Comparison of faecal microbial community of lantang, bama, erhualian, meishan, xiaomeishan, duroc, landrace, and yorkshire sows.
Yang Lina,Bian Gaorui,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences
The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the faecal microbial composition among Lantang, Bama, Erhualian, Meishan, Xiaomeishan, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows and to explore the possible link of the pig breed with the gut microbial community. Among the sows, the Meishan, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire sows were from the same breeding farm with the same feed. Fresh faeces were collected from three sows of each purebred breed for microbiota analysis and volatile fatty acid (VFA) determination. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that samples from Bama, Erhualian, and Xiaomeishan sows, which from different farms, were generally grouped in one cluster, with similarity higher than 67.2%, and those from Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows were grouped in another cluster. Principal component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from the foreign breeds and the samples from the Chinese indigenous breeds were scattered in two different groups, irrespective of the farm origin. Faecal VFA concentrations were significantly affected by the pig breed. The proportion of acetate was higher in the Bama sows than in the other breeds. The real-time PCR analysis showed that 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the Bama sows compared to Xiaomeishan and Duroc sows. Both Meishan and Erhualian sows had higher numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and sulphate-reducing bacteria as compared to Duroc sows. The results suggest that the pig breed affects the composition of gut microbiota. The microbial composition is different with different breeds, especially between overseas breeds (lean type) and Chinese breeds (relatively obese type).
Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model.
Bian Gaorui,Ma Shouqing,Zhu Zhigang,Su Yong,Zoetendal Erwin G,Mackie Roderick,Liu Junhua,Mu Chunlong,Huang Ruihua,Smidt Hauke,Zhu Weiyun
A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance for Meishan and Yorkshire piglets, respectively. During the suckling period until day 14, the piglet breed and the nursing mother lead to increasing differentiation of the fecal bacterial community, with specific bacteria taxa associated with breed, and others with the nursing sow most likely due to its milk composition. Although the effect of nursing mother and the breed were evident through the suckling period, the introduction of solid feed and subsequent weaning were the major events occurring that dominated succession of the gut microbiota in the early life of piglets. This piglet cross-fostering model is a useful tool for studying the effects of diet, host genetics and the environment on the development and acquisition of the gut microbiota and over longer studies the subsequent impact on growth, health and performance of pigs.
Effects of the dietary protein level on the microbial composition and metabolomic profile in the hindgut of the pig.
Zhou Liping,Fang Lingdong,Sun Yue,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a long-term low protein diet on the microbial composition and metabolomic profile in the hindgut of the pig. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 days of age, 23.57 ± 1.77 kg) were randomly allocated to normal protein diet (NP) and low protein diet (LP) groups using a randomized block design. At the age of 170 days, the digesta in the hindguts of the pigs were collected for microbial and metabolomic analysis. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or feed:gain ratio between the NP and LP groups. The concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs)/short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum decreased with the reduction of dietary protein. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that LP diet significantly decreased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the cecum, and Streptococcus in the colon; however, the relative abundance of Prevotella and Coprococcus in the LP group was significantly higher than in the NP group in the cecum, and Sarcina, Peptostreptococcaceae incertae sedis, Mogibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Coprococcus was higher in the colon. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the dietary protein level mainly affected phenylalanine metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; the citrate cycle; pyruvate metabolism; and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the correlation analysis of the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between the colonic metabolites and certain microbial species. These results suggest that a low protein diet may modulate the microbial composition and metabolites of the hindgut, without affecting the growth performance of pigs; however, potential roles of this modulation to the health of pigs remains unknown.
Microbiome-Metabolome Responses in the Cecum and Colon of Pig to a High Resistant Starch Diet.
Sun Yue,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Frontiers in microbiology
Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch) diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson's correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host.
Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets.
Xu Jumei,Chen Xue,Yu Shuiqing,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P < 0.05). Genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacillus, Facklamia, Globicatella, Kocuria, Rothia, unclassified Leptotrichiaceae, unclassified Neisseriaceae, and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the stomach were increased in relative abundance by SB treatment, whereas the abundances of Lactobacillus decreased on day 8 (P < 0.05). At the genus and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels, SB had low impact on bacterial community in the ileum and colon on days 8 and 21. SB treatment decreased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the ileum of piglets on day 8 (P < 0.05). SB treatment down-regulated the expression of IL-8, IFN-γ, and IL-1β on day 21 (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis on the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The results show that early intervention with sodium butyrate can modulate the ileum inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets with low impact on intestinal microbial structure, which suggests oral administration of SB may have a benefit role in the health of neonatal piglets.
Differences in Microbiota Membership along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets and Their Differential Alterations Following an Early-Life Antibiotic Intervention.
Mu Chunlong,Yang Yuxiang,Su Yong,Zoetendal Erwin G,Zhu Weiyun
Frontiers in microbiology
Early-life antibiotic interventions can change the predisposition to disease by disturbing the gut microbiota. However, the impact of antibiotics on gut microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is not completely understood, although antibiotic-induced alterations in the distal gut have been reported. Here, employing a piglet model, the microbial composition was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function. The present study showed clear spatial variation of microbial communities in the stomach and intestine, and found that the administration of antibiotics (a mixture of olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium, kitasamycin) in early life caused markedly differential alterations in the compartmentalized microbiota, with major alterations in their spatial variation in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine. In piglets fed an antibiotic-free diet, most of the variation in microbial communities was concentrated in gut segments and niches (lumen/mucosa). The microbial diversity was higher in the lumen of stomach and duodenum than that in ileum. The early-life antibiotic intervention decreased the abundance of some species and increased the abundance of potentially pathogenic in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine. Interestingly, the intervention increased the abundance of only in the colonic lumen and that of only in the ileal mucosa. Furthermore, the antibiotic intervention exerted location-specific effects on the functional potential involved in the phosphotransferase system (decreased sucrose phosphotransferase in the stomach) and antibiotic-resistance genes (increased in the colon). These results point to an early-life antibiotic-induced dramatic and location-specific shift in the gut microbiota, with profound impact in the foregut and less impact in the hindgut. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the membership of the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets and highlight the importance of considering the foregut microbiota in health management of piglets at early life.
Long-term effects of early antibiotic intervention on blood parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, and fecal microbial fermentation profile in pigs with different dietary protein levels.
Yu Miao,Zhang Chuanjian,Yang Yuxiang,Mu Chunlong,Su Yong,Yu Kaifan,Zhu Weiyun
Journal of animal science and biotechnology
BACKGROUD:This study aimed to determine the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on subsequent blood parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, and fecal fermentation profile in pigs with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Eighteen litters of piglets (total 212) were randomly allocated to 2 groups and were fed a creep feed diet with or without in-feed antibiotics (olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium and kitasamycin) from postnatal d 7 to d 42. On d 42, the piglets within the control or antibiotic group were mixed, respectively, and then further randomly assigned to a normal- (20%, 18%, and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77, d 77 to d 120, and d 120 to d 185, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16%, 14%, and 10% CP from d 42 to d 77, d 77 to d 120, and d 120 to d 185, respectively), generating 4 groups. On d 77 (short-term) and d 185 (long-term), serum and fecal samples were obtained for blood parameters, microbial composition and microbial metabolism analysis. RESULTS:EAI increased ( < 0.05) albumin and glucose concentrations in low-CP diet on d 77, and increased ( < 0.05) urea concentration in normal-CP diet. On d 185, EAI increased ( < 0.05) globulin concentration in normal-CP diets, but decreased glucose concentration. For nutrient digestibility, EAI increased ( < 0.05) digestibility of CP on d 77. For fecal microbiota, the EAI as well as low-CP diet decreased ( < 0.05) count on d 77. For fecal metabolites, on d 77, EAI decreased ( < 0.05) total amines concentration but increased skatole concentration in low-CP diet. On d 185, the EAI increased ( < 0.05) putrescine and total amines concentrations in low-CP diets but reduced ( < 0.05) in the normal-CP diets. The low-CP diet decreased the concentrations of these compounds. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these results indicate that EAI has short-term effects on the blood parameters and fecal microbial fermentation profile. The effects of EAI varied between CP levels, which was characterized by the significant alteration of glucose and putrescine concentration.
Marked Response in Microbial Community and Metabolism in the Ileum and Cecum of Suckling Piglets After Early Antibiotics Exposure.
Yu Miao,Mu Chunlong,Zhang Chuanjian,Yang Yuxiang,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Frontiers in microbiology
In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host's later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotics from postnatal days 7-23 ( = 8). The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing ( < 0.05) the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of , unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased ( < 0.05) ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation ( < 0.05) in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased ( < 0.05). These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the antibiotics toward a healthy practice for suckling piglets.
The Changes of Colonic Bacterial Composition and Bacterial Metabolism Induced by an Early Food Introduction in a Neonatal Porcine Model.
Shi Chao,Zhu Yizhi,Niu Qingyan,Wang Jue,Wang Jing,Zhu Weiyun
The impact of an early food introduction on the microbiota composition and microbial metabolism in colon was investigated using a new-born piglet model. At day 4 after birth, 10 litters of piglets were randomly allocated to a sow-rearing group (SR group) and a milk-replacer supplementing group (MRS group) (n = 5). A commercial milk replacer was given to the suckling piglets in the MRS group from the 4th day to the 28th day. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the milk replacer supplementation significantly decreased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Clostridium XI, Blautia, Clostridium sensustricto and Escherichia (p = 0.08) in the colon of the piglets, but significantly increased the relative abundance of Paraprevotella on the 28th day. In addition, the abundance of Rumminococcus, Clostridium XlVa, Succiniclasticum, Clostridium IV tended to increase in the MRS group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate and branch-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in the colonic digesta increased with the milk replacer supplementary in the MRS group. In addition, the milk replacer supplementary increased the expression level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but decreased the expression level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the colonic mucosa of the piglets. In conclusion, an early food introduction can influence the gut bacterial composition and metabolism, and may further affect the intestinal health by modifying the gene transcription related to the colonic function. These findings may provide some guidelines for the early nutrition supplementation for infants during the lactation period.
Effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on growth and gut function of newborn suckling piglets.
Tian Shiyi,Wang Jue,Yu Hu,Wang Jing,Zhu Weiyun
Journal of animal science and biotechnology
Background:Most research on galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) has mainly focused on their prebiotic effects on the hindgut, but their beneficial effects on the small intestine (SI) have received little attention. Since jejunum is the important place to digest and absorb nutrients efficiently, optimal maturation of the jejunum is necessary for maintaining the high growth rate in the neonate. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of the early intervention with GOS on the intestinal development of the jejunum. Methods:A total of 6 litters of neonatal piglets (10 piglets per litter; Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with an average birth weight of 1.55 ± 0.05 kg received 1 of 2 treatments based on their assignment to either the control (CON) group or the GOS (GOS) group in each litter. Piglets in the GOS group were orally administrated 10 mL of a GOS solution (reaching 1 g GOS/kg body weight) per day from the age of 1 to 7 d; the piglets in the CON group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. All piglets were weaned on d 21. On d 8 and 21 of the experimental trial, 1 pig per group from each of the 6 litters was euthanized. Results:The early intervention with GOS increased the average daily gains in the third week ( < 0.05). Decreased crypt depth was also observed in the jejunum of the piglets on d 21 ( < 0.05). The early intervention with GOS increased the jejunal lactase activity on d 8, maltase activity and sucrase activity on d 21 ( < 0.05). In addition, the early intervention with GOS also facilitated the mRNA expression of Sodium glucose co-transporter 1 () on d 8 and the mRNA expression of Glucose transporter type 2 () on d 21 ( < 0.05). It was further determined that GOS up-regulated the mRNA expression of preproglucagon (), insulin-like growth factor 1 (), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor () and epidermal growth factor (). GOS also up-regulated the protein expression of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and EGF in the jejunum of the piglets. Furthermore, it was also found that GOS enhanced the protein expression of ZO-1 and occludin on d 8 ( < 0.05), as well as increased the mRNA expression of and decrease the mRNA expression of ( < 0.05). Conclusions:These results indicate that GOS have a positive effect on piglet growth performance in addition to decreasing the crypt depth and enhancing functional development in jejunum of suckling piglets.
Ileum terminal antibiotic infusion affects jejunal and colonic specific microbial population and immune status in growing pigs.
Zhang Chuanjian,Peng Yu,Mu Chunlong,Zhu Weiyun
Journal of animal science and biotechnology
Background:Compared with oral antibiotics (primarily disrupt foregut microbiota), the present study used antibiotics with ileum terminal infusion to disrupt the hindgut microbiota, and investigated the changes in specific bacterial composition and immune indexes in the jejunum and colon, and serum of growing pigs. Twelve barrows (45 d of age, 12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum, were randomly assigned to two groups and infused either saline without antibiotics (Control) or with antibiotics (Antibiotic) at the terminal ileum. After 25 d experiment, all pigs were euthanized for analyzing bacterial composition and immune status. Results:Ileum terminal antibiotic infusion (ITAI) altered dominant bacteria counts, with a decrease in , cluster IV and cluster IV in the colon ( < 0.05), and an increase in in the jejunum ( < 0.05). ITAI decreased ( < 0.05) short-chain fatty acids concentrations in the colon. ITAI decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10 and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations, and down-regulated , Mucin-1 (), Mucin-2 () and zonula occludens-1 () mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa ( < 0.05). In the jejunal mucosa, ITAI decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sIgA and IgG levels together with down-regulation of , , and mRNA expression ( < 0.05). Furthermore, ITAI decreased IL-10, INF-γ, TNF-α, IgA and IgG concentrations in serum ( < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that the change in intestinal microbiota was correlated with alterations of Ig and cytokines. Conclusions:ITAI affected jejunal and colonic specific bacteria counts, and altered some immune markers levels in the jejunal and colonic mucosa and serum. These findings implicate the potential contribution of hindgut bacteria to immune response in the intestinal mucosa and serum of growing pigs.
Effects of Intravenous Infusion With Sodium Butyrate on Colonic Microbiota, Intestinal Development- and Mucosal Immune-Related Gene Expression in Normal Growing Pigs.
Chen Xue,Xu Jumei,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Frontiers in microbiology
This study aimed to investigate effects of intravenous infusion with sodium butyrate (SB) on colonic microbiota, intestinal mucosal immune and intestinal development in normal growing pigs. Twelve crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) fitted with a medical polyethylene cannula via internal jugular vein were daily infused with 10 ml SB (200 mmol/l) or the same volume of physiological saline for 7 days. Results showed that SB infusion had no effects on the short-chain fatty acids concentrations and the number of total bacteria, but significantly increased the microbial richness estimators (ACE and Chao1), and the abundance of genera related to Clostridiales order in the colonic digesta ( < 0.05). SB infusion significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 () in the colon, while no change was found in the ileum. Only the relative mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene was decreased significantly in the ileum by SB infusion. On the contrary, in the colon, SB infusion significantly decreased the gene expression of histone deacetylase 1 () and pro-inflammatory cytokines , and ( < 0.05), but significantly increased the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentration, the gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine , and the expression of intestinal development-related gene zonula occludens-1 (), occludin, and epidermal growth factor () ( < 0.05). The results suggest that systemic SB can modify colonic microbial composition, regulate the inflammatory cytokine- and intestinal development-related gene expression in pigs under the normal physiological condition. This study may provide an alternative strategy for improving the intestinal health of normal piglets.
Caecal infusion of the short-chain fatty acid propionate affects the microbiota and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the colon in a fistula pig model.
Zhang Yanan,Yu Kaifan,Chen Huizi,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate, are known to suppress inflammation, and regulate the gut bacterial ecology. However, little is known about propionate. We report here that propionate infusion in the caecum dramatically affected the structure of colonic microbiota of pigs based on 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Sixteen pig models were perfused with saline or sodium propionate by a fistula in the caecum. At d 28, all pigs were slaughtered for analysing bacterial metabolites, colonic microbiota and the expression of genes related to inflammation. The results showed that caecal infusion of sodium propionate increased the concentration of propionate and decreased the butyrate concentration in colonic content. For biogenic amines, the tyramine concentration was increased, while the concentration of cadaverine was decreased by infusion of sodium propionate. Furthermore, at the level of phylum, propionate increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and reduced the abundance of Firmicutes. Prevotella and Bacteroides counts were increased, while Turicibacter abundance was decreased at the level of genus. Real-time qPCR showed that the expression of NF-κB and IL-18 was upregulated by propionate infusion, whereas no significant differences were observed for the expression of other genes related to inflammatory processes. Taken together, these results provide a new evidence for the role of short-chain fatty acid propionate on the composition of microbial community and inflammatory cytokines.
Effects of Early Intervention with Maternal Fecal Microbiota and Antibiotics on the Gut Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles of Piglets.
Lin Chunhui,Wan Jiajia,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
We investigated the effects of early intervention with maternal fecal microbiota and antibiotics on gut microbiota and the metabolites. Five litters of healthy neonatal piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, nine piglets in each litter) were used. Piglets in each litter were orally treated with saline (CO), amoxicillin treatment (AM), or maternal fecal microbiota transplantation (MFMT) on days 1⁻6, with three piglets in each treatment. Results were compared to the CO group. MFMT decreased the relative abundances of and in the colon on day 7, whereas the abundance of increased, and the abundance of in the stomach reduced on day 21. AM reduced the abundance of in the stomach on day 7 and reduced the abundances of and in the ileum and colon on day 21, respectively. The metabolite profile indicated that MFMT markedly influenced carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid (AA) metabolism on day 7. On day 21, carbohydrate metabolism and AA metabolism were affected by AM. The results suggest that MFMT and AM discriminatively modulate gastrointestinal microflora and alter the colonic metabolic profiles of piglets and show different effects in the long-term. MFMT showed a location-specific influence on the gastrointestinal microbiota.
Differential Effects of Breed and Nursing on Early-Life Colonic Microbiota and Immune Status as Revealed in a Cross-Fostering Piglet Model.
Mu Chunlong,Bian Gaorui,Su Yong,Zhu Weiyun
Applied and environmental microbiology
Nursing mother and breed can differently regulate early-life microbiota succession in pigs. However, it remains unclear whether they affect gastrointestinal microbiota and immune status, which are critical for early-life gut health. Here, an interspecific cross-fostering piglet model was employed by fostering neonatal Yorkshire and Meishan piglets to the same or another breed of sows. Jejunal and colonic microbiotas and mucosal immune parameters were analyzed at postnatal days 14 (preweaning) and 49 (postweaning). Nursing mother affected 10 genera in the colon and 3 minor genera in the jejunum. At day 14, Meishan sow-nursed piglets had lower and higher counts in the colonic digesta and larger amounts of interleukin 10 and Foxp3-positive cells in the colonic mucosa than did Yorkshire sow-nursed piglets. At day 49, nursing mother had no significant effects on cytokine expression. Breed effects were observed; Meishan piglets had lower relative abundances of and lower gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) than those of Yorkshire piglets at days 14 and 49. Collectively, nursing mother mainly affected preweaning colonic microbiota and immune status, while breed effects persisted after weaning. Piglets nursed by Meishan sows had different microbiota compositions and inflammatory cytokine profiles in the colon compared with those of piglets nursed by Yorkshire sows. These results highlight the different role of nursing mother and breed in affecting early gut microenvironment. Early-life gut microbiota and immune status are pivotal for postnatal growth. By using an interspecific cross-fostering piglet model, we find that change in nursing mother transiently reshapes preweaning colon microbiota and immune status, while breed shows persistent effects both pre- and postweaning. Piglets nursed by Meishan sows had lower counts and higher anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. These results highlight the significance of nursing mother in regulating early-life gut health.
Effects of Long-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Intestinal Morphology, Digestive Enzymes, Gut Hormones, and Colonic Microbiota in Pigs.
Yu Defu,Zhu Weiyun,Hang Suqin
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Using protein-restriction diets becomes a potential strategy to save the dietary protein resources. However, the mechanism of low-protein diets influencing pigs' growth performance is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein-restriction diets on gastrointestinal physiology and gut microbiota in pigs. Eighteen weaned piglets were randomly allocated to three groups with different dietary protein levels. After a 16-week trial, the results showed that feeding a low-protein diet to pigs impaired the epithelial morphology of duodenum and jejunum ( < 0.05) and reduced the concentration of many plasma hormones ( < 0.05), such as ghrelin, somatostatin, glucose-dependent insulin-tropic polypeptide, leptin, and gastrin. The relative abundance of and in colon and microbiota metabolites was also decreased by extreme protein-restriction diets ( < 0.05). These findings suggested that long-term ingestion of a protein-restricted diet could impair intestinal morphology, suppress gut hormone secretion, and change the microbial community and fermentation metabolites in pigs, while the moderately low-protein diet had a minimal effect on gut function and did not impair growth performance.
Changes in Ileal Microbial Composition and Microbial Metabolism by an Early-Life Galacto-Oligosaccharides Intervention in a Neonatal Porcine Model.
Tian Shiyi,Wang Jue,Yu Hu,Wang Jing,Zhu Weiyun
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), functional oligosaccharides with natural characteristics, are important active substances in milk that play an important role in the development of intestinal microbiota and the immune system of newborns. The intestinal maturation of piglets resembles that of human newborns and infants. Therefore, we used the newborn piglet model to study the effects of early-life GOS intervention. Six litters of neonatal piglets (10 piglets per litter) with the same average birth weight were divided into control (CON) and GOS (GOS) groups in each litter. Piglets in the GOS group were given 10 mL of GOS solution daily during the first week after birth, while piglets in the CON group were given the same dose of physiological saline orally. One pig per group from each litter was euthanized on day 8 and day 21. Results revealed that ileal microbiota composition was significantly enriched in and unclassified Lactobacillaceae, and reduced in on day 8 and day 21 after GOS intervention. Additionally, significantly decreased on day 21 following the early-life GOS intervention. Moreover, the content of microbial metabolites, endocrine peptides, and the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides increased in the GOS group. These findings provide guidelines for early prebiotic supplementation for lactating newborns.
Effects of early-life lactoferrin intervention on growth performance, small intestinal function and gut microbiota in suckling piglets.
Hu Ping,Zhao Fangzhou,Zhu Weiyun,Wang Jing
Food & function
The early postnatal stage is a critical period for suckling animals in developing intestinal function and stabilizing gut microbiota. Lactoferrin (LF) plays a critical role in promoting gut development and regulating gut microbiota. This study investigates the impact of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the growth performance, small intestinal function and gut microbiota in suckling piglets. Sixty suckling piglets (1.51 ± 0.05 kg) obtained from six sows (10 piglets per litter) were assigned to a control (CON) group and an LF group in each litter, which were sow-fed. Piglets in the LF group were orally administered 8-12 mL LF solution (0.5 g per kg body weight per day) for a week, and piglets in the CON group were orally administered the same dose of physiological saline. Six piglets (n = 6) from each group were euthanized on days 8 and 21. The early-life LF intervention increased growth performance, with higher villi height of the jejunum and greater disaccharidase activity of the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). Diarrhoea incidence decreased in the LF group from day 1 to day 7 (P < 0.05). Urinary lactulose-mannitol ratios decreased in the LF group, whereas the gene and protein expressions of jejunal occludin increased in the LF group on day 8 and day 21, and higher gene and protein levels of ileal occludin were observed on day 8 (P < 0.05). Additionally, the LF piglets had lower concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α, and higher concentration of IL-10 in the jejunum (P < 0.05). For the ileum, higher concentration of IL-10 and lower concentration of TNF-α were observed in the LF group (P < 0.05). LF piglets had a greater abundance of Lactobacillus and lower abundance of Veillonella and Escherichia-Shigella in the jejunum on day 8 (P < 0.05). In the ileum, the abundance of Actinobacillus was decreased in the LF piglets on day 8 and day 21 (P < 0.05). The early-life LF intervention enhanced the growth performance and decreased diarrhoea incidence in the suckling piglets by promoting the development of intestinal function and changing the microbiota in the small intestine.
Low-protein diets supplemented with casein hydrolysate favor the microbiota and enhance the mucosal humoral immunity in the colon of pigs.
Wang Huisong,Shen Junhua,Pi Yu,Gao Kan,Zhu Weiyun
Journal of animal science and biotechnology
Background:High-protein diets can increase the colonic health risks. A moderate reduction of dietary crude-protein (CP) level can improve the colonic bacterial community and mucosal immunity of pigs. However, greatly reducing the dietary CP level, even supplemented with all amino acids (AAs), detrimentally affects the colonic health, which may be due to the lack of protein-derived peptides. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of supplementation of casein hydrolysate (peptide source) in low-protein (LP) diets, in comparison with AAs supplementation, on the colonic microbiota, microbial metabolites and mucosal immunity in pigs, aiming to determine whether a supplementation of casein hydrolysate can improve colonic health under very LP level. Twenty-one pigs (initial BW 19.90 ± 1.00 kg, 63 ± 1 days of age) were assigned to three groups and fed with control diet (16% CP), LP diets (13% CP) supplemented with free AAs (LPA) or casein hydrolysate (LPC) for 4 weeks. Results:Compared with control diet, LPA and LPC diet decreased the relative abundance of and , and LPC diet further decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria. LPC diet also increased the relative abundance of . Both LP diets decreased concentrations of ammonia and cadaverine, and LPC diet also reduced concentrations of putrescine, phenol and indole. Moreover, LPC diet increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration. In comparison with control diet, both LP diets decreased protein expressions of Toll-like receptor-4, nuclear factor-κB, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, and LPC diet further decreased protein expressions of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein-1 and interferon-γ. LPC diet also increased protein expressions of G-protein coupled receptor-43, interleukin-4, transforming growth factor-β, immunoglobulin A and mucin-4, which are indicators for mucosal defense activity. Conclusions:The results showed that supplementing casein hydrolysate showed beneficial effects on the colonic microbiota and mucosal immunity and barrier function in comparison with supplementing free AAs in LP diets. These findings may provide new framework for future nutritional interventions for colon health in pigs.
Effects of low-protein diet on the intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activity, blood urea nitrogen, and gut microbiota and metabolites in weaned pigs.
Yu Defu,Zhu Weiyun,Hang Suqin
Archives of animal nutrition
This study investigated the effects of low-protein diet supplemented with Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), Threonine (Thr), and Tryptophan (Trp) on small intestine morphology, enzyme activity, blood urea nitrogen, and gut microbiota and metabolites in weaned piglets. Eighteen weaned pigs weighing an average of 9.57 kg received one of three treatments: a normal protein diet with 20% crude protein (CP, diet [NP]), a moderately reduced protein diet with 17% CP (MP), or a low-protein diet with 14% CP (LP). All three diets were supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr and Trp to meet essential amino acid requirements for post-weaned piglets according to the NRC (2012). Following a 45 d study period, piglets on the LP and MP diets demonstrated atrophic small intestinal morphology, with decreased villus heights and lower ratios of villus height to crypt depth ( < 0.05); pepsin activity in the stomach was also reduced in these two groups ( < 0.05). Increased plasma cholesterol and decreased blood urea nitrogen presented in the MP and LP groups compared with the NP group ( < 0.05). Overall, gastrointestinal hormones were not affected by dietary protein levels with the exception of reduced somatostatin levels in the MP and LP groups. Jejunum and colon microbiota were not affected at either the phyla or genera level in any of the diets. Colonic ammonia nitrogen concentration was reduced in MP and LP groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on short chain fatty acids or biogenic amines. Our data suggest that reducing dietary protein levels by 3% (MP) or 6% (LP) in weaned pigs has the potential to decrease nitrogen emissions and impaired digestive capacity. Therefore, dietary protein level cannot be reduced by more than 3% in consideration of maladaptive changes to small intestinal morphology and pepsin activity in weaned piglets.
Casein hydrolysate supplementation in low-crude protein diets increases feed intake and nitrogen retention without affecting nitrogen utilization of growing pigs.
Shen Junhua,Wang Huisong,Pi Yu,Gao Kan,Zhu Weiyun
Journal of the science of food and agriculture
BACKGROUND:An extreme reduction of the crude protein (CP) level in diets, even balanced with amino acids (AAs), is detrimental for intestinal nitrogen (N) metabolism and the growth of pigs. This study investigated the effects of casein hydrolysate supplementation in low-CP diets on growth performance, N balance, and intestinal N supply for pigs. A total of 24 barrows were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments of 160 g kg CP (control), 130 g kg CP (LAA), and 130 g kg CP plus casein hydrolysate (LCH) for 28 days. RESULTS:The LCH group had a higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) than the LAA group, and a higher ADG than the control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, both the LAA and LCH decreased N intake, serum urea N, fecal N, and N excretion, and increased apparent N availability, with LCH having higher N intake and N retention than LAA group (P < 0.05). Compared with LAA, LCH increased ileal fluxes of CP and AA (P < 0.05), and with values similar to those of the control. However, ileal flows of CP and AA were similar between LCH and LAA, both of which were lower than those in the control (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Using protein hydrolysate to replace some crystalline AAs in low-CP diets increased feed intake, N retention and ADG without affecting N utilization. These findings point to the important impact of protein hydrolysate supplementation on improving growth for pigs fed low-CP diets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
Antibiotic effects on gut microbiota, metabolism, and beyond.
Mu Chunlong,Zhu Weiyun
Applied microbiology and biotechnology
Current advances on gut microbiota have broadened our view on host-microbiota interactions. As a microbiota-targeted approach, the use of antibiotics has been widely adopted to explore the role of gut microbiota in vivo. Antibiotics can change the microbial composition, resulting in varied effects, depending on the antibiotic class, dosage, and duration. Antibiotic intervention in early life leads to life-long phenotype alterations, including obesity. Antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota affect the epithelial utilization of both macronutrients (e.g., amino acids) and micronutrients (e.g., copper, vitamin E) and the redox homeostasis. Of particular interest is the regulation of gut anaerobiosis and aerobiosis by oxygen availability, which is closely related to epithelial metabolism. Additionally, antibiotic interventions enable to identify novel roles of gut microbiota in gut-liver axis and gut-brain axis. Indigenous antimicrobial molecules are produced by certain microbes, and they have the potential to affect function through eliciting changes in the gut microbiota. This review discusses at length these findings to gain a better and novel insight into microbiota-host interactions and the mechanisms involved.
Effects of early commercial milk supplement on the mucosal morphology, bacterial community and bacterial metabolites in jejunum of the pre- and post-weaning piglets.
Hu Ping,Niu Qingyan,Zhu Yizhi,Shi Chao,Wang Jing,Zhu Weiyun
Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences
OBJECTIVE:Sow milk (SM) may not be able to meet the piglet's nutritional needs in late lactation. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of early commercial milk (CM) supplement on the mucosal morphology, bacterial community and bacterial metabolites in jejunum of piglets. METHODS:Ten litters of newborn piglets ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc) were randomly divided into 2 groups of 5 litters. The piglets in the control group were suckled by the sow (SM), while the piglets in the treatment group (CM supplement) were supplemented with a CM supplement along with suckling from d 4 to d 28 of age. RESULTS:No significant differences were observed about jejunal mucosal morphology on d 28 and d 35 between two groups. On d 28, the activity of lactase in the jejunum was significantly decreased in the CM group, while the activity of sucrase and the ratio of maltase to lactase were significantly increased (p<0.05). On d 35, the activity of maltase in the jejunum was significantly increased in the CM group (p<0.05), and maltase to lactase ratio tended to increase in the CM group (p = 0.065). In addition, piglets in the CM group had a higher abundance of Clostridium XI, Tuicibater, and Moraxella in the jejunum on d 28, while the abundance of Lactobacillus was significantly increased on d 35 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:The early CM supplement improved the maturation of the jejunum to some extent by enhancing the maltase and sucrase activities. Moreover, the early CM supplement could help maintain the homeostasis of internal environment in jejunum by increasing the microbial-derived metabolites.
Early-life lactoferrin intervention modulates the colonic microbiota, colonic microbial metabolites and intestinal function in suckling piglets.
Hu Ping,Zhao Fangzhou,Wang Jing,Zhu Weiyun
Applied microbiology and biotechnology
This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets were fed the same dose of physiological saline for a week. Six piglets from the two groups were randomly chosen and euthanised on days 8 and 21. The LF group piglets had higher ACE and Chao1 indices of colonic microbiota than the CON group piglets (P < 0.05). In addition, the LF group piglets had a higher abundance of Roseburia (P < 0.05) and a lower abundance of Escherichia-Shigella (P < 0.05) in the colonic digesta. The LF group piglets also had a higher concentration of butyrate (P < 0.05) in the colonic digesta. Moreover, the LF group piglets had a higher gene expression of occludin (P < 0.05) in the colonic mucosa. In addition, the gene expression of MUC4 was upregulated in the LF group piglets compared with that in the CON group on day 21 (P < 0.05), and the lower gene expression of TLR-4 was found in the LF group compared with the CON group on day 8 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the concentration of IL-10 was increased in the LF group on day 8 (P < 0.05), while the LF group piglets had a higher concentration of sIgA and lower concentrations of IL-1α and IL-1β (P < 0.05) in the colonic mucosa. These results suggest that early-life LF intervention can modulate the composition of colonic microbiota and improve the intestinal function in suckling piglets.Key Points• Early-life LF intervention significantly modulated colon microbiota.• Early-life LF intervention can improve the colon health.• The colon microbiota plays an important role in host health.
Increasing the Hindgut Carbohydrate/Protein Ratio by Cecal Infusion of Corn Starch or Casein Hydrolysate Drives Gut Microbiota-Related Bile Acid Metabolism To Stimulate Colonic Barrier Function.
Pi Yu,Mu Chunlong,Gao Kan,Liu Zhuang,Peng Yu,Zhu Weiyun
Dietary high protein and low carbohydrate levels compromise colonic microbiota and bile acid metabolism, which underlies a detrimental gut environment. However, it remains unclear if the diet-induced changes in colonic health are due to a change in hindgut nutrient availability and what key intermediates link the microbe-epithelium dialogue. To specifically alter the hindgut nutrient substrate availability, here we used a cecally cannulated pig model to infuse corn starch and casein hydrolysate directly into the cecum to generate a stepwise change of carbohydrate/nitrogenous compound (C/N) ratio. Pigs were cecally infused daily with either saline (Control), corn starch (Starch), or casein hydrolysate (Casein) ( = 8 per group), respectively, for 19 days. After infusion, C/N ratios in colonic digesta were 16.33, 12.56, and 8.54 for the starch, control, and casein groups, respectively (0.05). Relative to the control group, casein infusion showed greater abundance of the bacteria () capable of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation (), higher levels of expression of bacterial genes encoding the enzyme, and higher levels of secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid [DCA] and lithocholic acid [LCA]), while the starch infusion showed the opposite effect. Correspondingly, casein infusion downregulated expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and OCLD) and upregulated expression of genes encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The ratio of C/N was linearly related with the concentrations of DCA and LCA and gene expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and EGFR. Caco-2 cell experiments further showed that DCA and LCA downregulated expression of genes involved in barrier function (ZO-1 and OCLD) and upregulated the gene expression of EGFR and Src. Inhibition of EGFR and Src could abolish DCA- and LCA-induced downregulation of ZO-1, indicating that DCA and LCA impair gut barrier function via enhancing the EGFR-Src pathway. These results suggest that the ratio of C/N in the large intestine is an important determinant of microbial metabolism and gut barrier function in the colon. The findings provide evidence that microbe-related secondary bile acid metabolism may mediate the interplay between microbes and gut barrier function. High-fiber or high-protein diets could alter gut microbiota and health in the large intestine, but factors involved in the effects remain unclear. The present study for the first time demonstrates that the starch- and casein-induced C/N ratio in the hindgut is an important factor. Using the cannulated pig model, we found that the distinct C/N ratio induced by cecal infusion of corn starch or casein hydrolysate was linearly correlated with microbial metabolites (secondary bile acids) and tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and OCLD). Cell culture study further demonstrates that the gut microbial metabolites (DCA and LCA) could impair the intestinal barrier function via the EGFR-Src pathway. These suggest that DCA and LCA were key metabolites mediating microbe-epithelium dialogue when the hindgut C/N ratios were altered by cecal infusion of corn starch or casein hydrolysate. These findings provide new insight into the impact of C/N ratio in the large intestine on colonic health and provide a new framework for therapeutic strategy in gut health through targeted manipulation of hindgut microbiota by increasing the carbohydrate level in the large intestine.
Stimulation of Gastric Transit Function Driven by Hydrolyzed Casein Increases Small Intestinal Carbohydrate Availability and Its Microbial Metabolism.
Shen Junhua,Mu Chunlong,Wang Huisong,Huang Zan,Yu Kaifan,Zoetendal Erwin G,Zhu Weiyun
Molecular nutrition & food research
Gastrointestinal (GI) functions affect gut nutrient flow and microbial metabolism. Dietary peptides modulate GI functions and improve small intestinal health, but the mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to investigate whether dietary peptides affect small intestinal microbial metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms. An ileal-cannulated pig model is adopted to explore the relationship between gut nutrient flow and microbial metabolism after treatment with hydrolyzed casein (peptides) or intact casein (Control)-based diet. The results demonstrate that hydrolyzed casein enhances microbial carbohydrate metabolism with higher Streptococcus abundance and higher lactate level in the ileum. Meanwhile, hydrolyzed casein increases ileal flows of nutrients, especially carbohydrate, leading to a higher carbohydrate availability in ileal digesta. To unveil the mechanisms, it is found that the hydrolyzed casein enhances the ghrelin signal and improves development of interstitial cells of Cajal and muscular layer in gastric corpus, indicating the enhanced upper GI transit function. In addition, hydrolyzed casein improves small intestinal health, as indicated by higher villus heights and luminal lactate concentrations in the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, hydrolyzed casein stimulates upper GI transit function, enhances gut nutrient flow, and increases small intestinal carbohydrate availability and its microbial metabolism, which favor the small intestinal health.