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    A Comparison of the Effects of Intraosseous and Intravenous 5% Albumin on Infusion Time and Hemodynamic Measures in a Swine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock. Muir Stacy L,Sheppard Lance B,Maika-Wilson Anne,Burgert James M,Garcia-Blanco Jose,Johnson Arthur D,Coyner Jennifer L Prehospital and disaster medicine UNLABELLED:Introduction Obtaining intravenous (IV) access in patients in hemorrhagic shock is often difficult and prolonged. Failed IV attempts delay life-saving treatment. Intraosseous (IO) access may often be obtained faster than IV access. Albumin (5%) is an option for prehospital volume expansion because of the absence of interference with coagulation and platelet function. Hypothesis/Problem There are limited data comparing the performance of IO and IV administered 5% albumin. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of tibial IO (TIO) and IV administration of 500 mL of 5% albumin on infusion time and hemodynamic measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS:Sixteen male swine were divided into two groups: TIO and IV. All subjects were anesthetized and a Class III hemorrhage was achieved by exsanguination of 31% of estimated blood volume (EBV) from a femoral artery catheter. Following exsanguination, 500 mL of 5% albumin was administered under pressurized infusion (300 mmHg) by the TIO or IV route and infusion time was recorded. Hemodynamic measurements of HR, MAP, CO, and SV were collected before and after exsanguination and every 20 seconds for 180 seconds during 5% albumin infusion. RESULTS:An independent t-test determined that IV 5% albumin infusion was significantly faster compared to IO (P=.01). Mean infusion time for TIO was seven minutes 35 seconds (SD=two minutes 44 seconds) compared to four minutes 32 seconds (SD=one minute 08 seconds) in the IV group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was performed on hemodynamic data collected during the 5% albumin infusion. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences between the TIO and IV groups relative to MAP, CO, HR, or SV (P>.05). CONCLUSION:While significantly longer to infuse 5% albumin by the TIO route, the longer TIO infusion time may be negated as IO devices can be placed more quickly compared to repeated IV attempts. The lack of significant difference between the TIO and IV routes relative to hemodynamic measures indicate the TIO route is a viable route for the infusion of 5% albumin in a swine model of Class III hemorrhage. Muir SL , Sheppard LB , Maika-Wilson A , Burgert JM , Garcia-Blanco J , Johnson AD , Coyner JL . A comparison of the effects of intraosseous and intravenous 5% albumin on infusion time and hemodynamic measures in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):436-442. 10.1017/S1049023X16000509
    Importance of the infusion rate for the plasma expanding effect of 5% albumin, 6% HES 130/0.4, 4% gelatin, and 0.9% NaCl in the septic rat. Bark Björn P,Persson Johan,Grände Per-Olof Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To compare the plasma volume (PV) expanding effect of a fast infusion rate with that of a slow infusion rate of a fixed volume of 5% albumin, of the synthetic colloids, 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and 4% gelatin, and of 0.9% NaCl in a rat sepsis model and to compare the plasma-expanding effect among these fluids. DESIGN:Prospective, randomized animal study. SETTING:University hospital laboratory. SUBJECTS:One hundred and twelve adult male rats. INTERVENTIONS:Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and incision followed by closure of the abdomen. After 3 hrs, an infusion of the PV expander under study was started at a volume of 12mL/kg for the colloids and of 48mL/kg for 0.9% NaCl, either for 15 mins or for 3 hrs. A control group underwent the same experimental procedure but no fluid was given. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Three hours after start of the infusion (end of experiment), the plasma-expanding effect was better with a slow than a fast infusion rate for the colloids, especially albumin, but the NaCl groups did not differ significantly from the control group. The PV for the control group was 28.7±3mL/kg. In the slow and the fast infusion groups, it was 38.9±4.3 and 32.6±4.2mL/kg for albumin (p < 0.001), 32.9±4.3 and 29.5±4.4mL/kg for hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (p < 0.05), 31.8±3.9 and 28.2±4.1mL/kg for gelatin (p < 0.05), and 31.8±5.3 and 30.7±6.6mL/kg for NaCl (n.s), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The study showed that the PV expansion by a colloid was greater when given at a slow than at a fast infusion rate, an effect more pronounced for albumin. This difference was not seen for NaCl. The PV-expanding effect was poor for NaCl and better for albumin than for the other colloids. 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318274157e
    Infusion rate and plasma volume expansion of dextran and albumin in the septic guinea pig. Bark B P,Grände P-O Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica BACKGROUND:Intravenous fluid treatment of hypovolaemia in states of increased capillary permeability, e.g. sepsis, is often accompanied by adverse oedema formation. A challenge is therefore to achieve and maintain normovolaemia using as little plasma volume substitution as possible to minimise interstitial oedema. In the present study, we evaluated the importance of infusion rate for the plasma volume expanding effects of 6% dextran 70 and 5% human albumin in a guinea pig sepsis model. METHODS:In this prospective, randomised study, 50 anaesthetised adult male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were used. After laparotomy, sepsis was induced by caecal ligation and incision. Three hours later, an infusion (12 ml/kg) of one of the studied fluids was given either over 15 min (bolus group) or over 3 h (continuous group). A sham group underwent the same surgical procedure but did not receive any fluid. RESULTS:At the end of the experiment 3 h after the start of infusion, plasma volumes in the continuous group and the bolus group, respectively, were: 47.2 ± 5.3 ml/kg and 36.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg (P < 0.001) for 6% dextran 70, and 47.3 ± 7.5 ml/kg and 39.7 ± 2.8 ml/kg (P < 0.01) for 5% albumin. Plasma volume for the sham group at the same time point was 29.9 ± 3.3 ml/kg. CONCLUSIONS:The study performed on a guinea pig sepsis model showed that the plasma volume expanding effects of fixed volumes of 6% dextran 70 and 5% albumin were greater when given at a slow than at a fast infusion rate. 10.1111/aas.12228
    Plasma protein levels are markers of pulmonary vascular permeability and degree of lung injury in critically ill patients with or at risk for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Aman Jurjan,van der Heijden Melanie,van Lingen Arthur,Girbes Armand R J,van Nieuw Amerongen Geerten P,van Hinsbergh Victor W M,Groeneveld A B Johan Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the diagnostic value of plasma protein levels for pulmonary vascular permeability and acute respiratory distress syndrome. During acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, increased vascular permeability induces protein-rich fluid extravasation. We hypothesized that plasma protein levels predict increased vascular permeability and acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN:A prospective, observational study. PATIENTS:Eighty-three consecutive, mechanically ventilated patients with or at risk for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, of whom 18 had sepsis. Patients with increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressures or central venous pressures were excluded. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were subjected to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure/central venous pressure-guided fluid loading with saline or colloid fluids. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:We measured plasma albumin and transferrin levels and determined the Gallium-transferrin pulmonary leak index, the American European Consensus Conference criteria, and the lung injury score. Measurements were performed before and after fluid loading to evaluate effects of fluid loading. Plasma albumin and transferrin levels were approximately 30% lower in acute respiratory distress syndrome than patients with acute lung injury (p < .01) and patients without lung injury (p < .05). Protein levels inversely related to the pulmonary leak index (standardized regression coefficient -0.28, p < .001 for albumin; standardized regression coefficient -0.30, p = .003 for transferrin) and the lung injury score (standardized regression coefficient -0.19, p = .01 for albumin), independently of presence of sepsis, severity of disease, and fluid loading. Albumin and transferrin levels had a high sensitivity (77-93%) and negative predictive value (80-98%) for elevated pulmonary vascular permeability and acute respiratory distress syndrome (American European Consensus Conference criteria and lung injury score). The addition of hypoalbuminemia (<17.5 g/L) and hypotransferrinemia (<0.98 g/L) as criteria to the American European Consensus Conference criteria or the lung injury score increased their predictive values for elevated pulmonary vascular permeability. CONCLUSIONS:In critically ill patients, decreased plasma albumin and transferrin levels parallel increased pulmonary vascular permeability irrespective of underlying disease and fluid status. While normal levels help to exclude acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypoalbuminemia and hypotransferrinemia increase the diagnostic accuracy of the American European Consensus Conference criteria and lung injury score for elevated pulmonary vascular permeability. 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181feb46a
    Anasarca, steatorrhea, and hypoalbuminemia 18 years after total gastrectomy: a case report. Igata Yu,Okubo So,Ohkura Yu,Ueno Masaki,Udagawa Harushi Surgical case reports BACKGROUND:Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is known to occur after total gastrectomy. We experienced a case of PEI occurring 18 years after surgery, leading to a potentially fatal condition of capillary leak syndrome (CLS). CASE PRESENTATION:The case is a 58-year-old man on a healthy diet who underwent total gastrectomy 18 years before. He was admitted for a 3-month history of anasarca, steatorrhea, and hypoalbuminemia. An episode of fever occurred during workup, followed by pulmonary edema and shock. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and was started on fluid management with albumin infusion. A multidisciplinary team meeting was held, and a clinical diagnosis of PEI resulted in CLS was made and we started administration of oral pancrelipase to show clinical improvement. The patient was discharged, and he remained asymptomatic for 13 months. CONCLUSION:In a post-gastrectomy patient with malnutrition, PEI should be suspected regardless of the period since surgery. When recognized, immediate replenishment of albumin and pancreatic enzymes should be initiated to prevent clinical deterioration. 10.1186/s40792-019-0721-7
    High colloid oncotic pressure priming of cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates and infants: implications on haemofiltration, weight gain and renal function. Loeffelbein Florian,Zirell Uwe,Benk Christoph,Schlensak Christian,Dittrich Sven European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the influence of high colloid oncotic pressure (COP) priming of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on fluid balances, haemofiltration, capillary leakage and renal function in neonates and infants. METHODS:Twenty neonates or infants underwent heart surgery using CPB and were randomised in two groups. For group 1 (FFP-group) a blood priming with fresh frozen plasma (FFP, low oncotic pressure) was chosen, for group 2 (HA-group) a blood priming containing FFP and human albumin 20% (HA) to realise higher oncotic pressures was substituted. All patients were monitored before, during and 6h after CPB. We measured weights, fluid balances, transfusion volumes, colloid oncotic pressures, inflammatory parameters (c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, thrombocytes, leucocytes) and renal function (creatinine clearances, renal protein losses). RESULTS:Patient's demographics and operational procedures were comparable in both groups with no further differences in operation procedures regarding palliation or correction. Colloid oncotic pressures of the priming solutions were higher in the HA-group (28 mmHg+/-4.9) than in the FFP-group (6 mmHg+/-1.3, p<0.001). Relative weight gain as a marker of capillary leakage in the HA-group (2%+/-4.5) was significantly lower 6h post CPB than in the FFP-group (8%+/-8.0, p=0.015). Haemofiltration rates were higher in the HA-group (569 ml+/-197 vs 282 ml+/-157, p=0.002) on CPB. There were no differences of creatinine clearances 6h after the end of CPB. Renal protein losses were elevated in both groups without any inter-group differences during and 6h after CPB. CONCLUSION:Addition of concentrated human albumin to priming fluids in paediatric cardiac surgery leads to less weight gain even after CPB. Supplementing paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery with concentrated human albumin does not affect renal function more severely than in paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB with blood priming. 10.1016/j.ejcts.2008.05.026
    Partial liquid ventilation decreases albumin leak in the setting of acute lung injury. Colton D M,Till G O,Johnson K J,Gater J J,Hirschl R B Journal of critical care PURPOSE:This study evaluated the ability of partial liquid ventilation (PLV, gas ventilation of the perfluorocarbon-filled lungs) to reduce the amount of lung albumin leak present in the setting of acute lung injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An experimental controlled, randomized design was used. All studies were performed in the liquid ventilation laboratories at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley male rats 500+/-50 g were divided into five experimental groups: (1) CVF only (n=5), animals were cobra venom factor (CVF) lung injured; (2) PLV-CVF (n=5) animals received perflubron and PLV before CVF lung injury; (3) CVF-PLV (n=5) animals received PLV after CVF lung injury; (4) PLV only (n=5) animals underwent partial liquid ventilation without lung injury; and (5) Gas only (n=5) animals underwent gas ventilation without lung injury. In all groups iodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) was delivered by intravenous injection along with CVF or a saline placebo. RESULTS:When the CVF animals were compared with all other groups, a decrease in albumin leak was observed for all groups when compared with the CVF only controls (P < .001 by ANOVA; CVF only=1.22+/-0.12 versus PLV-CVF=0.46+/-0.08, P < .001; CVF-PLV=0.70+/-0.25, P < .001; PLV only=0.22+/-0.01, P < .001; Gas only=0.17+/-0.02, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that intratracheal instillation of perfluorocarbon before or after induction of lung injury results in a reduction in pulmonary albumin leak. 10.1016/s0883-9441(98)90017-x
    Evaluation of noninvasive determinants for capillary leakage syndrome in septic shock patients. Marx G,Vangerow B,Burczyk C,Gratz K F,Maassen N,Cobas Meyer M,Leuwer M,Kuse E,Rueckholdt H Intensive care medicine OBJECTIVE:Capillary leakage syndrome (CLS) is a frequent complication in sepsis, characterized by loss of intravasal fluids leading to generalized edema and hemodynamic instability despite massive fluid therapy. In spite of its importance no standardized diagnostic criteria are available for CLS. DESIGN:Prospective clinical study. SETTING:1,800-bed university hospital PATIENTS:Six septic shock patients with CLS were compared to six control patients. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:CLS was clinically determined by generalized edema, positive fluid balance, and weight gain. Plasma volume was measured by indocyanine green, red blood cell volume by chromium-51 labeled erythrocytes, and colloid osmotic pressure before and 90 min after the administration of 300 ml 20% albumin. Extracellular water (ECW) was measured using the inulin distribution volume and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Red blood cells averaged 20.2 +/- 1.0 ml/ kg body weight in CLS patients and 23.3 +/- 4.1 in controls. ECW was higher in CLS patients than in controls (40.0 +/- 6.9 vs. 21.7 +/- 3.71; p< 0.05). ECW of inulin was correlated with that measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (r = 0.74, p< 0.01). The increase in colloid osmotic pressure over the 90 min was less in CLS patients than in controls (1.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.8 +/- 1.3 mmHg;p< 0.05). CONCLUSION:These results suggest that measurements of an increased ECW using bioelectrical impedance analysis combined with a different response of colloid osmotic pressure to administration of albumin can discriminate noninvasively between patients with and those without CLS.
    Hydroxyethyl starch and modified fluid gelatin maintain plasma volume in a porcine model of septic shock with capillary leakage. Marx G,Cobas Meyer M,Schuerholz T,Vangerow B,Gratz K F,Hecker H,Sümpelmann R,Rueckoldt H,Leuwer M Intensive care medicine OBJECTIVE:To compare the effects of different volume replacement therapies on maintenance of plasma volume in septic shock and capillary leakage syndrome. DESIGN AND SETTING:Prospective randomized, controlled animal laboratory study in a university animal laboratory. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Twenty-five fasted, anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated and multi-catheterized pigs (20.8+/-1.8 kg) received 1 g/kg body weight faeces into abdominal cavity to induce sepsis and were observed over 8 h. Five animals each received volume replacement therapy with modified fluid gelatin 4% or 8% (MFG4%, MFG8%), 6% HES 200/0.5, or Ringer's solution and were compared to controls receiving 6% HES 200/0.5. Infusion rate was titrated to maintain a central venous pressure of 12 mmHg. Plasma volume was determined using (51)Cr-labelled erythrocytes and standard formulae. Albumin escape rate was calculated using technetium (99m)Tc-labelled albumin. Colloid osmotic pressure, systemic haemodynamics and oxygenation were obtained before and 4 and 8 h after induction of sepsis. Plasma volume was reduced in the Ringer's solution group (-46%) but was maintained in HES (+/-0%), MFG4% (+4%), MFG8% (+23%) groups. Albumin escape rate increased in HES (+52%), MFG4% (+47%), MFG8% (+54%) and the Ringer's solution group (+41%) compared to controls. CONCLUSION:In this porcine septic shock model with concomitant capillary leakage syndrome, confirmed by an increased albumin escape rate, the artificial colloids HES, MFG4%, and MFG8% maintained plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure. These results suggest the intravascular persistency of artificial colloids in the presence of albumin leakage. An editorial regarding this article can be found in the same issue (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-002-1283-9) 10.1007/s00134-002-1260-3
    Fluid management in critically ill patients: the role of extravascular lung water, abdominal hypertension, capillary leak, and fluid balance. Cordemans Colin,De Laet Inneke,Van Regenmortel Niels,Schoonheydt Karen,Dits Hilde,Huber Wolfgang,Malbrain Manu Lng Annals of intensive care INTRODUCTION:Capillary leak in critically ill patients leads to interstitial edema. Fluid overload is independently associated with poor prognosis. Bedside measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), fluid balance, and capillary leak index (CLI) may provide a valuable prognostic tool in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS:We performed an observational study of 123 mechanically ventilated patients with extended hemodynamic monitoring, analyzing process-of-care variables for the first week of ICU admission. The primary outcome parameter was 28-day mortality. ΔmaxEVLWI indicated the maximum difference between EVLWI measurements during ICU stay. Patients with a ΔmaxEVLWI <-2 mL/kg were called 'responders'. CLI was defined as C-reactive protein (milligrams per deciliter) over albumin (grams per liter) ratio and conservative late fluid management (CLFM) as even-to-negative fluid balance on at least two consecutive days. RESULTS:CLI had a biphasic course. ΔmaxEVLWI was lower if CLFM was achieved and in survivors (-2.4 ± 4.8 vs 1.0 ± 5.5 mL/kg, p = 0.001; -3.3 ± 3.8 vs 2.5 ± 5.3 mL/kg, p = 0.001, respectively). No CLFM achievement was associated with increased CLI and IAPmean on day 3 and higher risk to be nonresponder (odds ratio (OR) 2.76, p = 0.046; OR 1.28, p = 0.011; OR 5.52, p = 0.001, respectively). Responders had more ventilator-free days during the first week (2.5 ± 2.3 vs 1.5 ± 2.3, p = 0.023). Not achieving CLFM and being nonresponder were strong independent predictors of mortality (OR 9.34, p = 0.001 and OR 7.14, p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION:There seems to be an important correlation between CLI, EVLWI kinetics, IAP, and fluid balance in mechanically ventilated patients, associated with organ dysfunction and poor prognosis. In this context, we introduce the global increased permeability syndrome. 10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S1
    High-dose IL-2 induces rapid albumin uptake by endothelial cells through Src-dependent caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Zloza Andrew,Kim Dae Won,Broucek Joseph,Schenkel Jason M,Kaufman Howard L Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research High-dose interleukin-2 (HDIL2) treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma is associated with durable responses, but therapy is accompanied by significant toxicity related to vascular leak syndrome (VLS). Currently, the cause of VLS is not well defined; however, based on the role of endothelial cell (EC) permeability in VLS and the commonly observed hypoalbuminemia in patients receiving HDIL2 therapy, we established an in vitro approach utilizing primary human pulmonary microvascular ECs to monitor the effect of HDIL2 therapy on albumin uptake. We found that HDIL2 treatment of ECs results in albumin colocalization with caveolin-1 leading to albumin uptake by ECs. This albumin uptake occurs through caveolae-mediated but not clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is abrogated with inhibition of the Src tyrosine kinase pathway. These findings provide insight into how IL-2 induces VLS and may help identify potential targets for prevention of toxicity without affecting the therapeutic activity of HDIL2. 10.1089/jir.2013.0155
    Terminal complement complex in septic shock with capillary leakage: marker of complement activation? Schuerholz T,Leuwer M,Cobas-Meyer M,Vangerow B,Kube F,Kirschfink M,Marx G European journal of anaesthesiology BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of terminal complement complex (C5b-9) plasma levels as a marker for complement activation in septic shock with concomitant capillary leak syndrome. METHODS:In a prospective animal study 10 fasted, anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated and multi-catheterized pigs (20.6 +/- 1.3 kg) were investigated over a period of 8 h. Sepsis was induced by faecal peritonitis (1 g kg(-1) body weight faeces, n = 5) and compared to controls (n = 5). The animals received 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 to maintain a central venous pressure of 12 mmHg. To quantify capillary leak syndrome, albumin escape rate was measured using 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin. Plasma levels of terminal complement complex were measured in a double antibody immunoassay (neoepitope-specific MoAb aE 11 as catching antibody). Immunohistological studies of renal specimens were performed to detect terminal complement complex deposition. RESULTS:Albumen escape rate increased in septic animals (+ 52%) compared to controls (+ 3%, P < 0.05). Plasma levels of terminal complement complex decreased during the study period in both groups. In septic animals this finding was accompanied by a significant deposition of terminal complement complex in renal specimens (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:We found an activation of the complement system proven by marked deposition of terminal complement complex in renal specimen, while its plasma levels decreased during the study period in septic and control animals. These results suggest that in septic shock with capillary leak syndrome plasma level of terminal complement complex may not be a reliable marker of complement activation.
    Pulmonary and renal function following cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic capillary leak. Brudney C Scott,Gosling Peter,Manji Mav Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare perioperative capillary permeability during cardiac surgery with subsequent pulmonary and renal function. DESIGN:An observational prospective comparison of capillary permeability (microalbuminuria) during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), with postoperative pulmonary and renal function. SETTING:A university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Forty patients, mean (range) age 67.8 (50-85) years, undergoing elective first-time coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). INTERVENTIONS:Urine albumin concentration (AC) and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) were compared with PO2 /FIO2 ratio, mechanical ventilation (intermittent positive-pressure ventilation [IPPV]) duration, and renal function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Median (range) AC and ACR increased from 8.3 (1.6-184.2) mg/L and 0.65 (0.1-18.8) mg/mmol preoperatively to 13.6 (1.6-267.2) mg/L and 4.80 (0.3-54.2) mg/mmol 10 minutes postbypass (p = 0.003 for ACR Wilcoxon rank test: not significant for AC). AC 2 hours postbypass was associated with mean PO2 /FIO2 ratio 0 to 2 hours postbypass and AC 4 hours postbypass was associated with mean PO2 /FIO2 ratio 0 to 2 and 2 to 12 hours postbypass (p < 0.05 Spearman). ACR 2 hours postbypass was associated with mean PO2 /FIO2 ratio 0 to 2 and 2 to 12 hours postbypass (p < 0.05 Spearman). AC 10 minutes and 2 hours postbypass and ACR 2 hours postbypass were associated with the duration of IPPV (p < 0.03). Day 1 serum creatinine was associated with pre- and 4 hours postbypass AC and ACR (p < 0.05). Day 2 serum creatinine was associated with 2 and 4 hours postbypass ACR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The magnitude of increase in capillary permeability during CABG is associated with later pulmonary and renal function.
    Changes in serum albumin concentration and volume expanding effects following a bolus of albumin 20% in septic patients. Margarson M P,Soni N C British journal of anaesthesia BACKGROUND:Patients with systemic sepsis develop a capillary leak syndrome, and serum -albumin concentration decreases. Hyperoncotic albumin infusion can be used for volume expansion in these patients, but the degree and duration of effect are not well described. We assessed volume expansion by albumin 20% infusion and compared the retention of infused albumin in septic patients and healthy controls. METHODS:We gave albumin 20%, 200 ml as a rapid infusion to 70 patients with septic shock and 26 controls. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after the infusion for measurement of serum albumin concentration and haematocrit. Haemodilution and the percentage of administered albumin remaining intravascularly at each time were calculated. RESULTS:The mean proportion of the increase in albumin remaining at 4 h was 68.5 (sd 10)% in septic patients and 79 (5)% in controls (P<0.001). The albumin 20%, 200 ml caused a secondary fluid resorption and volume expansion maximal at 30 min, equivalent to a 430 ml infusion in septic patients and 500 ml in controls. CONCLUSIONS:After giving albumin, serum albumin concentrations decrease significantly faster in septic patients than in healthy controls. 10.1093/bja/aeh111
    Multimodality imaging of blood-brain barrier impairment during epileptogenesis. Breuer Heike,Meier Martin,Schneefeld Sophie,Härtig Wolfgang,Wittneben Alexander,Märkel Martin,Ross Tobias L,Bengel Frank M,Bankstahl Marion,Bankstahl Jens P Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Insult-associated blood-brain barrier leakage is strongly suggested to be a key step during epileptogenesis. In this study, we used three non-invasive translational imaging modalities, i.e. positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, to evaluate BBB leakage after an epileptogenic brain insult. Sprague-Dawley rats were scanned during early epileptogenesis initiated by status epilepticus. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed using the novel tracer [Ga]DTPA or [Tc]DTPA, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging included T2 and post-contrast T1 sequence after infusion of Gd-DTPA, gadobutrol, or Gd-albumin. All modalities revealed increased blood-brain barrier permeability 48 h post status epilepticus, mainly in epileptogenesis-associated brain regions like hippocampus, piriform cortex, thalamus, or amygdala. In hippocampus, Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1 magnetic resonance imaging signal was increased by 199%, [Ga]DTPA positron emission tomography by 37%, and [Tc]DTPA single photon emission computed tomography by 56%. Imaging results were substantiated by histological detection of albumin extravasation. Comparison with quantitative positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography shows that magnetic resonance imaging sequences successfully amplify the signal from a moderate amount of extravasated DTPA molecules, enabling sensitive detection of blood-brain barrier disturbance in epileptogenesis. Imaging of the disturbed blood-brain barrier will give further pathophysiologic insights, will help to stratify anti-epileptogenic treatment targeting blood-brain barrier integrity, and may serve as a prognostic biomarker. 10.1177/0271678X16659672
    [Systemic capillary leak syndrome]. Beuls E,Rijnders B J Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde A man aged 61 had recurrent attacks of severe shock. The episodes were preceded by symptoms such as a runny nose, epigastric discomfort with nausea, vertigo, orthostatism and sometimes light fever. During the attacks there were marked hypotension, a strong rise of the haematocrit, a decrease of the protein and albumin concentrations in the blood and prerenal kidney failure. In addition, there was a paraprotein, type IgG-kappa. The shock every time responded rapidly to intravenous administration of fluid and was followed by a period of substantial polyuria. The pattern was characteristic of systemic capillary leak syndrome, a rare but frequently fatal disease characterized by episodes of unexplained extravasation of plasma. The aetiology and pathogenesis are unknown. Attacks are suppressed by supportive therapy (administration of fluids, inotropics) and future attacks may be prevented by the intake of terbutaline and theophylline. The systemic capillary leak syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic and anaphylactic shock.
    Extravasation of albumin after cardiopulmonary bypass in newborns. Tassani Peter,Schad Hubert,Schreiber Christian,Zaccaria Francesco,Haas Felix,Mössinger Hansjörg,Altmeyer Sophie,Köhler Raphael,Seghaye Marie-Christine,Lange Rüdiger Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia OBJECTIVE:The systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) possibly increases microvascular permeability to plasma proteins, leading to capillary leak syndrome. The study was conducted to elucidate any protein leakage in newborns using Evans blue dye as tracer. DESIGN:Prospective controlled study. SETTING:University-affiliated heart center. PARTICIPANTS:Eleven neonates with transposition of the great arteries. INTERVENTIONS:Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, fractional escape rate (FER) of an intravenous bolus of Evans blue, and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) were assessed before and after surgery (statistics: median and 25th-75th percentile, Friedman's 2-way analysis of variance, and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test [before and after surgery]). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:All patients had an uneventful intraoperative course. The demographic and operative data were age 11 (10-13) days, body weight 3.2 (3.0-3.3) kg, CPB time 132 (123-144) minutes, and aortic cross-clamp time 66 (64-78) minutes. The proinflammatory IL-6 increased 60-fold and the anti-inflammatory IL-10 only 3-fold after CPB. FER, however, was not changed, whereas COP was significantly reduced after CPB. CONCLUSIONS:In contrast to the expectation, the escape rate of Evans blue, reflecting the extravasation of albumin, was not increased after CPB. However, reduced COP, hypothermia, and also a reduced lymphatic drainage may contribute to edema formation. The present data do not support the hypothesis of a capillary leak after CPB in newborns. 10.1053/j.jvca.2006.01.010
    [Systemic capillary leak syndrome presenting remarkable erythrocytosis]. Wakao Daisuke,Kawai Nobutaka,Kuwayama Yoshio,Misumi Motohiro,Satoh Yasutaka,Shimada Tsuneyuki,Akiba Miki,Kishimoto Kuniya,Yoshida Katsuhiko,Wakimoto Naoki,Takahashi Naoki,Sugahara Yuichi,Yagasaki Fumiharu,Itoh Yoshihiro,Sakata Tohru,Suzuki Toshiya,Matsuda Akira,Bessho Masami [Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a disorder characterized by hypotension, edema, and an increased hematocrit (Ht) due to sudden leakage of plasma into the extravascular space through some unknown mechanism, in which monoclonal gammopathy is observed. A 30-year-old man visited our emergency department because of abdominal pain, and was admitted to our hematology department because of a markedly increased hemoglobin concentration reaching 26.2 g/dl. The polycythemia was thought to be pseudo-polycythemia due to hemoconcentration, and we diagnosed the patient as having SCLS based on the triad of increased hematocrit, whole-body edema which was especially marked in the lower extremities, and monoclonal gammopathy. The patient recovered after administration of extracellular fluids and albumin, but the attacks recurred. Prophylaxis with terbutaline sulfate, theophylline and corticosteroid reduced the frequency of severe attacks. Because there is possibility that patients with SCLS may be admitted to hematology departments due to severe erythrocytosis, we report this case to increase the awareness of hematologists that SCLS is one of the important differential diagnoses of erythrocytosis.
    Systemic capillary leak syndrome. Kawabe Shotetsu,Saeki Takako,Yamazaki Hajime,Nagai Masaaki,Aoyagi Ryuji,Miyamura Shoji Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) A 40-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with severe hypovolemic shock and anasarca. The laboratory findings showed marked hemoconcentration and a decrease in total serum protein with the presence of monoclonal IgG-lambda. She had had a similar episode of generalized edema 2 years previously. We diagnosed the patient as having typical systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) and she improved gradually after infusion of albumin-containing fluid. SCLS is a very rare condition caused by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability. Its treatment has remained largely supportive and the prognosis is generally poor. Awareness of SCLS is necessary for improvement of the outcome. 10.2169/internalmedicine.41.211
    Systemic capillary leak syndrome induced by influenza type A infection. Kang Kyeong Won,Heo Sang Taek,Han Sang Hoon,Park Yong-Geun,Park Hyun Soo Clinical and experimental emergency medicine A 42-year-old man visited the emergency department complaining of lower extremity swelling and myalgia. His influenza A antigen test was positive, and he was admitted for supportive care of severe myalgia. On the first hospital day, the swelling in his lower legs was aggravated with intolerable pain, and his creatine phosphokinase and hemoglobin levels were elevated. He was treated with massive hydration, albumin replacement, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, phlebotomy, and oseltamivir. The swelling and pain in his extremities were decreased without renal dysfunction, even though peripheral neuropathy and muscular complication persisted. Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition. The diagnosis is made clinically based on a classic triad of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. In our case, the influenza A infection was related to the capillary leakage. 10.15441/ceem.14.028
    Two cases of systemic capillary leak syndrome that were treated with pentastarch. Lee Young Seok,Kim Sun Young,Kwon Chin Woo,Song Hae Geun,Lee Young Kyung,Kim Hyo Jung,Zang Dae Young The Korean journal of internal medicine Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a condition that's caused by the shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space as a result of repetitive episodes of capillary hyperpermeability. The pathogenesis of SCLS is still unclear, but there's recently been a report showing this syndrome in association with monoclonal gammopathy. This syndrome can be a fatal disease because cardiovascular collapse can occur in the initial capillary leak phase. Although theophylline, diuretics, terbutaline, steroids, calcium antagonist, Ginkgo biloba extracts and plasmapheresis have been suggested as medication, none of them have been proven to be effective. Considering that this disease is self-limiting, conservative treatment in the acute phase is believed to be very important. Because hypoalbuminemia is very a common manifestation of SCLS, Pentastarch, which has a higher molecular weight than albumin, could be efficient to prevent cardiovascular collapse. We used 10% Pentastarch during the acute SCLS attacks of 2 patients and the patients both showed a dramatic response. Pentastarch may be helpful to treat SCLS in its initial capillary leak phase by the elevating blood pressure, and this might contribute to somewhat decreasing the acute mortality of SCLS. 10.3904/kjim.2007.22.2.130
    Abdominal compartment syndrome associated with capillary leak syndrome after liver transplantation. Zhang W,Wang K,Qian X,Xia Y,Zheng C,Zuo X,Wang Y,Cao Q,Wang X,Sun B Transplantation proceedings Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in a 49-year-old man with metastatic liver sarcoma. After surgery, both abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and capillary leak syndrome (CLS) developed. Exploratory laparotomy and colon exteriorization were performed. Five days later, a diagnosis of severe CLS was established, and hydroxyethyl starch was infused to prevent leakage of albumin. The patient gradually recovered over 3 weeks. Awareness of ACS and CLS is important to improve outcome because early diagnosis and immediate therapy are essential. Bladder pressure is a key factor in diagnosing ACS, and pressure of 35 mm Hg is an indication for decompressive laparotomy. During the early stage of CLS, hydroxyethyl starch but not albumin should be used to alleviate edema and hypoalbuminemia. 10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.06.220
    The systemic capillary leak syndrome: a scarcely known nephrological entity. Teutonico Annalisa,Chimienti Domenico,Antonelli Maurizio,Bruno Andrea,Libutti Pasquale,Lisi Piero,Basile Carlo Journal of nephrology The idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare life-threatening disorder characterized by periodic episodes of hypovolemic shock, due to plasma leakage from the intravascular to the interstitial space, as reflected by accompanying hypoalbuminemia, hemoconcentration and edema. Here we report the case of a 65-year-old woman affected by SCLS who required aggressive resuscitation with norepinephrine, steroids, albumin and crystalloids. Then, a long-term prophylaxis with a ß(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist and theophylline was started. In conclusion, though SCLS is a rare entity, the associated morbidity and mortality require the physician's awareness to provide timely therapy. Underrecognition in the medical community and rarity of this syndrome have precluded analysis by rational clinical trial designs that are necessary to determine more targeted and adequate therapy. This report is meant to enhance awareness of SCLS in the nephrology community. 10.5301/jn.5000065
    Capillary leak syndrome as a complication of antibody-mediated rejection treatment: a case report. Ramirez-Sandoval Juan C,Varela-Jimenez Ricardo,Morales-Buenrostro Luis E CEN case reports We report a case of capillary leak that developed during treatment of antibody-mediated rejection in a kidney transplant recipient. A 53-year-old female transplant recipient experienced an increase in serum creatinine from 1.1 to 1.8 mg/dL. Antibody-mediated rejection was diagnosed by graft biopsy. She was treated with five plasmapheresis sessions (on alternate days with albumin replacement), five doses of immunoglobulin (5 g/dose at 100 mg/kg), a single dose of rituximab (500 mg), and four doses of bortezomib on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 (1.72 mg/dose at 1.3 mg/m body surface area). During treatment, edema, slight diarrhea, pancytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, peripheral neuropathy, and postural hypotension were noted. Despite control of liquids, she presented with edema progressing to an increase of more than 10 kg body weight. Prerenal acute graft dysfunction associated with hypotension was diagnosed on day 12, heart failure or other infectious complications being discounted. On day 13, daily hemodialysis was prescribed, and a stable volume status was reached after five hemodialysis sessions. On day 20, the patient recovered diuresis and the edema and diarrhea abated, but she remained on chronic hemodialysis. After excluding other causes of distributive shock, the diagnosis of capillary leak syndrome was based on the presence of hypotension, generalized edema, and hypoalbuminemia in the absence of significant proteinuria. The concomitant presence of diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy, and pancytopenia, suggest a possible causal role for bortezomib. Awareness by clinicians of capillary leak syndrome associated with bortezomib-based treatment of AMR is paramount, despite its rarity. 10.1007/s13730-018-0306-5
    Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson's disease): the Mayo clinic experience. Kapoor Prashant,Greipp Patricia T,Schaefer Eric W,Mandrekar Sumithra J,Kamal Arif H,Gonzalez-Paz Natalia C,Kumar Shaji,Greipp Philip R Mayo Clinic proceedings OBJECTIVE:To determine clinical features, natural history, and outcome of a well-defined cohort of 25 consecutive patients with idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) evaluated at a tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Records of patients diagnosed as having SCLS from November 1, 1981, through April 30, 2008, were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze patient demographics, clinical features, complications, and therapeutic interventions. RESULTS:Of the 34 patients whose records were reviewed, 25 fulfilled all diagnostic criteria for SCLS. The median age at diagnosis of SCLS was 44 years. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 4.9 years, and median time to diagnosis from symptom onset was 1.1 years (interquartile range, 0.5-4.1 years). Flulike illness or myalgia was reported by 14 patients (56%) at onset of an acute attack of SCLS, and rhabdomyolysis developed in 9 patients (36%). Patients with a greater decrease in albumin level had a higher likelihood of developing rhabdomyolysis (p=.03). Monoclonal gammopathy, predominantly of the IgG-κ type, was found in 19 patients (76%). The progression rate to multiple myeloma was 0.7% per person-year of follow-up. The overall response rate to the different therapies was 76%, and 24% of patients sustained durable (>2 years) complete remission. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 76% (95% confidence interval, 59%-97%). CONCLUSION:Systemic capillary leak syndrome, a rare disease that occurs in those of middle age, is usually diagnosed after a considerable delay from onset of symptoms. The degree of albumin decrement during an attack correlates with development of rhabdomyolysis. A reduction in the frequency and/or the severity of attacks was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients who were offered empirical therapies. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma appears to be comparable to that of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. 10.4065/mcp.2010.0159
    Handling shock in idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson's disease): less is more. Wu Maddalena Alessandra,Colombo Riccardo,Podda Gian Marco,Cicardi Marco Internal and emergency medicine Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) presents with recurrent potentially life-threatening episodes of hypovolemic shock associated with severe hemoconcentration and hypoproteinemia. Timely recognition is of paramount importance because ISCLS, despite resembling other kinds of hypovolemic shock, requires a peculiar approach, to prevent life-threatening iatrogenic damage. Due to the rarity of this condition with only scattered cases described worldwide, evidence-based recommendations are still lacking. Here, we summarize our 40 years' experience in treating shock in ISCLS patients to derive a therapeutic algorithm. Records from 12 ISCLS patients (mean follow-up is 6 years, with a mean age at symptoms' onset of 51.5 years) were informative for treatment modalities and outcome of 66 episodes of shock. Episodes are divided in three phases and treatment recommendations are the following: prodromal symptoms-signs (growing malaise, oligo-anuria, orthostatic dizziness) last 6-12 h and patients should maintain rigorous bed rest. The acute shock phase lasts 24-36 h. Patients should be admitted to ICU, placed on restrictive infusion of fluids favoring cautious boluses of high-molecular-weight plasma expanders when SAP < 70 mmHg; monitored for cerebral/cardiac perfusion, myocardial edema and signs of compartment syndrome. The post-acute (recovery) phase may last from 48 h to 1 week. Monitor for cardiac overload to prevent cardiac failure; in case of persistent renal failure, hemodialysis may be necessary; consider albumin infusion. Complications listed by frequency in our patients were acute renal failure, compartment syndrome and neuropathy, rhabdomyolysis, myocardial edema, pericardial-pleural-abdominal effusion, cerebral involvement, acute pulmonary edema and deep vein thrombosis. 10.1007/s11739-019-02113-4
    Interleukin-11-induced capillary leak syndrome in primary hepatic carcinoma patients with thrombocytopenia. Kai-Feng Wang,Hong-Ming Pan,Hai-Zhou Lou,Li-Rong Shen,Xi-Yan Zhu BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) is a rare condition characterized by recurrent episodes of generalized edema and severe hypotension associated with hypoproteinemia. Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a promising therapeutic agent for thrombocytopenia. A direct correlation between IL-11 and CLS has never been reported previously, particularly in patients with hepatic carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION:We describe two cases of CLS after IL-11 administration in two males with thrombocytopenia. Case 1 was a 46-year-old man with recurrence of hepatic carcinoma who was treated with IL-11 (3 mg per day). After four days of therapy, hypotension and hypoproteinemia were detected. The chest X-ray and B ultrasound of the abdomen showed pleural effusion and ascites. IL-11 was then discontinued, fluid resuscitation was performed, and fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells were transfused into this patient. The patient had recovered after 19 days of treatment. Case 2 was a 66-year-old man who had undergone radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatic carcinoma. He was treated with IL-11 (3 mg per day) for thrombocytopenia. After two days of therapy, this patient complained of dyspnea with bilateral edema of the hands. Laboratory values showed hypoproteinemia. IL-11 was stopped and human albumin was transfused at a rate of 10 g per day. On the 4th day, fluid resuscitation was performed. The patient had recovered after treatment for two weeks. CONCLUSIONS:The detection of IL-11-induced CLS supports the hypothesis that CLS could be a severe side effect of IL-11 treatment in some patients. These two case reports also demonstrate that patients with hepatic carcinoma who experience this rare form of CLS after treatment with IL-11 seem to respond to a therapeutic regimen that involves hydroxyethyl starch, albumin, and diuretic therapy. Liver cancer patients might be more susceptible to CLS because of poor liver function and hypersplenia. In addition, bleeding after RFA might be a further inducer of CLS. 10.1186/1471-2407-11-204
    Severe capillary leak syndrome after inner ear decompression sickness in a recreational scuba diver. Gempp Emmanuel,Lacroix Guillaume,Cournac Jean-Marie,Louge Pierre The Journal of emergency medicine BACKGROUND:Post-decompression shock with plasma volume deficit is a very rare event that has been observed under extreme conditions of hypobaric and hyperbaric exposure in aviators and professional divers. CASE REPORT:We report a case of severe hypovolemic shock due to extravasation of plasma in a recreational scuba diver presenting with inner ear decompression sickness. Impaired endothelial function can lead to capillary leak with hemoconcentration and hypotension in severe cases. This report suggests that decompression-induced circulating bubbles may have triggered the endothelial damage, activating the classic inflammatory pathway of increased vascular permeability. CONCLUSION:This observation highlights the need for an accurate diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition at the initial presentation in the Emergency Department after a diving-related injury. An elevated hematocrit in a diver should raise the suspicion for the potential development of capillary leak syndrome requiring specific treatment using albumin infusion as primary fluid replacement. 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.11.101
    Capillary leak syndrome and aseptic meningitis in a patient with Kawasaki disease: A case report. Zhang Yufeng,Wan Han,Du Maosheng,Deng Huiling,Fu Jia,Zhang Yu,Wang Xiaoyan,Liu Ruiqing Medicine RATIONALE:Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of childhood, coronary complications are the most serious and classic complications of this disease. However, simultaneous complications such as systemic capillary leak syndrome (CLS) and aseptic meningitis are rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS:A 19-month-old boy had continuous fever for 6 days, rash for 3 days, and somnolence for 1 day. DIAGNOSES:The boy was diagnosed with KD presenting with SCLS and aseptic meningitis. INTERVENTIONS:He was treated with gamma globulin (2 g/kg) for 1 day, mannitol and furosemide to reduce intracranial pressure, human albumin to correct hypoproteinemia, methylprednisolone to control inflammation, and both aspirin and dipyridamole for anticoagulation. OUTCOMES:After treatment, the patient recovered well. At one year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and showed no recurrence of skin rash. LESSONS:The incidence of KD has recently increased and cardiovascular complications are frequently reported. This may be combined with systemic damage, however, the combination of SCLS and aseptic meningitis is rarely reported, therefor, children who have SCLS, aseptic meningitis and unexplained fever >5 days, KD should be taken into account. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can reduce complications induced by KD. 10.1097/MD.0000000000010716
    [The difference between hematocrit and plasma albumin in the course of systemic capillary leak syndrome: a systematic review]. Dai Dongmei,Tang Kun,Xu Wangbin,Li Mei,Su Yu,Wang Ying,Hu Rui Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:To investigate the changes of the difference between hematocrit (Hct) and plasma albumin (Alb) in the course of patients with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS). METHODS:281 case reports on human vascular leaking from the PubMed database from January 1st, 1996 to September 30th, 2015 were screened by systematic review method. Studies related to intracranial vascular leakage or intraocular vascular leakage were excluded. 213 articles related to SCLS were identified (164 in English, 16 in French, 8 in Japanese, 7 in German, 7 in Spanish, 4 in Italian, 2 in Chinese, 2 in Danish, 2 in Dutch, and 1 in Swedish). Due to the unavailable full text, 40 articles were excluded. A total of 173 articles related to SCLS were screened, of which 84 patients were enrolled. The data of Alb, Hct, age, gender, weight change, the length of hospital stay and 24-hour fluid infusion volume in SCLS patients were recorded, and the difference between Hct and plasma Alb (Hct-Alb) was calculated. According to the time when accurate Hct and Alb data were collected, they were divided into three groups: basic value group before onset, value group at onset and value group at recovery/discharge after onset. The levels of Hct and Alb and Hct-Alb at different time points in the course of the disease were compared. Pearson test was used to analyze the correlation between Hct-Alb and 24-hour fluid infusion volume. RESULTS:(1) A total of 12 cases with both exact values of Alb and Hct [or hemoglobin (Hb)] at the time of onset and recovery after treatment were selected from 84 cases of SCLS. It was shown that the Hct-Alb at the time of onset was significantly higher than that after treatment (26.33±16.36 vs. 0.55±8.81, P < 0.001). (2) A total of 17 cases with both the pre-onset baseline value and the exact values of Alb and Hct (or Hb) at the time of onset were selected from 84 cases of SCLS. It was shown that the Hct-Alb at the time of onset was significantly higher than that of the pre-onset basic value (15.83±11.37 vs. 1.82±7.97, P < 0.001). (3) A total of 14 cases with both exact values of Alb, Hct and 24-hour fluid infusion volume at the time of onset were selected from 84 cases of SCLS. It was shown that the Hct-Alb was 35.45±19.58 at the time of onset. The average 24-hour fluid infusion volume was (9.82±4.95) L, and the maximum volume of fluid infusion was 20 L. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the Hct-Alb at the time of onset was significantly positively correlated with 24-hour fluid infusion volume (r = 0.578, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In the analysis of SCLS cases published with adequate data available from 1996 to 2015, it was revealed that: (1) the difference in Hct-Alb levels at the onset of SCLS was 32.06±17.41. (2) The greater the difference between Hct and plasma Alb, the more amount of fluid required to maintain normal blood pressure. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.010.002
    [Capillary leak syndrome secondary to decompression sickness: A case report]. Morin J,Simon K,Chadelaud F,Delarbre D,Druelle A,Blatteau J-E La Revue de medecine interne BACKGROUND:Capillary leak syndrome is a rare type of decompression sickness (DCS) that may be responsible for hypovolemic shock with edema. CLINICAL CASE:A 21-year-old amateur diver suffered from an inner ear DCS following air diving to 96msw. He presented subsequent deterioration with hypovolemia and facial edema secondary to capillary leak syndrome. DISCUSSION:In DCS, bubbles formation alters the wall of blood vessels and activates complex biochemical mechanisms inducing extravascular protein leakage. The clinical expression of this syndrome is variable, ranging from simple hemoconcentration to hypovolemic shock. Close clinical-biological monitoring of patients with elevated hematocrit with or without hypoalbuminemia is advisable. Early vascular filling with albumin infusion may prevent the occurrence of hypovolemic shock and improve the prognosis. 10.1016/j.revmed.2018.07.013