A significantly ameliorated insulin‑induced VSMC proliferation and migration, which was accompanied by decreased ROS levels, cell apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, KDM3A gene silencing mitigated phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF‑κB/p65 activation. In conclusion, KDM3A inhibition may exert numerous protective effects on high insulin‑stimulated VSMCs, and the underlying mechanisms may be partly associated with inactivation of MAPK/NF‑κB signaling pathways.
PDGF-BB Carried by Endothelial Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Diabetes.
Togliatto Gabriele,Dentelli Patrizia,Rosso Arturo,Lombardo Giusy,Gili Maddalena,Gallo Sara,Gai Chiara,Solini Anna,Camussi Giovanni,Brizzi Maria Felice
Endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles (CD31EVs) constitute a new entity for therapeutic/prognostic purposes. The roles of CD31EVs as mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are investigated herein. We demonstrated that, unlike serum-derived extracellular vesicles in individuals without diabetes, those in individuals with diabetes (D CD31EVs) boosted apoptosis resistance of VSMCs cultured in hyperglycemic condition. Biochemical analysis revealed that this effect relies on changes in the balance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signals: increase of bcl-2 and decrease of bak/bax. D CD31EV cargo analysis demonstrated that D CD31EVs are enriched in membrane-bound platelet-derived growth factor-BB (mbPDGF-BB). Thus, we postulated that mbPDGF-BB transfer by D CD31EVs could account for VSMC resistance to apoptosis. By depleting CD31EVs of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) or blocking the PDGF receptor β on VSMCs, we demonstrated that mbPDGF-BB contributes to D CD31EV-mediated bak/bax and bcl-2 levels. Moreover, we found that bak expression is under the control of PDGF-BB-mediated microRNA (miR)-296-5p expression. In fact, while PDGF-BB treatment recapitulated D CD31EV-mediated antiapoptotic program and VSMC resistance to apoptosis, PDGF-BB-depleted CD31EVs failed. D CD31EVs also increased VSMC migration and recruitment to neovessels by means of PDGF-BB. Finally, we found that VSMCs, from human atherosclerotic arteries of individuals with T2D, express low bak/bax and high bcl-2 and miR-296-5p levels. This study identifies the mbPDGF-BB in D CD31EVs as a relevant mediator of diabetes-associated VSMC resistance to apoptosis.
RING finger protein 10 is a potential drug target for diabetic vascular complications.
Li Siyu,Yu Guiquan,Huang Wei,Wang Ruiyu,Pu Peng,Chen Ming
Molecular medicine reports
Vascular remodeling induced by long‑term hyperglycaemia is the main pathological process in diabetic vascular complications. Thus, vascular remodeling may be a potential therapeutic target in diabetes mellitus (DM) with macrovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of RING finger protein 10 (RNF10) on vascular remodeling under conditions of chronic hyperglycaemia stimulation. We found that overexpression of RNF10 clearly decreased intimal thickness and attenuated vascular remodeling in DM. TUNEL staining showed that apoptosis was clearly inhibited, an effect that may be mediated by decreases in Bcl‑2 protein expression. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that overexpression of RNF10 could suppress inflammation by reducing the levels of TNF‑α, and MCP‑1 mRNA and NF‑κB protein. Meanwhile, overexpression of RNF10 prevented vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hyperproliferation through the downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 proteins. Notably, short hairpin RNF10 (shRNF10) greatly aggravated the pathological responses of diabetic vascular remodeling. These outcomes revealed that the differential expression of RNF10 had a completely opposite effect on vascular damage under hyperglycaemia, further displaying the core function of RNF10 in regulating vascular remodeling induced by diabetes. Consequently, RNF10 could be a novel target for the treatment of diabetic vascular complications.
Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis for vascular homeostasis: role in neointimal formation after vascular injury.
Ashino Takashi,Yamamoto Masayuki,Numazawa Satoshi
Abnormal increases in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intimal region after a vascular injury is a key event in developing neointimal hyperplasia. To maintain vascular function, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs is tightly controlled during vascular remodeling. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) system, a key component of the oxidative stress response that acts in maintaining homeostasis, plays an important role in neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury; however, the role of Nrf2/Keap1 in VSMC apoptosis has not been clarified. Here we report that 14 days after arterial injury in mice, TUNEL-positive VSMCs are detected in both the neointimal and medial layers. These layers contain cells expressing high levels of Nrf2 but low Keap1 expression. In VSMCs, Keap1 depletion induces features of apoptosis, such as positive TUNEL staining and annexin V binding. These changes are associated with an increased expression of nuclear Nrf2. Simultaneous Nrf2 depletion inhibits Keap1 depletion-induced apoptosis. At 14 days after the vascular injury, Nrf2-deficient mice demonstrated fewer TUNEL-positive cells and increased neointimal formation in the neointimal and medial areas. The results suggest that the Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates VSMC apoptosis during neointimal formation, thereby inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury.
Dexamethasone induces rapid promotion of norepinephrine‑mediated vascular smooth muscle cell contraction.
Zhang Ting,Shi Wen-Lei,Tasker Jeffrey G,Zhou Jiang-Rui,Peng Yun-Li,Miao Chao-Yu,Yang Yong-Ji,Jiang Chun-Lei
Molecular medicine reports
The aim of the present study was to identify the rapid effect of dexamethasone (Dex) on norepinephrine (NE)‑mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to establish the underlying mechanism(s). Rat VSMCs were preincubated with lipopolysaccharide to simulate acute septic shock. Myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation of VSMCs was detected by western blot analysis to observe the effects of Dex on NE‑mediated contraction. Activation of the RhoA/ RhoA kinase (ROCK), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways was detected by western blot analysis to explore the mechanism. It was identified that Dex rapidly promoted NE‑induced phosphorylation of MLC20 in VSMCs and this effect may be non‑genomic. The RhoA/ROCK, ERK and p38 pathways were demonstrated to be important for the rapid effect of Dex‑induced promotion of NE‑mediated contraction in VSMCs. The present results indicate that Dex may rapidly reverse the hyporeactivity of vasoconstriction to NE in vitro and this effect may be mediated by specific non‑genomic mechanisms through increased activation of the RhoA/ROCK, ERK and p38 signaling pathways.
Vascular smooth muscle cell-selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma deletion leads to hypotension.
Chang Lin,Villacorta Luis,Zhang Jifeng,Garcia-Barrio Minerva T,Yang Kun,Hamblin Milton,Whitesall Steven E,D'Alecy Louis G,Chen Y Eugene
BACKGROUND:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists are commonly used to treat diabetes, although their PPARgamma-dependent effects transcend their role as insulin sensitizers. Thiazolidinediones lower blood pressure (BP) in diabetic patients, whereas results from conventional/tissue-specific PPARgamma experimental models suggest an important pleiotropic role for PPARgamma in BP control. Little evidence is available on the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of vascular smooth muscle cell-specific PPARgamma in basal vascular tone. METHODS AND RESULTS:We show that vascular smooth muscle cell-selective deletion of PPARgamma impairs vasoactivity with an overall reduction in BP. Aortic contraction in response to norepinephrine is reduced and vasorelaxation is enhanced in response to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AdR) agonists in vitro. Similarly, vascular smooth muscle cell-selective PPARgamma knockout mice display a biphasic response to norepinephrine in BP, reversible on administration of beta-AdR blocker, and enhanced BP reduction on treatment with beta-AdR agonists. Consistent with enhanced beta2-AdR responsiveness, we found that the absence of PPARgamma in vascular smooth muscle cells increased beta2-AdR expression, possibly leading to the hypotensive phenotype during the rest phase. CONCLUSIONS:These data uncovered the beta2-AdR as a novel target of PPARgamma transcriptional repression in vascular smooth muscle cells and indicate that PPARgamma regulation of beta2-adrenergic signaling is important in the modulation of BP.
Isoproterenol inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated proliferation and reactive oxygen species production in vascular smooth muscle cells through heme oxygenase-1.
Kim Jung Eun,Kang Young Jin,Lee Kwang Youn,Choi Hyoung Chul
Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a well-known cytoprotectant against oxidative stress and exhibits an antiproliferative effect in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The purpose of the present study was to test whether isoproterenol, one of the synthetic catecholamines having beta-adrenergic activity, affected angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Also, the presumptive underlying signaling pathways in VSMCs were studied. Aortic VSMCs from 11-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Isoproterenol dose-dependently increased HO-1 expression through beta(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and isoproterenol concentration-dependently increased beta(2)-AR mRNA expression. Isoproterenol attenuated Ang II-induced cell proliferation, as evidenced by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. This effect of isoproterenol was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with beta(2)-AR antagonist butoxamine, PKA inhibitor H-89 and HO inhibitor Tin Protoporphyrin IX (SnPP IX), respectively. Isoproterenol inhibited phosphorylation level of Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Isoproterenol significantly inhibited Ang II-induced ROS production through the ERK1/2 pathway. These findings suggest that isoproterenol, via induction of HO-1, inhibits Ang II-stimulated proliferation and ROS production in cultured VSMCs.
Principal role of adenylyl cyclase 6 in K⁺ channel regulation and vasodilator signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Nelson Carl P,Rainbow Richard D,Brignell Jennifer L,Perry Matthew D,Willets Jonathon M,Davies Noel W,Standen Nicholas B,Challiss R A John
AIMS:Membrane potential is a key determinant of vascular tone and many vasodilators act through the modulation of ion channel currents [e.g. the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP))] involved in setting the membrane potential. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoenzymes are potentially important intermediaries in such vasodilator signalling pathways. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express multiple AC isoenzymes, but the reason for such redundancy is unknown. We investigated which of these isoenzymes are involved in vasodilator signalling and regulation of vascular ion channels important in modulating membrane potential. METHODS AND RESULTS:AC isoenzymes were selectively depleted (by >75%) by transfection of cultured VSMCs with selective short interfering RNA sequences. AC6 was the predominant isoenzyme involved in vasodilator-mediated cAMP accumulation in VSMCs, accounting for ∼60% of the total response to β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) stimulation. AC3 played a minor role in β-AR signalling, whereas AC5 made no significant contribution. AC6 was also the principal isoenzyme involved in β-AR-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) signalling (determined using the fluorescent biosensor for PKA activity, AKAR3) and the substantial β-AR/PKA-dependent enhancement of K(ATP) current. K(ATP) current was shown to play a vital role in setting the resting membrane potential and in mediating the hyperpolarization observed upon β-AR stimulation. CONCLUSION:AC6, but not the closely related AC5, plays a principal role in vasodilator signalling and regulation of the membrane potential in VSMCs. These findings identify AC6 as a vital component in the vasodilatory apparatus central to the control of blood pressure.
Effect of epinephrine on platelet-activating factor-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells.
Vadas Peter,Perelman Boris
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
BACKGROUND:Animal and human data show that platelet-activating factor (PAF) mediates the life-threatening manifestations of anaphylaxis. Although administration of epinephrine is the mainstay of therapy of acute anaphylaxis, the interaction between epinephrine and PAF has not been studied. In particular, the effect of the timing of epinephrine administration on the action of PAF has not been examined. OBJECTIVE:Using human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs), we examined the effect of timing of epinephrine addition on the action of PAF. METHODS:The effect of epinephrine on PAF-mediated prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release from human aortic smooth muscle cells was examined. Epinephrine was added at various times before and after PAF stimulation. RESULTS:HVSMCs stimulated with PAF released PGE(2) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Whereas preincubation of HVSMCs with epinephrine before the addition of PAF suppressed PGE(2) release, treatment with epinephrine after PAF stimulation was less effective with time after PAF stimulation. PGE(2) release was suppressed by means of preincubation with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and forskolin. CONCLUSIONS:PAF induced PGE(2) release from HVSMCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and early addition of epinephrine was essential for the control of PAF-induced PGE(2) release. Epinephrine was most effective when administered before stimulation with PAF but was progressively less effective with time after PAF stimulation.
Chlorogenic acid prevents isoproterenol-induced DNA damage in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Wang Jingshuai,Li Jiyang,Liu Jie,Xu Mengjiao,Tong Xiaowen,Wang Jianjun
Molecular medicine reports
Numerous clinical therapeutic agents have been identified as DNA damaging. The present study revealed that isoproterenol (Iso) resulted in DNA damage in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the levels of intracellular oxygen free radicals. Administration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) inhibited this effect. Pretreatment with CGA abrogated the increase in protein expression levels of γ‑H2A histone family member X, phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated, phosphorylated Rad3‑related protein, breast cancer 1 and C‑terminal Src homologous kinase induced by Iso. In addition, the increase in levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by Iso was inhibited by CGA pretreatment in a dose‑dependent manner. The results of the present study suggest that CGA may inhibit Iso‑induced VSMC damage via the suppression of ROS generation. Therefore, CGA may be a novel agent for the treatment of vascular diseases.
Inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase prevents norepinephrine-induced fibrotic responses in vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Du Chang-Qing,Yang Lin,Yang Jian,Han Jie,Hu Xiao-Sheng,Wu Tao,Hu Shen-Jiang
Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Both norepinephrine (NE) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) contribute to vascular fibrosis during hypertension. Recent studies indicate that farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) plays an important role in cardiac remodeling in hypertension. However, the role of FPPS in NE-induced fibrotic responses and related molecular mechanisms is unknown. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were stimulated with NE. The fibrotic responses were assessed by measuring CTGF, hydroxyproline (hyp), and α-1 procollagen I levels using Western blot, a hydroxyproline test kit, and real-time quantitative PCR assays, respectively. Ras activity was determined by a pull-down assay using a Ras activation assay kit and detected by Western blot. NE dose-dependently increased fibrosis in SHR-VSMCs, and this increase was significantly reduced by ibandronate, an inhibitor of FPPS. The addition of farnesol, but not geranylgeraniol, partially reversed the inhibitory effects of ibandronate. Furthermore, the anti-fibrotic effects of ibandronate could be mimicked by FTI-276 but not by GGTI-286. A pull-down assay showed that ibandronate reduced the NE-induced Ras activation. Moreover, ibandronate inhibited the NE-induced activation of p38, JNK, and ERK1/2. Only SB203580 (specific inhibitor of p38) diminished the NE-induced CTGF production. These results demonstrated that inhibiting FPPS prevents NE-induced fibrotic responses in SHR-VSMCs and that the Ras kinase and p38 pathways were the underlying mechanisms involved in this process.
Elevated plasma catecholamines functionally compensate for the reduced myogenic tone in smooth muscle STIM1 knockout mice but with deleterious cardiac effects.
Pichavaram Prahalathan,Yin Wen,Evanson Kirk W,Jaggar Jonathan H,Mancarella Salvatore
Aims:Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) has emerged as an important player in the regulation of growth and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that STIM1 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of vascular integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether reduced expression of STIM1 could modify the structure and function of the vasculature, leading to changes in blood pressure (BP). Methods and results:Smooth muscle-specific STIM1 knockout (sm-STIM1 KO) in mice resulted in arteries with ∼80% reduced STIM1 protein expression as compared with control mice. Mesenteric vessels exposed to increasing transmural pressure revealed attenuated myogenic reactivity and reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine in sm-STIM1 KO arteries. BP monitored via telemetry in sm-STIM1 KO and matched controls did not reveal differences. However, heart rate was significantly increased in sm-STIM1 KO mice. Consistent with these findings, plasma catecholamine levels were higher in sm-STIM1 KO than in control mice. Increased sympathetic activity in sm-STIM1 KO mice was unmasked by apha1-adrenergic receptor inhibitor (prazosin) and by treatment with the ganglion-blocking agent, hexamethonium. Both treatments resulted in a greater reduction of BP in sm-STIM1 KO mice. Cytoskeleton of cultured smooth muscle cells was studied by immunocytochemistry using specific antibodies. Staining for actin and vinculin revealed significant alterations in the cytoskeletal architecture of cells isolated from sm-STIM1 KO arteries. Finally, although sm-STIM1 KO mice were protected from Ang II-induced hypertension, such treatment resulted in significant fibrosis and a rapid deterioration of cardiac function. Conclusions:STIM1 deletion in smooth muscle results in attenuated myogenic tone and cytoskeletal defects with detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of arterial tissue. Although BP is maintained by elevated circulating catecholamine, this compensatory stimulation has a deleterious long-term effect on the myocardium.
H19, a developmentally regulated gene, is reexpressed in rat vascular smooth muscle cells after injury.
Kim D K,Zhang L,Dzau V J,Pratt R E
The Journal of clinical investigation
Vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation are central to blood vessel development. Since neointimal formation after vascular injury may require the reexpression of a smooth muscle developmental sequence, we examined the expression of H19, a developmentally regulated gene, in rat blood vessels. Expression of the H19 gene is associated with the differentiation process that takes place during development of many tissues. Consistent with this, H19 was highly expressed in the 1-d-old rat aorta but was undetectable in the adult. H19 transcripts were only minimally detected in uninjured carotid artery but were abundant at 7 and 14 d after injury and were localized by in situ hybridization, primarily to the neointima. H19 transcript were undetectable in proliferating neointimal cells in culture but became highly abundant in postconfluent, differentiated neointimal cells. H19 transcripts were only minimally expressed in adult medial smooth muscle cells grown under the identical conditions. Thus, H19 may play an important role in the normal development and differentiation of the blood vessel and in the phenotypic changes of the smooth muscle cells, which are associated with neointimal lesion formation. The vascular injury model may be a useful system to use in examining the function of H19.
Interleukin-2 is present in human blood vessels and released in biologically active form by heparanase.
Miller John D,Clabaugh Suzanne E,Smith Deandra R,Stevens R Brian,Wrenshall Lucile E
Immunology and cell biology
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a multifaceted cytokine with immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive properties. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the availability of IL-2 is regulated, in part, by association with perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Given the abundance of perlecan in blood vessels, we asked whether IL-2 is present in vessel walls. Our results indicate that IL-2 is associated with endothelial and smooth muscle cells within the human arterial wall. This IL-2 is released by heparanase, and promotes the proliferation of an IL-2-dependent cell line. Given the presence of IL-2 in human arteries, we asked whether the large vessels of IL-2-deficient mice were normal. The aortas of IL-2-deficient mice exhibited a loss of smooth muscle cells, suggesting that IL-2 may contribute to their survival. In their entirety, these results suggest a here-to-fore unrecognized role of IL-2 in vascular biology, and have significant implications for both the immune and cardiovascular systems.
Expression of a Functional IL-2 Receptor in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Arumugam Prakash,Carroll Katie L,Berceli Scott A,Barnhill Spencer,Wrenshall Lucile E
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Many nonlymphoid cell types express at least two, if not all three, subunits of the IL-2R; although, compared with lymphocytes, relatively little is known about how IL-2 affects the function of nonlymphoid cells. The limited information available suggests that IL-2 has a substantial impact on cells such as gastrointestinal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. In a previous report from our laboratory, we noted that IL-2 and IL-2Rβ-deficient mice lose smooth muscle cells over time, eventually resulting in aneurysmal aortas and ectatic esophagi. This finding, combined with our work showing that IL-2 surrounds vascular smooth muscle cells by association with perlecan, led us to ask whether vascular smooth muscle cells express an IL-2R. Toward this end, we reported the expression of IL-2Rβ on human and murine vascular smooth muscle cells. We now report that vascular smooth muscle cells express all three subunits of the IL-2R, and that expression of IL-2Rα varies with vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype. Furthermore, we show that, through a functional IL-2R, IL-2 initiates signaling pathways and impacts vascular smooth muscle cell function. Finally, we demonstrate that IL-2 expression increases upon initiation of conditions that promote intimal hyperplasia, suggesting a mechanism by which the IL-2/IL-2R system may impact this widespread vascular pathology.
Everolimus Rescues the Phenotype of Elastin Insufficiency in Patient Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Kinnear Caroline,Agrawal Rahul,Loo Caitlin,Pahnke Aric,Rodrigues Deivid Carvalho,Thompson Tadeo,Akinrinade Oyediran,Ahadian Samad,Keeley Fred,Radisic Milica,Mital Seema,Ellis James
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
OBJECTIVE:Elastin gene deletion or mutation leads to arterial stenoses due to vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived SMCs can model the elastin insufficiency phenotype in vitro but show only partial rescue with rapamycin. Our objective was to identify drug candidates with superior efficacy in rescuing the SMC phenotype in elastin insufficiency patients. Approach and Results: SMCs generated from induced pluripotent stem cells from 5 elastin insufficiency patients with severe recurrent vascular stenoses (3 Williams syndrome and 2 elastin mutations) were phenotypically immature, hyperproliferative, poorly responsive to endothelin, and exerted reduced tension in 3-dimensional smooth muscle biowires. Elastin mRNA and protein were reduced in SMCs from patients compared to healthy control SMCs. Fourteen drug candidates were tested on patient SMCs. Of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors studied, everolimus restored differentiation, rescued proliferation, and improved endothelin-induced calcium flux in all patient SMCs except one Williams syndrome. Of the calcium channel blockers, verapamil increased SMC differentiation and reduced proliferation in Williams syndrome patient cells but not in elastin mutation patients and had no effect on endothelin response. Combination treatment with everolimus and verapamil was not superior to everolimus alone. Other drug candidates had limited efficacy. CONCLUSIONS:Everolimus caused the most consistent improvement in SMC differentiation, proliferation and in SMC function in patients with both syndromic and nonsyndromic elastin insufficiency, and offers the best candidate for drug repurposing for treatment of elastin insufficiency associated vasculopathy.
Av3 Single-Stranded DNA Aptamer Attenuates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration via Ras-PI3K/MAPK Pathway.
Wu Hong-Bing,Wang Zhi-Wei,Shi Feng,Ren Zong-Li,Li Luo-Cheng,Hu Xiao-Ping,Hu Rui,Li Bo-Wen
Objectives:To observe the effect of av3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. Background:Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is currently the preferred method for the treatment of coronary heart disease. However, vascular restenosis still occurs after PTCA treatment, severely affecting the clinical efficacy of PTCA. Integrin av3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. Methods:In this experiment, we used systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) to screen out av3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. 3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. 3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. 3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. Results:In the present study, we found that av3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. < 0.05). Av3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism. < 0.05). Av < 0.05). Av. Conclusions:The findings suggest that av3 ssDNA inhibited the proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the activation of Ras-PI3K/MAPK signaling.3 single-stranded (ss) DNA on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its potential mechanism.
LncRNA HCG18 is critical for vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and phenotypic switching.
Lu Yanjiao,Guo Jingjing,Zhu Shengnan,Zhang Han,Zhu Qing,Li Yanming
Previous studies have shown that some specific long non-coding RNAs are dysregulated in vascular walls and abnormally expressed in vascular disease. LncRNA HLA complex group 18 (HCG18) is a member of the HLA complex group, which has been rarely investigated in human diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of HCG in vascular smooth muscle cells. HCG18 was over-expressed by adenovirus transfection and knocked down in vascular smooth muscle cells by shRNA. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assays. Flow cytometry was employed to test the impacts of HCG18 on vascular smooth muscle apoptotic cells. The expression of associated genes in protein and mRNA levels was detected by western blotting, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. The interactions between HCG18 and fused in sarcoma (FUS) were confirmed by RNA EMSA and RIP assays. The expression of serum HCG18 was decreased in hypertensive patients and PDGF-BB-treated vascular smooth muscle cells. HCG18 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptotic cells in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, we also found that HCG18 can inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching from a contractile to a secretory phenotype. Finally, our results showed that HCG18 enhanced apoptotic cells by directly binding with FUS. Our findings reveal that HCG18 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis and the expression levels of markers of the contractile and synthetic phenotype.
Flow-induced, inflammation-mediated arterial wall remodeling in the formation and progression of intracranial aneurysms.
Frösen Juhana,Cebral Juan,Robertson Anne M,Aoki Tomohiro
OBJECTIVE:Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are relatively common lesions that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage, thus producing considerable suffering and anxiety in those affected by the disease or an increased likelihood of developing it. Advances in the knowledge of the pathobiology behind intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation, progression, and rupture have led to preclinical testing of drug therapies that would prevent IA formation or progression. In parallel, novel biologically based diagnostic tools to estimate rupture risk are approaching clinical use. Arterial wall remodeling, triggered by flow and intramural stresses and mediated by inflammation, is relevant to both. METHODS:This review discusses the basis of flow-driven vessel remodeling and translates that knowledge to the observations made on the mechanisms of IA initiation and progression on studies using animal models of induced IA formation, study of human IA tissue samples, and study of patient-derived computational fluid dynamics models. RESULTS:Blood flow conditions leading to high wall shear stress (WSS) activate proinflammatory signaling in endothelial cells that recruits macrophages to the site exposed to high WSS, especially through macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1). This macrophage infiltration leads to protease expression, which disrupts the internal elastic lamina and collagen matrix, leading to focal outward bulging of the wall and IA initiation. For the IA to grow, collagen remodeling and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are essential, because the fact that collagen does not distend much prevents the passive dilation of a focal weakness to a sizable IA. Chronic macrophage infiltration of the IA wall promotes this SMC-mediated growth and is a potential target for drug therapy. Once the IA wall grows, it is subjected to changes in wall tension and flow conditions as a result of the change in geometry and has to remodel accordingly to avoid rupture. Flow affects this remodeling process. CONCLUSIONS:Flow triggers an inflammatory reaction that predisposes the arterial wall to IA initiation and growth and affects the associated remodeling of the UIA wall. This chronic inflammation is a putative target for drug therapy that would stabilize UIAs or prevent UIA formation. Moreover, once this coupling between IA wall remodeling and flow is understood, data from patient-specific flow models can be gathered as part of the diagnostic workup and utilized to improve risk assessment for UIA initiation, progression, and eventual rupture.
Smooth muscle cells of intracranial vessels: from development to disease.
Frösen Juhana,Joutel Anne
Cerebrovascular diseases that cause ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke with subsequent loss of life or functional capacity due to damage of the brain tissue are among the leading causes of human suffering and economic burden inflicted by diseases in the developed world. Diseases affecting intracranial vessels are significant contributors to ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Brain arteriovenous malformations, which are a collection of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries to veins, are the most common cause of intracranial haemorrhage in children and young adults. Saccular intracranial aneurysms, which are pathological saccular dilations mainly occurring at bifurcations of the large intracranial arteries near the circle of Willis, are highly prevalent in the middle-aged population, causing significant anxiety and concern; their rupture, although rare, is a significant cause of intracranial haemorrhage in those past middle age that is associated with a very sinister prognosis. Cerebral small-vessel disease, which comprise all pathological processes affecting vessels <500 microns in diameter, account for the majority of intracerebral haemorrhages and ∼25% of ischaemic strokes and 45% of dementias in the elderly. In this review, we summarize the developmental, structural, and functional features of intracranial vessels. We then describe the role of smooth muscle cells in brain arteriovenous malformations, intracranial aneurysms, and small-vessel diseases, and discuss how the peculiar ontogeny, structure, and function of intracranial vessels are related to the development of these diseases.
Elastic fibres and vascular structure in hypertension.
Arribas Silvia M,Hinek Aleksander,González M Carmen
Pharmacology & therapeutics
Blood vessels are dynamic structures composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM), which are in continuous cross-talk with each other. Thus, cellular changes in phenotype or in proliferation/death rate affect ECM synthesis. In turn, ECM elements not only provide the structural framework for vascular cells, but they also modulate cellular function through specific receptors. These ECM-cell interactions, together with neurotransmitters, hormones and the mechanical forces imposed by the heart, modulate the structural organization of the vascular wall. It is not surprising that pathological states related to alterations in the nervous, humoral or haemodynamic environment-such as hypertension-are associated with vascular wall remodeling, which, in the end, is deleterious for cardiovascular function. However, the question remains whether these structural alterations are simply a consequence of the disease or if there are early cellular or ECM alterations-determined either genetically or by environmental factors-that can predispose to vascular remodeling independent of hypertension. Elastic fibres might be key elements in the pathophysiology of hypertensive vascular remodeling. In addition to the well known effects of hypertension on elastic fibre fatigue and accelerated degradation, leading to loss of arterial wall resilience, recent investigations have highlighted new roles for individual components of elastic fibres and their degradation products. These elements can act as signal transducers and regulate cellular proliferation, migration, phenotype, and ECM degradation. In this paper, we review current knowledge regarding components of elastic fibres and discuss their possible pathomechanistic associations with vascular structural abnormalities and with hypertension development or progression.
Injected matrix stimulates myogenesis and regeneration of mouse skeletal muscle after ischaemic injury.
Kuraitis D,Ebadi D,Zhang P,Rizzuto E,Vulesevic B,Padavan D T,Al Madhoun A,McEwan K A,Sofrenovic T,Nicholson K,Whitman S C,Mesana T G,Skerjanc I S,Musarò A,Ruel M,Suuronen E J
European cells & materials
Biomaterial-guided regeneration represents a novel approach for the treatment of myopathies. Revascularisation and the intramuscular extracellular matrix are important factors in stimulating myogenesis and regenerating muscle damaged by ischaemia. In this study, we used an injectable collagen matrix, enhanced with sialyl LewisX (sLeX), to guide skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. The elastic properties of collagen and sLeX-collagen matrices were similar to those of skeletal muscle, and culture of pluripotent mESCs on the matrices promoted their differentiation into myocyte-like cells expressing Pax3, MHC3, myogenin and Myf5. The regenerative properties of matrices were evaluated in ischaemic mouse hind-limbs. Treatment with the sLeX-matrix augmented the production of myogenic-mediated factors insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and IGF binding protein-2 and -5 after 3 days. This was followed by muscle regeneration, including a greater number of regenerating myofibres and increased transcription of Six1, M-cadherin, myogenin and Myf5 after 10 days. Simultaneously, the sLeX-matrix promoted increased mobilisation and engraftment of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, the development of larger arterioles and the restoration of tissue perfusion. Both matrix treatments tended to reduce maximal forces of ischaemic solei muscles, but sLeX-matrix lessened this loss of force and also prevented muscle fatigue. Only sLeX-matrix treatment improved mobility of mice on a treadmill. Together, these results suggest a novel approach for regenerative myogenesis, whereby treatment only with a matrix, which possesses an inherent ability to guide myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, can enhance the endogenous vascular and myogenic regeneration of skeletal muscle, thus holding promise for future clinical use.
Skeletal muscle morphology, protein synthesis, and gene expression in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Nygaard Rie H,Jensen Jakob K,Voermans Nicol C,Heinemeier Katja M,Schjerling Peter,Holm Lars,Agergaard Jakob,Mackey Abigail L,Andersen Jesper L,Remvig Lars,Kjaer Michael
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) are known to have genetically impaired connective tissue and skeletal muscle symptoms in form of pain, fatigue, and cramps; however earlier studies have not been able to link these symptoms to morphological muscle changes. We obtained skeletal muscle biopsies in patients with classic EDS [cEDS; = 5 (Denmark)+ 8 (The Netherlands)] and vascular EDS (vEDS; = 3) and analyzed muscle fiber morphology and content (Western blotting and muscle fiber type/area distributions) and muscle mRNA expression and protein synthesis rate (RT-PCR and stable isotope technique). The cEDS patients did not differ from healthy controls ( = 7-11) with regard to muscle fiber type/area, myosin/α-actin ratio, muscle protein synthesis rate, or mRNA expression. In contrast, the vEDS patients demonstrated higher expression of matrix proteins compared with cEDS patients (fibronectin and MMP-2). The cEDS patients had surprisingly normal muscle morphology and protein synthesis, whereas vEDS patients demonstrated higher mRNA expression for extracellular matrix remodeling in skeletal musculature compared with cEDS patients. This study is the first of its kind to systematically investigate muscle biopsies from Ehlers-Danlos patients, focusing on muscle structure and function. These patients suffer from severe muscle symptoms, but in our study they show surprisingly normal muscle findings, which points toward indirect muscle symptoms originating from the surrounding connective tissue. These findings have basal physiological importance and implications for future physiotherapeutic treatment options for these patients.
The role of extracellular matrix in retinal vascular development and preretinal neovascularization.
Bishop Paul N
Experimental eye research
Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a central role in angiogenesis. ECM degrading enzymes breakdown the pre-existing vascular basement membrane at an early stage of angiogenesis and subsequently degrade stromal ECM as the new vessels invade into tissues. Conversely certain ECM components including collagen, fibronectin or fibrin are required for endothelial cell migration and tube morphogenesis. As the new vessels form they lay down a basement membrane that surrounds the endothelial tubes and is essential for their stability. In the rodent eye the transient expression of fibronectin and matricellular proteins plays a key role in retinal vascular development. In pathological retinal angiogenesis, such as in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, preretinal neovascularization occurs where new blood vessels invade the cortical vitreous gel and these blood vessels require vitreous collagen for their growth. The vitreous is normally anti-angiogenic and contains endogenous ECM inhibitors of angiogenesis including opticin and thombospondins, and ECM fragments such as endostatin. In preretinal neovascularization, the combined anti-angiogenic effects of these molecules are overcome by an excess of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and new vessels grow into the vitreous with potentially blinding sequelae.
Basic Components of Vascular Connective Tissue and Extracellular Matrix.
Advances in pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.)
Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel. The adaptation of the composition and the resulting function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to changes in circulation/blood flow and a variety of other extravascular stimuli can be characterized as remodeling spearheaded by vascular cells. There is a surprising amount of cell traffic among the three layers. It starts with endothelial cell mediated transmigration of inflammatory cells from the bloodstream into the subendothelium, and then into tissue adjoining the blood vessel. Smooth muscle cells and a variety of adventitial cells reside in tunica media and tunica externa, respectively. The latter cells are a mixture of progenitor/stem cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, pericytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and respond to endothelial injury by transdifferentiation as they travel into the two inner layers, intima and media for corrective mission in the ECM composition. This chapter addresses the role of various vascular cell types and ECM components synthesized by them in maintenance of normal structure and in their contribution to major pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, organ fibrosis, and diabetic retinopathy.
Minoxidil improves vascular compliance, restores cerebral blood flow, and alters extracellular matrix gene expression in a model of chronic vascular stiffness.
Knutsen Russell H,Beeman Scott C,Broekelmann Thomas J,Liu Delong,Tsang Kit Man,Kovacs Attila,Ye Li,Danback Joshua R,Watson Anderson,Wardlaw Amanda,Wagenseil Jessica E,Garbow Joel R,Shoykhet Michael,Kozel Beth A
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
Increased vascular stiffness correlates with a higher risk of cardiovascular complications in aging adults. Elastin (ELN) insufficiency, as observed in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome or with familial supravalvular aortic stenosis, also increases vascular stiffness and leads to arterial narrowing. We used Eln mice to test the hypothesis that pathologically increased vascular stiffness with concomitant arterial narrowing leads to decreased blood flow to end organs such as the brain. We also hypothesized that drugs that remodel arteries and increase lumen diameter would improve flow. To test these hypotheses, we compared carotid blood flow using ultrasound and cerebral blood flow using MRI-based arterial spin labeling in wild-type (WT) and Eln mice. We then studied how minoxidil, an ATP-sensitive K channel opener and vasodilator, affects vessel mechanics, blood flow, and gene expression. Both carotid and cerebral blood flows were lower in Eln mice than in WT mice. Treatment of Eln mice with minoxidil lowered blood pressure and reduced functional arterial stiffness to WT levels. Minoxidil also improved arterial diameter and restored carotid and cerebral blood flows in Eln mice. The beneficial effects persisted for weeks after drug removal. RNA-Seq analysis revealed differential expression of 127 extracellular matrix-related genes among the treatment groups. These results indicate that ELN insufficiency impairs end-organ perfusion, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Minoxidil, despite lowering blood pressure, improves end-organ perfusion. Changes in matrix gene expression and persistence of treatment effects after drug withdrawal suggest arterial remodeling. Such remodeling may benefit patients with genetic or age-dependent ELN insufficiency. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our work with a model of chronic vascular stiffness, the elastin ( Eln) mouse, shows reduced brain perfusion as measured by carotid ultrasound and MRI arterial spin labeling. Vessel caliber, functional stiffness, and blood flow improved with minoxidil. The ATP-sensitive K channel opener increased Eln gene expression and altered 126 other matrix-associated genes.
The extracellular matrix of blood vessels.
Eble Johannes A,Niland Stephan
Current pharmaceutical design
Blood vessels are highly organized and complex structure, which are far more than simple tubes conducting the blood to almost any tissue of the body. They are able to autonomously regulate the blood flow, thus providing the tissues an optimal support of oxygen and nutrients and an efficient removal of waste products. In higher organisms, the blood vessel forms a closed circuit system, which additionally has the ability to seal itself in case of leakage as a result of injury. The blood vessel system does not only transport soluble substances, but also serves as "highway" system for leukocytes to patrol the body during the immunological surveillance and to reach the inflammation site quickly. In a complex interplay with the vascular wall, leukocytes are able to penetrate the blood vessel without any obvious leakage. Pathologically, tumor cells subvert the blood vessel system to disseminate from the primary tumor and colonize distant organs during metastasis. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of a blood vessel contributes substantially to the diverse functions of the blood vessel. First, the ECM constitutes the scaffold which keeps the histological structure of the vessel wall in shape but also bears the enormous and permanent mechanical forces levied on the vessel by the pulsatile blood flow in the arteries and by vasoconstriction, which regulates blood flow and pressure. The complex network of elastic fibers and tensile forces-bearing networks are well adapted to accomplish these mechanical tasks. Second, the ECM provides informational cues to the vascular cells, thus regulating their proliferation and differentiation. Third, ECM molecules can store, mask, present or sequester growth factors, thereby modulating their effects remarkably. Furthermore, several ECM molecules serve additional functions within the blood vessel. Their expression is altered in a spatial and temporal pattern during blood vessel formation and remodeling. In contrast to vasculogenesis during embryonic development, blood vessel shows a remarkably and life-long plasticity, which allows the formation and regeneration of new blood vessel even in adulthood. Both physiologically during wound healing and pathologically during tumor growth, the sprouting of new blood vessels during angiogenesis is an important process, in which the ECM takes a key role.
Smooth muscle-specific TMEM16A expression protects against angiotensin II-induced cerebrovascular remodeling via suppressing extracellular matrix deposition.
Zeng Xue-Lin,Sun Lu,Zheng Hua-Qing,Wang Guan-Lei,Du Yan-Hua,Lv Xiao-Fei,Ma Ming-Ming,Guan Yong-Yuan
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
Cerebrovascular remodeling is the leading factor for stroke and characterized by increased extracellular matrix deposition, migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and inhibition of their apoptosis. TMEM16A is an important component of Ca-activated Cl channels. Previously, we showed that downregulation of TMEM16A in the basilar artery was negatively correlated with cerebrovascular remodeling during hypertension. However, it is unclear whether TMEM16A participates in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular remodeling in mice that have TMEM16A gene modification. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse that overexpresses TMEM16A specifically in vascular smooth muscle cells. We observed that vascular remodeling in the basilar artery during Ang II-induced hypertension was significantly suppressed upon vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression of TMEM16A relative to control mice. Specifically, we observed a large reduction in the deposition of fibronectin and collagen I. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were upregulated in the basilar artery during Ang II-induced hypertension, but this was suppressed upon overexpression of TMEM16A in blood vessels. Furthermore, TMEM16A overexpression alleviated the overactivity of the canonical TGF-β1/Smad3, and non-canonical TGF-β1/ERK and JNK pathways in the basilar artery during Ang II-induced hypertension. These in vivo results were similar to the results derived in vitro with basilar artery smooth muscle cells stimulated by Ang II. Moreover, we observed that the inhibitory effect of TMEM16A on MMPs was mediated by decreasing the activation of WNK1, which is a Cl-sensitive serine/threonine kinase. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that TMEM16A protects against cerebrovascular remodeling during hypertension by suppressing extracellular matrix deposition. We also showed that TMEM16A exerts this effect by reducing the expression of MMPs via inhibiting WNK1, and decreasing the subsequent activities of TGF-β1/Smad3, ERK, and JNK. Accordingly, our results suggest that TMEM16A may serve as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling.
Extracellular matrix inflammation in vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.
Rosenberg Gary A
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Elasticity is lost in fibrotic cerebral vessels, reducing the response of stiffened blood vessels in times of increased metabolic need. Intermittent hypoxia/ischaemia activates a molecular injury cascade, producing an incomplete infarction that is most damaging to the deep WM, which is a watershed region for cerebral blood flow. Neuroinflammation caused by hypoxia activates microglia/macrophages to release proteases and free radicals that perpetuate the damage over time to molecules in the ECM and the neurovascular unit (NVU). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted in an attempt to remodel the blood vessel wall have the undesired consequences of opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attacking myelinated fibres. This dual effect of the MMPs causes vasogenic oedema in WM and vascular demyelination, which are the hallmarks of the subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD), which is the SVD form of VCID also called Binswanger's disease (BD). Unravelling the complex pathophysiology of the WM injury-related inflammation in the small vessel form of VCID could lead to novel therapeutic strategies to reduce damage to the ECM, preventing the progressive damage to the WM.
A hydrogel derived from acellular blood vessel extracellular matrix to promote angiogenesis.
Fu Wei,Xu Peng,Feng Bei,Lu Yang,Bai Jie,Zhang Jialiang,Zhang Wenjie,Yin Meng
Journal of biomaterials applications
The biocompatibility and bioactivity of injectable acellular extracellular matrix nominates its use as an optimal candidate for cell delivery, serving as a reconstructive scaffold. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of preparing a blood vessel matrix (BVM) hydrogel, which revealed its pro-angiogenic effects in vitro and its therapeutic effects in an in vivo skin flap model. Aortic and abdominal aortic arteries from pigs were acellularized by Triton-X 100 and confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. Different concentrations of blood vessel matrix hydrogel were generated successfully through enzymatic digestion, neutralization, and gelation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, collagen type I immunohistochemistry staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that type I collagen and some growth factors were retained in the hydrogel. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the different diametric fibrils in blood vessel matrix hydrogels. A blood vessel matrix hydrogel-coated plate promoted the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. After injection into skin flaps, the hydrogel improved the flap survival rate and increased blood perfusion and capillary density. These results indicated that we successfully prepared a blood vessel matrix hydrogel and demonstrated its general characteristics and angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo.
Microstructured human fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix scaffold for vascular media fabrication.
Bourget Jean-Michel,Laterreur Véronique,Gauvin Robert,Guillemette Maxime D,Miville-Godin Caroline,Mounier Maxence,Tondreau Maxime Y,Tremblay Catherine,Labbé Raymond,Ruel Jean,Auger François A,Veres Teodor,Germain Lucie
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
In the clinical and pharmacological fields, there is a need for the production of tissue-engineered small-diameter blood vessels. We have demonstrated previously that the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by fibroblasts can be used as a scaffold to support three-dimensional (3D) growth of another cell type. Thus, a resistant tissue-engineered vascular media can be produced when such scaffolds are used to culture smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The present study was designed to develop an anisotropic fibroblastic ECM sheet that could replicate the physiological architecture of blood vessels after being assembled into a small diameter vascular conduit. Anisotropic ECM scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts, grown on a microfabricated substrate with a specific topography, which led to cell alignment and unidirectional ECM assembly. Following their devitalization, the scaffolds were seeded with SMCs. These cells elongated and migrated in a single direction, following a specific angle relative to the direction of the aligned fibroblastic ECM. Their resultant ECM stained for collagen I and III and elastin, and the cells expressed SMC differentiation markers. Seven days after SMCs seeding, the sheets were rolled around a mandrel to form a tissue-engineered vascular media. The resulting anisotropic ECM and cell alignment induced an increase in the mechanical strength and vascular reactivity in the circumferential direction as compared to unaligned constructs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Extracellular matrix scaffolding in angiogenesis and capillary homeostasis.
Marchand Marion,Monnot Catherine,Muller Laurent,Germain Stéphane
Seminars in cell & developmental biology
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood vessels, which is composed of both the vascular basement membrane (BM) and the interstitial ECM is identified as a crucial component of the vasculature. We here focus on the unique molecular composition and scaffolding of the capillary ECM, which provides structural support to blood vessels and regulates properties of endothelial cells and pericytes. The major components of the BM are collagen IV, laminins, heparan sulfate proteoglycans and nidogen and also associated proteins such as collagen XVIII and fibronectin. Their organization and scaffolding in the BM is required for proper capillary morphogenesis and maintenance of vascular homeostasis. The BM also regulates vascular mechanosensing. A better understanding of the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular BM and interstitial ECM therefore opens new perspectives to control physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis. The overall aim of this review is to explain how ECM scaffolding influences angiogenesis and capillary integrity.
Transplantation of three-dimensional artificial human vascular tissues fabricated using an extracellular matrix nanofilm-based cell-accumulation technique.
Asano Yoshiya,Shimoda Hiroshi,Okano Daisuke,Matsusaki Michiya,Akashi Mitsuru
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
We have established a novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-constructing technique, referred to as the 'cell-accumulation method', which is based on the self-assembly of cultured human cells. In this technique, cells are coated with fibronectin and gelatin to construct extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilms and cultured to form multi-layers in vitro. By using this method, we have successfully fabricated artificial tissues with vascular networks constructed by co-cultivation of human umbilical vein-derived vascular endothelial cells between multi-layers of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, to assess these engineered vascular tissues as therapeutic implants, we transplanted the 3D human tissues with microvascular networks, fabricated based on the cell-accumulation method, onto the back skin of nude mice. After the transplantation, we found vascular networks with perfusion of blood in the transplanted graft. At the boundary between host and implanted tissue, connectivity between murine and human vessels was found. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted artificial vascular tubules demonstrated the ultrastructural features of blood capillaries. Moreover, maturation of the vascular tissues after transplantation was shown by the presence of pericyte-like cells and abundant collagen fibrils in the ECM surrounding the vasculature. These results demonstrated that artificial human vascular tissues constructed by our method were engrafted and matured in animal skin. In addition, the implanted artificial human vascular networks were connected with the host circulatory system by anastomosis. This method is an attractive technique for engineering prevascularized artificial tissues for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NOX1 Negatively Modulates Fibulin-5 in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells to Affect Aortic Dissection.
Hu Xiaoping,Jiang Wanli,Wang Zhiwei,Li Luocheng,Hu Zhipeng
Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
Aortic dissection (AD) diseases are characterized by degeneration of the aortic media. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of AD. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (NOX1) deficiency reduces the incidence of aortic dissection induced by angiotensin II, but its mechanism remains to be further elucidated. The expression of Fibulin-5 is decreased in patients with AD, but its upstream mechanism is still unclear. This study was to clarify the relationship between NOX1 and Fibulin-5 in the AD. Results showed that the expressions of NOX1 and Fibulin-5 were increased and decreased in the AD, respectively. Next, by employing gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vitro, NOX1 negatively regulated Fibulin-5 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, the blunted activity of NOX1 with VAS2870 could upregulate the expression of Fibulin-5. These findings indicate NOX1 is a negative modulator of Fibulin-5 in the AD.
Perivascular Adipose Tissue Regulates Vascular Function by Targeting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Chang Lin,Garcia-Barrio Minerva T,Chen Y Eugene
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Adipose tissues are present at multiple locations in the body. Most blood vessels are surrounded with adipose tissue which is referred to as perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Similarly to adipose tissues at other locations, PVAT harbors many types of cells which produce and secrete adipokines and other undetermined factors which locally modulate PVAT metabolism and vascular function. Uncoupling protein-1, which is considered as a brown fat marker, is also expressed in PVAT of rodents and humans. Thus, compared with other adipose tissues in the visceral area, PVAT displays brown-like characteristics. PVAT shows a distinct function in the cardiovascular system compared with adipose tissues in other depots which are not adjacent to the vascular tree. Growing and extensive studies have demonstrated that presence of normal PVAT is required to maintain the vasculature in a functional status. However, excessive accumulation of dysfunctional PVAT leads to vascular disorders, partially through alteration of its secretome which, in turn, affects vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. In this review, we highlight the cross talk between PVAT and vascular smooth muscle cells and its roles in vascular remodeling and blood pressure regulation.
Downregulation of HDAC1 suppresses media degeneration by inhibiting the migration and phenotypic switch of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in aortic dissection.
Sun Lin,Wang Chunping,Yuan Ye,Guo Zhen,He Yubin,Ma Wenrui,Zhang Jing
Journal of cellular physiology
Although much progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of thoracic aortic dissection (TAD), the overall morbidity and mortality rates of TAD are still high. Therefore, the molecular pathogenesis and etiology of TAD need to be elucidated. In this study, we found that histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression is dramatically higher in the aortic wall of patients with TAD (than that in a normal group) and negatively correlates with the levels of the vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractile-phenotype markers. Knockdown of HDAC1 upregulated both smooth muscle 22 α (SM22α) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-treated and -untreated SMCs. In addition, the knockdown of HDAC1 markedly decreased SMC viability and migration in contrast to the control group under the conditions of quiescence and PDGF-BB treatment. We also showed that the expression of polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) is decreased in the aortic wall of patients with TAD and negatively correlates with HDAC1 expression. Overexpressed PKD1 obviously increased SM22α and α-SMA expression and reduced the viability and migration of SMCs, but these effects were attenuated by HDAC1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HDAC1 serves as an important modulator of the migration and phenotypic switch of SMCs by suppressing the PKD1- mammalian target of the rapamycin signaling pathway. HDAC1 downregulation inhibited media degeneration and attenuated the loss of elastic-fiber integrity in a mouse model of TAD. Our results suggest that HDAC1 might be a new target for the treatment of a macrovascular disease such as TAD.
Miconazole protects blood vessels from MMP9-dependent rupture and hemorrhage.
Yang Ran,Zhang Yunpei,Huang Dandan,Luo Xiao,Zhang Liangren,Zhu Xiaojun,Zhang Xiaolin,Liu Zhenming,Han Jing-Yan,Xiong Jing-Wei
Disease models & mechanisms
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity worldwide, but its prevention and therapeutic interventions remain a major challenge. Here, we report the identification of miconazole as a hemorrhagic suppressor by a small-molecule screen in zebrafish. We found that a hypomorphic mutant , one of several known mutant alleles in zebrafish, had the major symptoms of brain hemorrhage, vessel rupture and inflammation as those in hemorrhagic stroke patients. A small-molecule screen with mutant embryos identified the anti-fungal drug miconazole as a potent hemorrhagic suppressor. Miconazole inhibited both brain hemorrhages in zebrafish and mesenteric hemorrhages in rats by decreasing matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)-dependent vessel rupture. Mechanistically, miconazole downregulated the levels of pErk and Mmp9 to protect vascular integrity in mutants. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that miconazole protects blood vessels from hemorrhages by downregulating the pERK-MMP9 axis from zebrafish to mammals and shed light on the potential of phenotype-based screens in zebrafish for the discovery of new drug candidates and chemical probes for hemorrhagic stroke.
Smooth Muscle Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Plays a Critical Role in Formation and Rupture of Cerebral Aneurysms in Mice In Vivo.
Hasan David M,Starke Robert M,Gu He,Wilson Katina,Chu Yi,Chalouhi Nohra,Heistad Donald D,Faraci Frank M,Sigmund Curt D
Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
Vascular inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protects against vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, whereas dominant-negative mutations in PPARγ promote atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction. We tested the role of PPARγ in aneurysm formation and rupture. Aneurysms were induced with a combination of systemic infusion of angiotensin-II and local injection of elastase in (1) mice that received the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, (2) mice carrying dominant-negative PPARγ mutations in endothelial or smooth muscle cells, and (3) mice that received the Cullin inhibitor MLN4924. Incidence of aneurysm formation, rupture, and mortality was quantified. Cerebral arteries were analyzed for expression of Cullin3, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone)1 (NQO1), and inflammatory marker mRNAs. Neither pioglitazone nor GW9662 altered the incidence of aneurysm formation. GW9662 significantly increased the incidence of aneurysm rupture, whereas pioglitazone tended to decrease the incidence of rupture. Dominant-negative endothelial-specific PPARγ did not alter the incidence of aneurysm formation or rupture. In contrast, dominant-negative smooth muscle-specific PPARγ resulted in an increase in aneurysm formation (P<0.05) and rupture (P=0.05). Dominant-negative smooth muscle-specific PPARγ, but not dominant-negative endothelial-specific PPARγ, resulted in significant decreases in expression of genes encoding Cullin3, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, along with significant increases in tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, CD68, matrix metalloproteinase-3, -9, and -13. MLN4924 did not alter incidence of aneurysm formation, but increased the incidence of rupture (P<0.05). In summary, endogenous PPARγ, specifically smooth muscle PPARγ, plays an important role in protecting from formation and rupture of experimental cerebral aneurysms in mice.
TNF-α induces phenotypic modulation in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for cerebral aneurysm pathology.
Ali Muhammad S,Starke Robert M,Jabbour Pascal M,Tjoumakaris Stavropoula I,Gonzalez L Fernando,Rosenwasser Robert H,Owens Gary K,Koch Walter J,Greig Nigel H,Dumont Aaron S
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Little is known about vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation in the cerebral circulation or pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been associated with aneurysms, but potential mechanisms are unclear. Cultured rat cerebral SMCs overexpressing myocardin induced expression of key SMC contractile genes (SM-α-actin, SM-22α, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain), while dominant-negative cells suppressed expression. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment inhibited this contractile phenotype and induced pro-inflammatory/matrix-remodeling genes (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3, matrix metalloproteinase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1 beta). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased expression of KLF4, a known regulator of SMC differentiation. Kruppel-like transcription factor 4 (KLF4) small interfering RNA abrogated TNF-α activation of inflammatory genes and suppression of contractile genes. These mechanisms were confirmed in vivo after exposure of rat carotid arteries to TNF-α and early on in a model of cerebral aneurysm formation. Treatment with the synthesized TNF-α inhibitor 3,6-dithiothalidomide reversed pathologic vessel wall alterations after induced hypertension and hemodynamic stress. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that TNF-α promotes epigenetic changes through KLF4-dependent alterations in promoter regions of myocardin, SMCs, and inflammatory genes. In conclusion, TNF-α induces phenotypic modulation of cerebral SMCs through myocardin and KLF4-regulated pathways. These results demonstrate a novel role for TNF-α in promoting a pro-inflammatory/matrix-remodeling phenotype, which has important implications for the mechanisms behind intracranial aneurysm formation.
Vascular smooth muscle cell death, autophagy and senescence in atherosclerosis.
Grootaert Mandy O J,Moulis Manon,Roth Lynn,Martinet Wim,Vindis Cécile,Bennett Martin R,De Meyer Guido R Y
In the present review, we describe the causes and consequences of loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or their function in advanced atherosclerotic plaques and discuss possible mechanisms such as cell death or senescence, and induction of autophagy to promote cell survival. We also highlight the potential use of pharmacological modulators of these processes to limit plaque progression and/or improve plaque stability. VSMCs play a pivotal role in atherogenesis. Loss of VSMCs via initiation of cell death leads to fibrous cap thinning and promotes necrotic core formation and calcification. VSMC apoptosis is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidized low density lipoprotein, high levels of nitric oxide and mechanical injury. Apoptotic VSMCs are characterized by a thickened basal lamina surrounding the cytoplasmic remnants of the VSMC. Inefficient clearance of apoptotic VSMCs results in secondary necrosis and subsequent inflammation. A critical determinant in the VSMC stress response and phenotypic switching is autophagy, which is activated by various stimuli, including reactive oxygen and lipid species, cytokines, growth factors and metabolic stress. Successful autophagy stimulates VSMC survival, whereas reduced autophagy promotes age-related changes in the vasculature. Recently, an interesting link between autophagy and VSMC senescence has been uncovered. Defective VSMC autophagy accelerates not only the development of stress-induced premature senescence but also atherogenesis, albeit without worsening plaque stability. VSMC senescence in atherosclerosis is likely a result of replicative senescence and/or stress-induced premature senescence in response to DNA damaging and/or oxidative stress-inducing stimuli. The finding that VSMC senescence can promote atherosclerosis further illustrates that normal, adequate VSMC function is crucial in protecting the vessel wall against atherosclerosis.
DFMG reverses proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by co-culture with injured vascular endothelial cells via suppression of the TLR4-mediated signaling pathway.
Cong Li,Zhang Yong,Huang He,Cao Jianguo,Fu Xiaohua
Molecular medicine reports
7-Difluoromethoxy-5,4'-dimethoxy-genistein (DFMG) is a novel chemical compound synthesized using genistein. Previous studies have indicated that DFMG can reverse the apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) by regulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The present study aimed to investigate the activity and molecular mechanism underlying DFMG‑mediated protection of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) using a non‑contact co‑culture model established by using Transwell insert. Secretion of interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were measured by ELISA. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs were assessed using a Cell Counting kit‑8 and wound healing assays, respectively. Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein levels were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses, respectively. In the present study, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) significantly increased the secretion of IL‑6 and TNF‑α in VECs. VECs treated with LPC markedly increased proliferation and migration of VSMCs, which were inhibited by DFMG. Transfection of either TLR4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or TLR4 cDNA in VECs inhibited and increased proliferation and migration of VSMCs, respectively. Furthermore, transfection of VECs with TLR4 shRNA suppressed the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by co‑culture with injured VECs, which was further enhanced by treatment with DFMG. By contrast, transfection of VECs with TLR4 cDNA enhanced proliferation and migration of VSMCs and this effect was inhibited by treatment with DFMG. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that DFMG can reverse proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by co‑culture with injured VECs via suppression of the TLR4‑mediated signaling pathway.
LncRNA HCG11 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell through targeting miR-144-3p/FOXF1 axis in atherosclerosis.
Liu Yi,Cui Xiyun,Wang Cong,Zhao Sihai
BACKGROUND:Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main pathological basis of coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction and peripheral vascular disease, which seriously endanger people's life and health. In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been found to be involved in gene expression regulation, but the research on AS is still in the initial stage. In this study, we mainly studied the role of HCG11 in patients with AS. Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HCG11 and miR-144 in the serum of AS patients and healthy volunteers. Oxidation Low Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) radiation were used to establish human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro model. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry (FACS) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) staining. The expression levels of Forkhead box protein F1 (FOXF1), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and BCL2-Associated X (Bax) were detected by qRT-PCR. Luciferase gene reporter and RNA pull down experiments confirmed the relationship between HCG11 and miR-144, miR-144 and FOXF1. RESULTS:This study showed that HCG11 was significantly upregulated in patients with AS, while miR-144 was down-regulated in patients with AS. Ox-LDL and IL-6 in VSMCs induced up-regulation of HCG11 and down-regulation of miR-144. Overexpression of HCG11 promoted the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of VSMCs. Luciferase gene reporter gene assay showed that HCG11 could bind to miR-144, and miR-144 could bind to FOXF1. Overexpression of miR-144 reversed the effect of HCG11 on VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS:LncRNA HCG11 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell through targeting miR-144-3p/FOXF1 axis.
Lactate Promotes Synthetic Phenotype in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Yang Libang,Gao Ling,Nickel Thomas,Yang Jing,Zhou Jingyi,Gilbertsen Adam,Geng Zhaohui,Johnson Caitlin,Young Bernice,Henke Craig,Gourley Glenn R,Zhang Jianyi
RATIONALE:The phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) comprise a continuum bounded by predominantly contractile and synthetic cells. Some evidence suggests that contractile vSMCs can assume a more synthetic phenotype in response to ischemic injury, but the mechanisms that activate this phenotypic switch are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether lactate, which increases in response to regional ischemia, may promote the synthetic phenotype in vSMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS:Experiments were performed with vSMCs that had been differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells and then cultured in glucose-free, lactate-enriched (L) medium or in standard (L) medium. Compared with the L medium, the L medium was associated with significant increases in synthetic vSMC marker expression, proliferation, and migration and with significant declines in contractile and apoptotic activity. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by increases in the expression of monocarboxylic acid transporters and were generally attenuated both by the blockade of monocarboxylic acid transporter activity and by transfection with iRNA for (). Proteomics, biomarker, and pathway analyses suggested that the L medium tended to upregulate the expression of synthetic vSMC markers, the production of extracellular proteins that participate in tissue construction or repair, and the activity of pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration. Observations in hypoxia-cultured vSMCs were similar to those in L-cultured vSMCs, and assessments in a swine myocardial infarction model suggested that measurements of lactate levels, lactate-dehydrogenase levels, vSMC proliferation, and monocarboxylic acid transporter and NDRG expression were greater in the ischemic zone than in nonischemic tissues. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate for the first time that vSMCs assume a more synthetic phenotype in a microenvironment that is rich in lactate. Thus, mechanisms that link glucose metabolism to vSMC phenotypic switching could play a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Diethyl citrate and sodium citrate reduce the cytotoxic effects of nanosized hydroxyapatite crystals on mouse vascular smooth muscle cells.
Zhang Chong-Yu,Sun Xin-Yuan,Ouyang Jian-Ming,Gui Bao-Song
International journal of nanomedicine
Objective:This study aimed to investigate the damage mechanism of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) on mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVASs) and the injury-inhibiting effects of diethyl citrate (EtCit) and sodium citrate (NaCit) to develop new drugs that can simultaneously induce anticoagulation and inhibit vascular calcification. Methods:The change in cell viability was evaluated using a cell proliferation assay kit, and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released was measured using an LDH kit. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial damage were detected by DCFH-DA staining and JC-1 staining. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were detected by Annexin V staining. Intracellular calcium concentration and lysosomal integrity were measured using Fluo-4/AM and acridine orange, respectively. Results:Nano-HAp decreased cell viability and damaged the cell membrane, resulting in the release of a large amount of LDH. Nano-HAp entered the cells and damaged the mitochondria, and then induced cell apoptosis by producing a large amount of ROS. In addition, nano-HAp increased the intracellular Ca concentration, leading to lysosomal rupture and cell necrosis. On addition of the anticoagulant EtCit or NaCit, cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential increased, whereas the amount of LDH released, ROS, and apoptosis rate decreased. Et Cit and NaCit could also chelate with Ca to inhibit the intracellular Ca elevations induced by nano-HAp, prevent lysosomal rupture, and reduce cell necrosis. High concentrations of EtCit and NaCit exhibited strong inhibitory effects. The inhibitory capacity of NaCit was stronger than that of EtCit at similar concentrations. Conclusion:Both EtCit and NaCit significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of nano-HAp on MOVASs and inhibited the apoptosis and necrosis induced by nano-HAp crystals. The chelating function of citrate resulted in both anticoagulation and binding to HAp. EtCit and NaCit may play a role as anticoagulants in reducing injury to the vascular wall caused by nano-HAp.
FOXO3a (Forkhead Transcription Factor O Subfamily Member 3a) Links Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis, Matrix Breakdown, Atherosclerosis, and Vascular Remodeling Through a Novel Pathway Involving MMP13 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 13).
Yu Haixiang,Fellows Adam,Foote Kirsty,Yang Zhaoqing,Figg Nichola,Littlewood Trevor,Bennett Martin
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
OBJECTIVE:Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis accelerates atherosclerosis and promotes breakdown of the extracellular matrix, but the mechanistic links between these 2 processes are unknown. The forkhead protein FOXO3a (forkhead transcription factor O subfamily member 3a) is activated in human atherosclerosis and induces a range of proapoptotic and other transcriptional targets. We, therefore, determined the mechanisms and consequences of FOXO3a activation in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling after injury. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Expression of a conditional FOXO3a allele (FOXO3aA3ER) potently induced VSMC apoptosis, expression and activation of MMP13 (matrix metalloproteinase 13), and downregulation of endogenous TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of MMPs). and were direct FOXO3a transcriptional targets in VSMCs. Activation of endogenous FOXO3a also induced MMP13, extracellular matrix degradation, and apoptosis, and MMP13-specific inhibitors and fibronectin reduced FOXO3a-mediated apoptosis. FOXO3a activation in mice with VSMC-restricted FOXO3aA3ER induced MMP13 expression and activity and medial VSMC apoptosis. FOXO3a activation in FOXO3aA3ER/ApoE (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice increased atherosclerosis, increased necrotic core and reduced fibrous cap areas, and induced features of medial degeneration. After carotid artery ligation, FOXO3a activation increased VSMC apoptosis, VSMC proliferation, and neointima formation, all of which were reduced by MMP13 inhibition. CONCLUSIONS:FOXO3a activation induces VSMC apoptosis and extracellular matrix breakdown, in part, because of transcriptional activation of MMP13. FOXO3a activation promotes atherosclerosis and medial degeneration and increases neointima after injury that is partly dependent on MMP13. FOXO3a-induced MMP activation represents a direct mechanistic link between VSMC apoptosis and matrix breakdown in vascular disease.
The deregulation of STIM1 and store operative calcium entry impaired aortic smooth muscle cells contractility in aortic medial degeneration.
Hong Junmou,Hu Zhipeng,Wu Qi,Tang Chaoliang,Hu Junxia,Chen Ruoshi,Li Bowen,Wang Zhiwei
Microarray analysis of clinical aortic samples suggested a potential role for stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the modulation of aortic medial degeneration (AMD), despite the uncertainty about STIM1 in normal aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Here, we aimed to explore changes in STIM1 expression in AMD, and the possible mechanisms. An AMD model was established using auto-delivery of angiotensin II (Ang II) into ApoE mice. We assessed the effects of SKF96365, a STIM1 inhibitor, in AMD model and cultured ASMCs. Elastic van Gieson (EVG) staining was used to visualize elastic fiber injury. Mitochondria changes were viewed by TEM. Cytoplasmic calcium was quantified by measuring fluo-4 staining in a flow cytometer. Mechanical stretching device was used to mimic stretching that ASMCs experience Cell apoptosis was determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The expression of STIM1, contractile related proteins (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), myosin light chain (MLC)), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins (CHOP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6)) and smad2/3 were assessed by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and immunofluorescence (IF). SKF96365 exacerbated aortic injury in the AMD model. SKF96365 reduced cytoplasmic calcium concentration in ASMCs, caused mitochondrial swelling, and elevated the expression of ATF-6 and CHOP. SKF96365 decreased the expression of MLC and α-SMA in ASMCs, causing them to be vulnerable to mechanical stretch. SKF96365 suppressed smad2/3 activation after treatment with transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 (TGFβ1). STIM1 is indispensable in ASMCs. Interfering with STIM1 exaggerated the AMD process by modulating the expression of contractile proteins, inducing ER stress in ASMCs.
Smooth muscle cell and arterial aging: basic and clinical aspects.
Lacolley Patrick,Regnault Veronique,Avolio Alberto P
Arterial aging engages a plethora of key signalling pathways that act in concert to induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic changes leading to vascular degeneration and extracellular matrix degradation responsible for alterations of the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. This review highlights proof-of-concept examples of components of the extracellular matrix, VSMC receptors which connect extracellular and intracellular structures, and signalling pathways regulating changes in mechanotransduction and vascular homeostasis in aging. Furthermore, it provides a new framework for understanding how VSMC stiffness and adhesion to extracellular matrix contribute to arterial stiffness and how interactions with endothelial cells, platelets, and immune cells can regulate vascular aging. The identification of the key players of VSMC changes operating in large and small-sized arteries in response to increased mechanical load may be useful to better elucidate the causes and consequences of vascular aging and associated progression of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and atherosclerosis.
From genetics to response to injury: vascular smooth muscle cells in aneurysms and dissections of the ascending aorta.
Michel Jean-Baptiste,Jondeau Guillaume,Milewicz Dianna M
Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) play a crucial role in both the pathogenesis of Aneurysms and Dissections of the ascending thoracic aorta (TAAD) in humans and in the associated adaptive compensatory responses, since thrombosis and inflammatory processes are absent in the majority of cases. Aneurysms and dissections share numerous characteristics, including aetiologies and histopathological alterations: vSMC disappearance, medial areas of mucoid degeneration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown. Three aetiologies predominate in TAAD in humans: (i) genetic causes in heritable familial forms, (ii) an association with bicuspid aortic valves, and (iii) a sporadic degenerative form linked to the aortic aging process. Genetic forms include mutations in vSMC genes encoding for molecules of the ECM or the TGF-β pathways, or participating in vSMC tone. On the other hand, aneurysms and dissections, whatever their aetiologies, are characterized by an increase in wall permeability leading to transmural advection of plasma proteins which could interact with vSMCs and ECM components. In this context, blood-borne plasminogen appears to play an important role, because its outward convection through the wall is increased in TAAD, and it could be converted to active plasmin at the vSMC membrane. Active plasmin can induce vSMC disappearance, proteolysis of adhesive proteins, activation of MMPs and release of TGF-β from its ECM storage sites. Conversely, vSMCs could respond to aneurysmal biomechanical and proteolytic injury by an epigenetic phenotypic switch, including constitutional overexpression and nuclear translocation of Smad2 and an increase in antiprotease and ECM protein synthesis. In contrast, such an epigenetic phenomenon is not observed in dissections. In this context, dysfunction of proteins involved in vSMC tone are interesting to study, particularly in interaction with plasma protein transport through the wall and TGF-β activation, to establish the relationship between these dysfunctions and ECM proteolysis.
Porcine complement regulators protect aortic smooth muscle cells poorly against human complement-induced lysis and proliferation: consequences for xenotransplantation.
Capey Steven,van den Berg Carmen W
BACKGROUND:Accelerated atherosclerosis after transplantation has been observed and is characterized by smooth muscle cell proliferation in the graft. Porcine cells are frequently used in models of atherosclerosis and porcine organs are considered for use in transplantation. Complement (C) activation is known to play a major role in rejection of xenografts and is also considered to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of membrane bound regulators of complement (CReg) on porcine aortic smooth muscle cells (PASMC). METHODS:The PASMC were assessed for expression of CReg and susceptibility to lysis by human C by flow-cytometry. The effect of various cytokines on CReg expression and C-susceptibility was investigated. The ability of human C to induce cell proliferation was assessed using the Alamar blue assay. RESULTS:The PASMC only express the CReg membrane cofactor protein (MCP) and CD59 on their cell surface. MCP expression was increased by interleukin (IL)-4. In contrast to porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC), PASMC were found to be surprisingly sensitive to C-mediated lysis, mainly due to a low level of expression of CD59. Human C-induced proliferation of PASMC, which was dependent on complete membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. CONCLUSIONS:Endogenously expressed CReg on PASMC poorly protect these cells to human C. Human C can induce proliferation of PASMC. In order to prevent accelerated atherosclerosis in porcine xenografts, increased levels of CReg not only have to be obtained on the endothelial cells but also on the smooth muscle cells.
Role of D and E domains in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells into fibrin gels.
Kodama Michiteru,Naito Michitaka,Nomura Hideki,Iguchi Akihisa,Thompson W Douglas,Stirk Christina M,Smith Elspeth B
The structure of fibrin plays an important role in the organization of thrombi, the development of atherosclerosis, and restenosis after PTCA. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into fibrin gels, using an in vitro assay system. Cultured SMCs from bovine fetal aortic media migrated into fibrin gels prepared with thrombin, which cleaves both fibrinopeptides A and B from fibrinogen, without other chemotactic stimuli. Both desA fibrin gels prepared with batroxobin, which cleaves only fibrinopeptide A, and desB fibrin gels prepared with Agkistrodon contortrix thrombin-like enzyme (ACTE), which cleaves only fibrinopeptide B, similarly induced the migration of SMCs compared to fibrin gels prepared with thrombin. These results suggest that the cleavage of fibrinopeptides is not necessary, but rather that the three-dimensional structure of the gel may be important for the migration of SMCs. Furthermore, gels prepared with protamine sulfate, which forms fibrin-like gels non-enzymatically, similarly induced the migration of SMCs compared to the gels prepared with thrombin. Both anti-fibrin(ogen) fragment D and anti-fibrin(ogen) E antibodies inhibited the migration of SMCs into fibrin gels, suggesting that both the D and E domains of fibrin(ogen) are involved in the migration of SMCs into fibrin gels. The addition of GRGDS, a synthetic RGD-containing peptide, but not that of GRGES, a control peptide, partially inhibited the migration of SMCs into fibrin gels, suggesting that the migration of SMCs into fibrin gels is at least in part dependent on the RGD-containing region of the alpha chain. The migration of SMCs into fibrin gels was also inhibited by a monoclonal antibody for integrin alpha v beta 3 and alpha 5 beta 1, indicating that migration is dependent on these integrins. Furthermore, both fibrin(ogen) fragments D and E inhibited the migration of SMCs into fibrin gels, suggesting that these fragments, generated during fibrino(geno)lysis, may be relevant in the regulation of SMC migration into fibrin gels.
TRAIL expression in vascular smooth muscle.
Gochuico B R,Zhang J,Ma B Y,Marshak-Rothstein A,Fine A
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology
TRAIL is a cell-associated tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand originally identified in immune cells. The ligand has the capacity to induce apoptosis after binding to cell surface receptors. To examine TRAIL expression in murine vascular tissue, we employed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In these studies, we found that TRAIL mRNA and protein were specifically localized throughout the medial smooth muscle cell layer of the pulmonary artery. Notably, a similar pattern of expression was observed in the mouse aorta. Consistent with these findings, we found that cultures of primary human aorta and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells express abundant TRAIL mRNA and protein. We also found that these cells and endothelial cells undergo cell lysis in response to exogenous addition of TRAIL. Last, we confirmed that TRAIL specifically activated a death program by confirming poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage. Overall, we believe that these findings are relevant to understanding the factors that regulate cell turnover in the vessel wall.
Nuclear factor-kappa B activation inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Jiao Lei,Jiang Ming,Liu Jun,Wei Lichao,Wu Min
OBJECTIVES:To investigate the role of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) performed in cell proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and to assess the mechanisms. METHODS:Human aorta VSMCs were divided into control, NF-κB inhibitor, NF-κB overexpression + NF-κB inhibitor, control vector + NF-κB inhibitor, NF-κB overexpression, and control vector groups. NF-κB overexpression vector was constructed and transfected into VSMCs. Proliferation of VSMCs in each group was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide. Apoptosis of VSMCs was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of NF-κB, FasL, and hypertension-related gene (HRG-1) was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS:NF-κB overexpression vector was constructed correctly by restriction endonuclease, and the results showed that the activation of NF-κB could inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs. The results of flow cytometry also confirmed that NF-κB overexpression promoted apoptosis of VSMCs. Mechanically, NF-κB overexpression could up-regulate the expression of FasL and HRG-1. CONCLUSIONS:NF-κB overexpression promotes apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation of VSMCs. The mechanisms might be regulated by promoting FasL and HRG-1 expression.
Statin-mediated cholesterol depletion exerts coordinated effects on the alterations in rat vascular smooth muscle cell biomechanics and migration.
Sanyour Hanna J,Li Na,Rickel Alex P,Torres Haydee M,Anderson Ruthellen H,Miles Miranda R,Childs Josh D,Francis Kevin R,Tao Jianning,Hong Zhongkui
The Journal of physiology
KEY POINTS:This study demonstrates and evaluates the changes in rat vascular smooth muscle cell biomechanics following statin-mediated cholesterol depletion. Evidence is presented to show correlated changes in migration and adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells to extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and collagen. Concurrently, integrin α5 expression was enhanced but not integrin α2. Atomic force microscopy analysis provides compelling evidence of coordinated reduction in vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and actin cytoskeletal orientation in response to statin-mediated cholesterol depletion. Proof is provided that statin-mediated cholesterol depletion remodels total vascular smooth muscle cell cytoskeletal orientation that may additionally participate in altering ex vivo aortic vessel function. It is concluded that statin-mediated cholesterol depletion may coordinate vascular smooth muscle cell migration and adhesion to different extracellular matrix proteins and regulate cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal orientation, thus impacting the biomechanics of the cell. ABSTRACT:Not only does cholesterol induce an inflammatory response and deposits in foam cells at the atherosclerotic plaque, it also regulates cellular mechanics, proliferation and migration in atherosclerosis progression. Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that are known to inhibit cellular cholesterol biosynthesis and are clinically prescribed to patients with hypercholesterolemia or related cardiovascular conditions. Nonetheless, the effect of statin-mediated cholesterol management on cellular biomechanics is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of fluvastatin-mediated cholesterol management on primary rat vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) biomechanics. Real-time measurement of cell adhesion, stiffness, and imaging were performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cellular migration on extra cellular matrix (ECM) protein surfaces was studied by time-lapse imaging. The effect of changes in VSMC biomechanics on aortic function was assessed using an ex vivo myograph system. Fluvastatin-mediated cholesterol depletion (-27.8%) lowered VSMC migration distance on a fibronectin (FN)-coated surface (-14.8%) but not on a type 1 collagen (COL1)-coated surface. VSMC adhesion force to FN (+33%) and integrin α5 expression were enhanced but COL1 adhesion and integrin α2 expression were unchanged upon cholesterol depletion. In addition, VSMC stiffness (-46.6%) and ex vivo aortic ring contraction force (-40.1%) were lowered and VSMC actin cytoskeletal orientation was reduced (-24.5%) following statin-mediated cholesterol depletion. Altogether, it is concluded that statin-mediated cholesterol depletion may coordinate VSMC migration and adhesion to different ECM proteins and regulate cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal orientation, thus impacting the biomechanics of the cell and aortic function.
Thymoquinone suppresses platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and neointimal formation.
Zhu Ning,Xiang Yijia,Zhao Xuyong,Cai Changhong,Chen Hao,Jiang Wenbing,Wang Yi,Zeng Chunlai
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
The excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are mainly responsible for vascular occlusion diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and restenosis. Our previous study demonstrated thymoquinone (TQ) attenuated monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study is to systematically examine inhibitory effects of TQ on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo and elucidate the potential mechanisms. Vascular smooth muscle cells were isolated from the aorta in rats. Cell viability and proliferation were measured in VSMCs using the MTT assay. Cell migration was detected by wound healing assay and Transwell assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Ki-67-positive cells were examined by immunofluorescence staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Molecules including the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis factors, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), PTEN/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were determined by Western blot. Neointimal formation was induced by ligation in male Sprague Dawley rats and evaluated by HE staining. Thymoquinone inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and the increase in α-SMA and Ki-67-positive cells. Thymoquinone also induced apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway and p38MAPK. Thymoquinone blocked VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP2. Finally, TQ reversed neointimal formation induced by ligation in rats. Thus, TQ is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of occlusive vascular diseases.
Upregulation of the actin cytoskeleton via myocardin leads to increased expression of type 1 collagen.
Shi Zengdun,Rockey Don C
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
Liver fibrosis, a model wound healing system, is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Although many fibrogenic cell types may express ECM, the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is currently considered to be the major effector. HSCs transform into myofibroblast-like cells, also known as hepatic myofibroblasts in a process known as activation; this process is characterized in particular by de novo expression of smooth muscle alpha actin (SM α-actin) and type 1 collagen. The family of actins, which form the cell's cytoskeleton, are essential in many cellular processes. β-actin and cytoplasmic γ-actin (γ-actin) are ubiquitously expressed, whereas SM α-actin defines smooth muscle cell and myofibroblast phenotypes. Thus, SM α-actin is tightly associated with multiple functional properties. However, the regulatory mechanisms by which actin isoforms might regulate type 1 collagen remain unclear. In primary HSCs from normal and fibrotic rat liver, we demonstrate that myocardin, a canonical SRF cofactor, is upregulated in hepatic myofibroblasts and differentially regulates SM α-actin, γ-actin, and β-actins through activation of an ATTA box in the SM α-actin and a CCAAT box in γ-actin and β-actin promoters, respectively; moreover, myocardin differentially activated serum response factor (SRF) in CArG boxes of actin promoters. In addition, myocardin-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation and RhoA expression, leading to increased expression of type 1 collagen in an actin cytoskeleton-dependent manner. Myocardin also directly enhanced SRF expression and stimulated collagen 1α1 and 1α2 promoter activities. In addition, overexpression of myocardin in vivo during carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury led to increased HSC activation and fibrogenesis. In summary, our data suggest that myocardin plays a critical role in actin cytoskeletal dynamics during HSC activation, in turn, specifically regulating type I collagen expression in hepatic myofibroblasts.
Role of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switching and Calcification in Aortic Aneurysm Formation.
Petsophonsakul Ploingarm,Furmanik Malgorzata,Forsythe Rachael,Dweck Marc,Schurink Geert Willem,Natour Ehsan,Reutelingsperger Chris,Jacobs Michael,Mees Barend,Schurgers Leon
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Aortic aneurysm is a vascular disease whereby the ECM (extracellular matrix) of a blood vessel degenerates, leading to dilation and eventually vessel wall rupture. Recently, it was shown that calcification of the vessel wall is involved in both the initiation and progression of aneurysms. Changes in aortic wall structure that lead to aneurysm formation and vascular calcification are actively mediated by vascular smooth muscle cells. Vascular smooth muscle cells in a healthy vessel wall are termed contractile as they maintain vascular tone and remain quiescent. However, in pathological conditions they can dedifferentiate into a synthetic phenotype, whereby they secrete extracellular vesicles, proliferate, and migrate to repair injury. This process is called phenotypic switching and is often the first step in vascular pathology. Additionally, healthy vascular smooth muscle cells synthesize VKDPs (vitamin K-dependent proteins), which are involved in inhibition of vascular calcification. The metabolism of these proteins is known to be disrupted in vascular pathologies. In this review, we summarize the current literature on vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching and vascular calcification in relation to aneurysm. Moreover, we address the role of vitamin K and VKDPs that are involved in vascular calcification and aneurysm. Visual Overview- An online visual overview is available for this article.