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    Feasibility of Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis in Older Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Single-Center Experience. Jin Haijiao,Ni Zhaohui,Mou Shan,Lu Renhua,Fang Wei,Huang Jiaying,Hu Chunhua,Zhang Haifen,Yan Hao,Li Zhenyuan,Yu Zanzhe Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis BACKGROUND:Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) frequently require urgent-start dialysis. Recent evidence suggests that peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in these patients, including in older patients. METHODS:This retrospective study enrolled patients aged > 65 years with ESRD who underwent urgent dialysis without functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center, from January 2011 to December 2014. Patients were grouped based on their dialysis modality (PD or HD). Patients unable to tolerate PD catheter insertion or wait for PD were excluded. Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion. Short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS:A total of 94 patients were enrolled, including 53 (56.4%) who underwent PD. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly lower in PD compared with HD patients (3 [5.7%] vs 10 [24.4%], = 0.009). Logistic regression identified urgent-start HD as an independent risk factor for dialysis-related complications compared with urgent-start PD (odds ratio 4.760 [1.183 - 19.147], = 0.028). The 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month survival rates in the PD and HD groups were 92.3% vs 94.6%, 82.4% vs 81.3%, 75.7% vs 74.2%, and 69.5% vs 60.6%, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups (log-rank = 0.011, = 0.915). CONCLUSION:Urgent-start PD was associated with fewer short-term dialysis-related complications and similar survival to urgent-start HD in older patients with ESRD. Peritoneal dialysis may thus be a safe and effective dialysis modality for older ESRD patients requiring urgent dialysis. 10.3747/pdi.2017.00002
    Sulfotanshinone IIA Sodium Ameliorates Glucose Peritoneal Dialysis Solution-Induced Human Peritoneal Mesothelial Cell Injury via Suppression of ASK1-P38-mediated Oxidative Stress. Zhou Yao,He Weiming,Sun Wei,Zhou Zhanwei,Sun Minjie,Xia Ping,Li Wei,Zheng Min,Zhang Lu,Ni Jie,Gao Kun Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Long-term use of high-glucose peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) induces peritoneal mesothelial cell (PMC) injury, peritoneal dysfunction, and peritoneal dialysis (PD) failure in patients with end-stage renal disease. How to preserve PMCs in PD is a major challenge for nephrologists worldwide. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the efficacy and mechanisms of sulfotanshinone IIA sodium (Tan IIa) in ameliorating high-glucose PDS-induced human PMC injury. METHODS:The human PMC line HMrSV5 was incubated with 4.25% PDS in vitro to mimic the high-glucose conditions in PD. Cellular viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit 8. Generation of superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed using a Total ROS/Superoxide Detection Kit. Oxidative modification of protein was evaluated by OxyBlot Protein Oxidation Detection Kit. TUNEL (dT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay and DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining were used to evaluate apoptosis. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of Tan IIa. RESULTS:Tan IIa protected PMCs against PDS-induced injury as evidenced by alleviating changes in morphology and loss of cell viability. Consistent with their antioxidant properties, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Tan IIa suppressed superoxide and ROS production, protein oxidation, and apoptosis elicited by PDS. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38 signaling was activated by PDS. Both Tan IIa and NAC suppressed ASK1 and p38 phosphorylation elicited by PDS. Moreover, genetic downregulation of ASK1 ameliorated cell injury and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and activation of caspase 3. CONCLUSION:Tan IIa protects PMCs against PDS-induced oxidative injury through suppression of ASK1-p38 signaling. 10.1159/000489650
    Cost-effectiveness of haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease in Singapore. Yang Fan,Lau Titus,Luo Nan Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) AIM:This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of haemodialysis (HD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Singapore. METHODS:A Markov model was developed to examine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of HD, CAPD and APD over the 10-year time horizon from the societal perspective, using clinical data from an observational study and the national renal registry, utilities from published studies and costs from dialysis services providers. The base-case analysis was for a hypothetical cohort of 60-year-old non-diabetic ESRD patients. A high-risk group of 60-year-old diabetic ESRD patients was also studied. RESULTS:In the base-case analysis, the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 3.27 with CAPD, 3.48 with APD and 4.69 with HD. The total costs were Singapore dollar $169 872 for CAPD, $201 509 for APD and $306 827 for HD. CAPD and HD had extended dominance over APD. The ICER of HD versus CAPD was $96 447 (US$69 121) per QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were most sensitive to the utility of HD. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses demonstrated that CAPD had the maximum probability of being cost-effective among treatments under evaluation at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $60 000 (US$43 000) per QALY. The high-risk group analyses showed similar results. The ICER of HD versus CAPD was $106 281 (US$76 168) per QALY and the probability of CAPD being optimal was the highest using the same WTP threshold. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis suggested that starting dialysis with CAPD is most cost-effective for ESRD patients in Singapore. 10.1111/nep.12668
    Comparison of survival between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease in the era of icodextrin treatment. Wang I-Kuan,Lin Cheng-Li,Yen Tzung-Hai,Lin Shih-Yi,Sung Fung-Chang European journal of internal medicine BACKGROUND:Icodextrin could reduce the risk of technique failure and improve patient survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study compared the survival between incident hemodialysis (HD) and PD patients, with and without diabetes, in the era of icodextrin treatment. METHODS:From the Taiwan health insurance database, 53,103 incident end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis were identified from 2005 to 2010. The mortality risks among HD and PD patients with or without icodextrin treatment were compared. The follow-up period started from the date of dialysis initiation to December 31, 2011. The competing-risks regression model was used to estimate the subhazard ratio (SHR) of death with considering renal transplantation as a competing event. RESULTS:Compared with the corresponding HD patients, mortality risks were higher in diabetic PD patients with icodextrin treatment (Bonferroni adjusted SHR=1.16, 98.3% CI=1.04-1.30) and without the treatment (Bonferroni adjusted SHR=1.35, 98.3% CI=1.16-1.57), particularly for elderly patients. Mortality risks for patients without diabetes were not different among the three cohorts. The time-dependent competing-risks model showed that PD patients with icodextrin treatment exhibited a reduced risk of death for diabetic patients, compared with those without icodextrin treatment (adjusted SHR=0.84, 95% CI=0.72-0.97). CONCLUSIONS:Icodextrin could attenuate the survival disadvantage for PD relative to HD in diabetic patients, particularly for the elderly patients. 10.1016/j.ejim.2017.11.017
    Surgical Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis. Mihalache Octavian,Doran Horia,Mustăţea Petronel,Bobircă Florin,Georgescu Dragoş,Bîrligea Andra,Agache Alexandra,Pătraşcu Traian Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990) Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a method of renal function replacement which has a series of advantages like greater autonomy of the patient with fewer hospital visits and better preservation of residual renal function, but it has also disadvantages. The main disadvantages are a limited life-time due to peritoneal membrane failure and the risk of infections. The main complication of PD remains peritonitis, which is responsible for the most cases of method failure. There are also other complications which incorrect treated may lead to failure of the method: mechanical complications, abdominal wall defects, exit site and tunnel infections. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare entity found in PD patients but with high morbidity and mortality. We have retrospectively analyzed the patients with end stage renal disease under peritoneal dialysis which were admitted to Surgical Clinic "I. Juvara" of the Clinical Hospital "Dr. I. Cantacuzino" between 2007 and 2017 for surgical complications related to PD. The patients were assigned in two groups: with non-infectious and infectious complications. We have found 109 patients which have had 126 surgical interventions related to peritoneal dialysis. Out of these, 30 interventions consisted in catheter removal for loss of ultrafiltration capacity, so these were excluded from analysis. The lot resulted consisted in 80 patients with 91 complications: 42 non-infectious and 49 infectious. Mean age was 60.5 (+-12.3) years. Sex distribution was 2.75/1 male/female. Diabetes mellitus was present at 45 (56,25 %) patients. Comparing the patients with non-infectious with those with infectious complications we found significant association between type of complications and the length of PD in the sense that infectious complications tend to appear later than the non-infectious. Also, the loss of peritoneal dialysis is strongly associated with infectious complications. Looking inside groups we found that abdominal wall defects are associated with the history of previous abdominal surgery (p 0,001). Regarding the morbidity and mortality only infectious complications had associated mortality in our study, there were no significant differences in morbidity rate between groups. Between all these patients we have also identified 16 with encapsultating peritoneal sclerosis. In most cases the diagnosis was established during the intervention for another complication. We have registered a 20% morality rate at these patients. Noninfectious surgical complications are not raising problems for diagnosis or surgical treatment, but an incorrect treatment may lead to failure of the PD. Infectious complications and especially peritonitis remains the main cause of method failure. These are generating the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from peritoneal dialysis complications. Even if the immediate surgical intervention for peritonitis related to peritoneal dialysis is usually unnecessary, surgical observation is absolutely mandatory in every case. The absence of a response to the proper medical treatment is an indication for peritoneal cavity exploration inclusive by laparoscopy/laparotomy. Any delay in diagnosis and definitive treatment can lead to loss of peritoneal membrane function and even death of the patient. Encapsulated peritoneal sclerosis is a rare but serious complication of PD. The risk for developing EPS increases with the duration of PD treatment. No predictive and reliable screening tests especially in the early stages of EPS were found. So, it is important not to underestimate the clinical symptoms, diagnosis being based on a high index of suspicion. The only established basic treatment of EPS is enterolysis of peritoneal adhesions, and time should not be unnecessarily wasted on conservative treatment. 10.21614/chirurgia.113.5.611
    Renal Association Clinical Practice Guideline on peritoneal dialysis in adults and children. Woodrow Graham,Fan Stanley L,Reid Christopher,Denning Jeannette,Pyrah Andrew Neil BMC nephrology These guidelines cover all aspects of the care of patients who are treated with peritoneal dialysis. This includes equipment and resources, preparation for peritoneal dialysis, and adequacy of dialysis (both in terms of removing waste products and fluid), preventing and treating infections. There is also a section on diagnosis and treatment of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis, a rare but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis where fibrotic (scar) tissue forms around the intestine. The guidelines include recommendations for infants and children, for whom peritoneal dialysis is recommended over haemodialysis.Immediately after the introduction there is a statement of all the recommendations. These recommendations are written in a language that we think should be understandable by many patients, relatives, carers and other interested people. Consequently we have not reworded or restated them in this lay summary. They are graded 1 or 2 depending on the strength of the recommendation by the authors, and A-D depending on the quality of the evidence that the recommendation is based on. 10.1186/s12882-017-0687-2
    Peritoneal dialysis catheter function and survival are not adversely affected by obesity regardless of the operative technique used. Krezalek Monika A,Bonamici Nicolas,Kuchta Kristine,Lapin Brittany,Carbray JoAnn,Denham Woody,Linn John,Ujiki Michael,Haggerty Stephen P Surgical endoscopy BACKGROUND:Obesity has been considered a relative contraindication to peritoneal dialysis (PD). Surprisingly, PD catheter dysfunction rates and longevity have not been studied in the growing obese ESRD population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of patient weight on PD catheter survival in the three insertion technique categories of advanced laparoscopy (AL), basic laparoscopy (BL), and open. METHODS:We examine retrospectively collected data on 231 consecutive PD catheter insertions at the NorthShore University HealthSystem between 2004 and 2014. Three cohorts were created based on the catheter insertion technique: open, BL using selective adhesiolysis, and AL using rectus sheath tunnel, selective omentopexy, and adhesiolysis. Primary outcomes included catheter dysfunction and catheter dysfunction-free survival for each cohort by BMI: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), obese (≥30). Nominal variables were compared using Chi-square test, continuous variables using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests, and catheter survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Statistical significance was established at 0.05. RESULTS:For the three BMI categories, there were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics. There were no statistically significant differences in catheter dysfunction or peri-operative complications by BMI category among all patients. This was also true in the AL cohort. Among all patients, similar 2-year dysfunction-free catheter survival was noted for normal weight, overweight, and obese patients (log-rank p = 0.79). This was also true across all insertion techniques: open (log-rank p = 0.87), BL (log-rank p = 0.41), AL (log-rank p = 0.43). In the obese cohort, the 2-year dysfunction-free catheter survival was 91.1% in AL, 83.5% in BL, and 65.7% in open (log-rank p = 0.58). CONCLUSION:Obesity does not increase complications or shorten dysfunction-free PD catheter survival regardless of the operative technique used. Obesity should not be considered as a relative contraindication to PD catheter placement as it confers similar technique success to normal- and overweight individuals. 10.1007/s00464-017-5852-y
    Carer's burden of peritoneal dialysis patients. Questionnaire and scale validation. Teixidó-Planas Josep,Tarrats Velasco Laura,Arias Suárez Nieves,Cosculluela Mas Antonio Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia INTRODUCTION:Carers of peritoneal dialysis patients may suffer from burden, the characteristics of which differ from burden due to dementia, cancer or other dependent conditions. AIMS:To ascertain the reliability and validity of the Peritoneal Dialysis Carer Burden Questionnaire (PDCBQ), previously created, and to design the burden scale. METHODS:Observational, multicentre study of carers and patients on peritoneal dialysis for more than 3 months. Sociodemographic characteristics of patients and carers, patient dependency, perceived health (SF-36) and carer burden (Zarit scale) were recorded, as well as PDCBQ via 3 scales: dependence, subjective burden and objective burden. RESULTS:One hundred seven patients and their carers from 8 hospitals were evaluable. Carers were mainly women (83.2%), aged 57.50±14.69 years, and 36.4% worked out of the home. The internal consistency of the Zarit scale and the PDCBQ were high (Cronbach's α between 0.808 and 0.901). Significant correlation was found between the Zarit scale and PDCBQ (r=0.683). The concordance analysis between 3 degrees of Zarit Scale and PDCBQ tertiles was good or acceptable (Kendall τ-b: 0.570, P<.001). The exploratory factor analysis of the main factors revealed 3 factors, which were successfully correlated with the design of the PDCBQ. A new carer burden scale was designed. CONCLUSIONS:The study shows good reliability with high internal consistency of the PDCBQ. Factorial analysis shows good construct and good correlation, and acceptable concordance with the Zarit Burden Scale confirmed criterion validity. The questionnaire is suitable to be applied in clinical practice. 10.1016/j.nefro.2018.02.006
    Impact of Obesity on Modality Longevity, Residual Kidney Function, Peritonitis, and Survival Among Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. Obi Yoshitsugu,Streja Elani,Mehrotra Rajnish,Rivara Matthew B,Rhee Connie M,Soohoo Melissa,Gillen Daniel L,Lau Wei-Ling,Kovesdy Csaba P,Kalantar-Zadeh Kamyar American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation BACKGROUND:The prevalence of severe obesity, often considered a contraindication to peritoneal dialysis (PD), has increased over time. However, mortality has decreased more rapidly in the PD population than the hemodialysis (HD) population in the United States. The association between obesity and clinical outcomes among patients with end-stage kidney disease remains unclear in the current era. STUDY DESIGN:Historical cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:15,573 incident PD patients from a large US dialysis organization (2007-2011). PREDICTOR:Body mass index (BMI). OUTCOMES:Modality longevity, residual renal creatinine clearance, peritonitis, and survival. RESULTS:Higher BMI was significantly associated with shorter time to transfer to HD therapy (P for trend < 0.001), longer time to kidney transplantation (P for trend < 0.001), and, with borderline significance, more frequent peritonitis-related hospitalization (P for trend = 0.05). Compared with lean patients, obese patients had faster declines in residual kidney function (P for trend < 0.001) and consistently achieved lower total Kt/V over time (P for trend < 0.001) despite greater increases in dialysis Kt/V (P for trend < 0.001). There was a U-shaped association between BMI and mortality, with the greatest survival associated with the BMI range of 30 to < 35kg/m in the case-mix adjusted model. Compared with matched HD patients, PD patients had lower mortality in the BMI categories of < 25 and 25 to < 35kg/m and had equivalent survival in the BMI category ≥ 35kg/m (P for interaction = 0.001 [vs < 25 kg/m]). This attenuation in survival difference among patients with severe obesity was observed only in patients with diabetes, but not those without diabetes. LIMITATIONS:Inability to evaluate causal associations. Potential indication bias. CONCLUSIONS:Whereas obese PD patients had higher risk for complications than nonobese PD patients, their survival was no worse than matched HD patients. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.09.010
    A pharmacokinetic analysis of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in a patient with esophageal cancer on peritoneal dialysis. Eads Jennifer R,Beumer Jan H,Negrea Lavinia,Holleran Julianne L,Strychor Sandra,Meropol Neal J Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology BACKGROUND:Very little is known about the pharmacokinetics of chemotherapeutic agents in patients also being treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in plasma and peritoneal dialysate in a patient being treated for esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS:A single patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma and on peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease was treated with cisplatin 25 mg/m(2) on day 1 of weeks 1 and 5 and continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-4 of weeks 1 and 5 along with daily radiation therapy. Intense plasma and dialysate sampling was performed during the week 5 administration, followed by quantitation of platinum by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and 5-fluorouracil by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS:Following systemic administration, clearance of ultrafilterable (active) platinum over the first 6 h was 20.8 L/h, which is lower than previously reported clearance levels of ultrafilterable platinum. Total platinum AUC was 131 μg h/mL, also higher than an AUC previously reported for total platinum in patients with normal renal function. Platinum-related material was detected in the peritoneal cavity, but this is likely inactive. 5-Fluorouracil penetrated the intraperitoneal cavity, but the contribution of peritoneal dialysis to drug clearance was negligible at 0.072 %. CONCLUSIONS:Administration of intravenous cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy to a patient treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is feasible, but clearance in dialysate is nominal, thus suggesting that dose reduction is indicated for cisplatin. Systemic drug administration results in limited intraperitoneal penetration of 5-fluorouracil and inactive platinum species. 10.1007/s00280-015-2939-9
    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with peritoneal dialysis. Cai Kedan,Luo Qun,Zhu Beixia,Han Lina,Wu Dan,Dai Zhiwei,Wang Kaiyue BMC nephrology BACKGROUND:Patients with peritoneal dialysis are in the persistent inflammation state and have elevated arterial stiffness. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is a new inflammatory marker in renal and cardiac disorders. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a non-invasive measurement, which is widely used as a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness. However, there is little evidence to show an association between NLR and baPWV in patients with peritoneal dialysis. The aim of this cross-section study was to investigate the relationship between NLR and arterial stiffness measured by baPWV in patients with peritoneal dialysis. METHODS:In this cross-section study, 101 patients with peritoneal dialysis were enrolled from January 2014 to June 2015. According to average baPWV level (1847.54 cm/s), the patients were categorized into two groups, low group and high group. baPWV, which reflects arterial stiffness, was calculated using the single-point method. Clinical data were collected in details. NLR was calculated using complete blood count. Associations between NLR and baPWV were assessed using Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis. RESULTS:The NLR was significantly lower in the low baPWV group than in the high baPWV group (p = 0.03). There were positive correlations between baPWV and neutrophil count (r = 0.24, p = 0.01) and NRL(r = 0.43, P < 0.01), and there was a negative correlation between baPWV and lymphocyte count (r = -0.23, p = 0.01). In addition, albumin, phosphorous and intact parathyroid hormone showed negative correlations with baPWV (r = -0.32, p < 0.01; r = -0.28, p < 0.01; r = -0.25, p = 0.01, respectively). Age and hsCRP showed positive correlations with baPWV (r = 0.47, p < 0.01; r = 0.25, p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, NLR independently correlated with baPWV in patients with peritoneal dialysis (β = 0.33, p < 0.01), even after adjustment for various confounders. CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that NLR was an independently associated with arterial stiffness in patients with peritoneal dialysis. However, further prospective studies are needed to confirm cause-and-effect relationship between NLR and baPWV, and to investigate whether anti-inflammatory treatment could improve arterial stiffness in patients with peritoneal dialysis. 10.1186/s12882-016-0394-4
    Hospitalization Rates for Patients on Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with In-Center Hemodialysis. Oliver Matthew J,Al-Jaishi Ahmed A,Dixon Stephanie N,Perl Jeffrey,Jain Arsh K,Lavoie Susan D,Nash Danielle M,Paterson J Michael,Lok Charmaine E,Quinn Robert R Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Assisted peritoneal dialysis is a treatment option for individuals with barriers to self-care who wish to receive home dialysis, but previous research suggests that this treatment modality is associated with a higher rate of hospitalization. The objective of our study was to determine whether assisted peritoneal dialysis has a different rate of hospital days compared to in-center hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study by linking a quality assurance dataset to administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were accrued between January 1, 2004 and July 9, 2013. Individuals were grouped into assisted peritoneal dialysis (family or home care assisted) or in-center hemodialysis on the basis of their first outpatient dialysis modality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score was used to create a sample in which the baseline covariates were well balanced. RESULTS:The study included 872 patients in the in-center hemodialysis group and 203 patients in the assisted peritoneal dialysis group. Using an intention to treat approach, patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis had a similar hospitalization rate of 11.1 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 9.4 to 13.0) compared with 12.9 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 10.3 to 16.1) in the hemodialysis group (P=0.19). Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis were more likely to be hospitalized for dialysis-related reasons (admitted for 2.4 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.2] compared with 1.6 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.3] in the hemodialysis group; P=0.04). This difference was partly explained by more hospital days because of peritonitis. Modality switching was associated with high rates of hospital days per year. CONCLUSIONS:Assisted peritoneal dialysis was associated with similar rates of all-cause hospitalization compared with in-center hemodialysis. Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis who experienced peritonitis and technique failure had high rates of hospitalization. 10.2215/CJN.10130915
    The Phantom of Metformin-Induced Lactic Acidosis in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: Time to Reconsider with Peritoneal Dialysis Treatment. Al-Hwiesh Abdullah K,Abdul-Rahman Ibrahiem Saeed,Noor Abdul-Salam,Nasr-El-Deen Mohammed A,Abdelrahman Abdalla,El-Salamoni Tamer S,Al-Muhanna Fahd A,Al-Otaibi Khalid,Al-Audah Nehad Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis ♦ OBJECTIVE: Metformin continues to be the safest and most widely used antidiabetic drug. In spite of its well-known benefits; metformin use in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is still restricted. Little has been reported about the effect of peritoneal dialysis (PD) on metformin clearance and the phantom of lactic acidosis deprives ESRD patients from metformin therapeutic advantages. Peritoneal dialysis is probably a safeguard against lactic acidosis, and it is likely that using this drug would be feasible in this group of patients. ♦ MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 83 PD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients were on automated PD (APD). Metformin was administered in a dose of 500 - 1,000 mg daily. Patients were monitored for glycemic control. Plasma lactic acid and plasma metformin levels were monitored on a scheduled basis. Peritoneal fluid metformin levels were measured. In addition, the relation between plasma metformin and plasma lactate was studied. ♦ RESULTS: Mean fasting blood sugar (FBS) was 10.9 ± 0.5 and 7.8 ± 0.7, and mean hemoglobin A1-C (HgA1C) was 8.2 ± 0.8 and 6.4 ± 1.1 at the beginning and end of the study, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.1 ± 4.1 and 27.3 ± 4.5 at the beginning and at the end of the study, respectively (p < 0.001). The overall mean plasma lactate level across all blood samples was 1.44 ± 0.6. Plasma levels between 2 and 3 mmol/L were found in 11.8% and levels of 3 - 3.6 mmol/L in 2.4% plasma samples. Hyperlactemia (level > 2 and ≤ 5 mmol/L) was not associated with overt acidemia. None of our patients had lactic acidosis (levels > 5 mmol/L). Age ≥ 60 was a predictor for hyperlactemia. No relationship was found between plasma metformin and lactate levels. ♦ CONCLUSION: Metformin may be used with caution in a particular group of ESRD patients who are on APD. Metformin allows better diabetic control with significant reduction of BMI. Information on the relationship between metformin and plasma lactate levels is lacking. Peritoneal dialysis appears to be a safeguard against the development of lactic acidosis in this group of patients. 10.3747/pdi.2015.00309
    Center Effects and Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis Outcomes: Analysis of a National Registry. Htay Htay,Cho Yeoungjee,Pascoe Elaine M,Darssan Darsy,Nadeau-Fredette Annie-Claire,Hawley Carmel,Clayton Philip A,Borlace Monique,Badve Sunil V,Sud Kamal,Boudville Neil,McDonald Stephen P,Johnson David W American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation BACKGROUND:Peritonitis is a common cause of technique failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Dialysis center-level characteristics may influence PD peritonitis outcomes independent of patient-level characteristics. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:Using Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) data, all incident Australian PD patients who had peritonitis from 2004 through 2014 were included. PREDICTORS:Patient- (including demographic data, causal organisms, and comorbid conditions) and center- (including center size, proportion of patients treated with PD, and summary measures related to type, cause, and outcome of peritonitis episodes) level predictors. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENT:The primary outcome was cure of peritonitis with antibiotics. Secondary outcomes were peritonitis-related catheter removal, hemodialysis therapy transfer, peritonitis relapse/recurrence, hospitalization, and mortality. Outcomes were analyzed using multilevel mixed logistic regression. RESULTS:The study included 9,100 episodes of peritonitis among 4,428 patients across 51 centers. Cure with antibiotics was achieved in 6,285 (69%) peritonitis episodes and varied between 38% and 86% across centers. Centers with higher proportions of dialysis patients treated with PD (>29%) had significantly higher odds of peritonitis cure (adjusted OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40) and lower odds of catheter removal (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.97), hemodialysis therapy transfer (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.97), and peritonitis relapse/recurrence (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.98). Centers with higher proportions of peritonitis episodes receiving empirical antibiotics covering both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms had higher odds of cure with antibiotics (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.42). Patient-level characteristics associated with higher odds of cure were younger age and less virulent causative organisms (coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and culture negative). The variation in odds of cure across centers was 9% higher after adjustment for patient-level characteristics, but 66% lower after adjustment for center-level characteristics. LIMITATIONS:Retrospective study design using registry data. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that center effects contribute substantially to the appreciable variation in PD peritonitis outcomes that exist across PD centers within Australia. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.10.017
    peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient. Carvalho Tiago J,Branco Patrícia Quadros,Martins Ana Rita,Gaspar Augusta BMJ case reports Peritonitis remains an important complication of peritoneal dialysis. The Gram-negative bacillus causes infection mostly in immunocompromised patients with severe underlying disease, mainly in Asia. Herein, we report the first case in Europe and the second case in an immunocompetent patient of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. Our patient presented with abdominal pain and a cloudy effluent and was started on intraperitoneal antibiotics. The organism cultured from the peritoneal fluid was later identified as and antibiotic therapy was adjusted accordingly. Despite this, the peritonitis followed a relapsing course, requiring Tenckhoff catheter removal, temporary transfer to haemodialysis and intravenous antibiotics. Subsequently, a new Tenckhoff catheter was inserted and peritoneal dialysis was restarted. The patient remains peritonitis free after 18 months of follow-up. This case highlights the need to consider rare causes of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients as well as the heterogeneous clinical course of peritonitis. 10.1136/bcr-2018-227713
    Risk factors of peritonitis during early peritoneal dialysis in patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis
. Liu Guangjian,Chen Jinhai Clinical nephrology This study investigated the risk factors of peritonitis during early peritoneal dialysis for renal failure in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV). This study enrolled hospitalized AASV patients with renal failure who underwent peritoneal dialysis at the Department of Nephrology of our hospital between 2008 and 2015. The primary aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis to characterize peritonitis during the early period (≤ 8 weeks) of dialysis, and to compare the differences in initial clinical manifestations, vasculitis activity, immunosuppressive therapies prior to the renal replacement therapy, and prognosis between patients with or without peritonitis. The secondary aim of this study was to conduct a literature review of peritoneal dialysis in patients with vasculitis. All 14 enrolled AASV patients had myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Six patients (of whom 2 died) withdrew from peritoneal dialysis due to peritonitis caused by enteric bacteria during the early period of dialysis. Their mean Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) during the early AASV onset was 31.67 ± 3.98, with significant symptoms of gastrointestinal involvement. Also, their BVAS score, anti-MPO antibody titer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, serum ANCA level, and glucocorticoid dose were higher than the AASV patients without peritonitis (all p < 0.05). AASV patients with a higher level of vasculitis (BVAS score > 30) during onset as well as gastrointestinal symptoms had a higher risk for intestinal peritonitis. Therefore, peritoneal dialysis is not recommended as a first-choice renal replacement therapy for such patients.
. 10.5414/CN109166
    Urgent Start Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis Leads to Reduction of Catheter-Related Infection and Increased Peritoneal Dialysis Penetration. Shanmuganathan Malini,Goh Bak Leong,Lim Christopher T S The American journal of the medical sciences BACKGROUND:Noncuffed catheters (NCC) are often used for incident hemodialysis (HD) patients without a functional vascular access. This, unfortunately results in frequent catheter-related complications such as infection, malfunction, vessel stenosis, and obstruction, leading to loss of permanent central venous access with superior vena cava obstruction. It is important to preserve central vein patency by reducing the number of internal jugular catheter insertions for incident HD patients with a functional vascular access. We sought to achieve this by introducing in-patient intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) as bridging therapy while awaiting establishment of long-term vascular access for HD patients. METHODS:Incident HD patients without permanent vascular access encountered from January to December 2014 were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 were encountered within 6 months prior to introduction of in-patient IPD bridging therapy in substitution of noncuffed catheter (NCC) insertion while awaiting maturation of permanent vascular access. Group 2 were encountered within 6 months after the introduction of this policy. The number of NCC and peritoneal dialysiscatheter insertion, along with catheter-related infections were evaluated during this period. RESULTS:Approximately 450 patients were distributed in each group. We achieved 45% reduction in internal jugular catheter insertion from 322 to 180 catheters after policy change. This led to a significant drop in catheter-related blood stream infection (53%, P <0.001). On the other hand, 30% more peritoneal dialysiscatheter were inserted to accommodate our IPD bridging therapy. CONCLUSIONS:The introduction of IPD as bridging therapy while awaiting maturation of permanent vascular access significantly reduced the utilization of NCC in incident HD patients and catherter-related blodstream infection. With this, it is our hope that it will contribute to the preservation of central vein patency. 10.1016/j.amjms.2018.08.004
    Comparison of Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Zazzeroni Luca,Pasquinelli Gianandea,Nanni Eleonora,Cremonini Valeria,Rubbi Ivan Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND/AIMS:The increase in the survival rate of patients with chronic renal failure due to substitution treatment prompts an investigation of their quality of life (QoL), a key measure to evaluate the outcomes of chronic disease treatment. To determine whether hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis provide a better QoL, a systematic meta-analysis was performed. METHODS:We searched through the database Cinahl, Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Proquest, including articles published from 2011 until June 2016. We selected articles that compared, through KDQOL-SF 1.3 or 36 questionnaires, QoL among patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The data was collected using Excel Office, and t-test has been performed on independent samples to identify significant differences. RESULTS:Only some of the seven articles found significant differences between the two treatments. One of the studies showed a better QoL for peritoneal dialysis patients, while, on the contrary, two other studies support that the best QoL is in patients receiving hemodialysis. Another article displayed significant difference only for satisfaction in relation to care, better in patients on peritoneal dialysis, and for physical health, better in hemodialysis. CONCLUSIONS:The analysis has not led to a unanimous conclusion. Quantitative analysis showed that the only statistically significant difference between the QoL of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis regards the effect of kidney disease, which happens to be better in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. 10.1159/000484115
    Peritoneal macrophage heterogeneity is associated with different peritoneal dialysis outcomes. Liao Chia-Te,Andrews Robert,Wallace Leah E,Khan Mohd Wajid A,Kift-Morgan Ann,Topley Nicholas,Fraser Donald J,Taylor Philip R Kidney international Peritonitis remains the major obstacle for the maintenance of long-term peritoneal dialysis and dysregulated host peritoneal immune responses may compromise local anti-infectious defense, leading to treatment failure. Whilst, tissue mononuclear phagocytes, comprising macrophages and dendritic cells, are central to a host response to pathogens and the development of adaptive immune responses, they are poorly characterized in the human peritoneum. Combining flow cytometry with global transcriptome analysis, the phenotypic features and lineage identity of the major CD14 macrophage and CD1c dendritic cell subsets in dialysis effluent were defined. Their functional specialization was reflected in cytokine generation, phagocytosis, and antigen processing/presentation. By analyzing acute bacterial peritonitis, stable (infection-free) and new-starter patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, we identified a skewed distribution of macrophage to dendritic cell subsets (increasing ratio) that associated with adverse peritonitis outcomes, history of multiple peritonitis episodes, and early catheter failure, respectively. Intriguingly, we also noted significant alterations of macrophage heterogeneity, indicative of different maturation and activation states that were associated with different peritoneal dialysis outcomes. Thus, our studies delineate peritoneal dendritic cells from macrophages within dialysate, and define cellular characteristics associated with peritoneal dialysis treatment failure. These are the first steps to unravelling the detrimental adaptive immune responses occurring as a consequence of peritonitis. 10.1016/j.kint.2016.10.030
    Compatibility of fosfomycin with different commercial peritoneal dialysis solutions. Kussmann M,Baumann A,Hauer S,Pichler P,Zeitlinger M,Wiesholzer M,Burgmann H,Poeppl W,Reznicek G European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology For treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics remains the preferable route. For home-based therapy, patients are commonly supplied with peritoneal dialysis fluids already containing antimicrobial agents. The present study set out to investigate the compatibility of fosfomycin with different peritoneal dialysis fluids, namely, Extraneal, Nutrineal, Physioneal 1.36% and Physioneal 2.27%, under varying storage conditions. The peritoneal dialysis fluid bags including 4 g fosfomycin were stored over 14 days at refrigeration temperature (6°C) and room temperature (25°C) and over 24 h at body temperature (37°C). Drug concentrations over time were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. In addition, drug activity was assessed by a disk diffusion method, diluent stability by visual inspection and drug adsorption by comparison of the measured and calculated concentrations. Blank peritoneal dialysis fluids and deionized water were used as comparator solutions. Fosfomycin was stable in all peritoneal dialysis fluids and at each storage condition investigated over the whole study period. The remaining drug concentrations ranged between 94% and 104% of the respective initial concentrations. No significant drug adsorption was observed for any peritoneal dialysis fluid at any storage condition. No relevant reduction of antimicrobial activity was observed. Fosfomycin is compatible with Extraneal, Nutrineal and Physioneal for up to two weeks at refrigeration or room temperature and may be used for home-based therapy. No dose adjustment is needed due to adsorption or degradation. 10.1007/s10096-017-3051-3
    Peritoneal dialysis catheter placement as a mode of renal replacement therapy: Long-term results from a tertiary academic institution. Haskins Ivy N,Schreiber Martin,Prabhu Ajita S,Krpata David M,Perez Arielle J,Tastaldi Luciano,Tu Chao,Rosen Michael J,Rosenblatt Steven Surgery BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis as a mode of renal replacement therapy still has not been embraced widely as an alternative to hemodialysis. Furthermore, there is marked variability in peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion techniques and perioperative management within the United States. After the publication of best-demonstrated practices for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, the utilization of peritoneal dialysis has increased significantly at our institution. We detail the long-term success of peritoneal dialysis catheter placement after the adoption of best-demonstrated practices. METHODS:Retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis catheter placement using the best-demonstrated practice technique from January 2005 through December 2015. Preoperative patient demographic information, intraoperative variables, 30-day morbidity and mortality, and long-term catheter durability outcomes were investigated. RESULTS:A total of 457 patients met inclusion criteria. Four (0.9%) patients experienced an immediate postoperative complication requiring return to the operating room. There were no perioperative mortalities. A total of 298 (65.2%) patients were available for long-term follow-up; 221 (74.2%) patients are still alive, 76 (25.6%) patients are still undergoing peritoneal dialysis, 63 (21.1%) patients transitioned from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis, and 88 (29.5%) patients have undergone kidney transplantation. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival plots, 30% of patients will transition from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis after 5.5 years of peritoneal dialysis and the median time from commencing peritoneal dialysis to kidney transplantation is 5.6 years. CONCLUSION:Based on our institutional data, the adoption of best-demonstrated practices should provide long-term and reliable access to the peritoneal cavity. We recommend the adoption of these techniques to facilitate long-term peritoneal dialysis catheter survival. 10.1016/j.surg.2017.07.015
    The peritoneal sieving of sodium: a simple and powerful test to rule out the onset of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. La Milia Vincenzo,Longhi Selena,Sironi Elisabetta,Pontoriero Giuseppe Journal of nephrology BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is an uncommon but severe complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A reliable screening tool to identify patients at risk of developing or not EPS is currently not available. We aimed to evaluate whether the reduction in dialysate sodium concentration (sodium sieving) at 60 min (ΔD), during a peritoneal equilibration test with 3.86% glucose concentration (3.86%-PET) was able to early rule out patients who will not develop EPS. METHODS:Prospective controlled longitudinal (20-year) cohort study. All eligible incident PD patients attending the hospital underwent a 3.86%-PET during the first 3 months following start of PD and then once a year. The dip in ΔD and other factors were correlated with eventual EPS onset. RESULTS:Of 161 incident PD patients, with a median PD duration of 37.8 (24.7-58.3) months and 64.1 (34.5-108.3) months of follow-up, 13 patients (8%) developed EPS at a median PD duration of 72.7 (56.6-109.4) months and 105.0 (76.4-143.2) months of follow-up. ΔD demonstrated the best sensitivity and specificity values, estimated by conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90, 0.83 and 0.85 at 1, 2 and 3 years before the onset of EPS, respectively. Multifactorial analysis showed that the most useful factors for predicting EPS were age at start of PD, duration of PD, small solutes transport (D/P) and ΔD; the AUC at 1, 2 and 3 years before the onset of EPS was, respectively, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.94, the positive predictive value being 0.48, 0.57 and 0.42, and the negative predictive value 1.0, 1.0 and 1.0. CONCLUSIONS:It is possible to predict the occurrence and, better, the non-occurrence of EPS using simple parameters such as age at PD start, duration of PD, and parameters obtained by 3.86%-PET such as D/P and ΔD. 10.1007/s40620-016-0371-9
    Regional variation in the treatment and prevention of peritoneal dialysis-related infections in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Boudville Neil,Johnson David W,Zhao Junhui,Bieber Brian A,Pisoni Ronald L,Piraino Beth,Bernardini Judith,Nessim Sharon J,Ito Yasuhiko,Woodrow Graham,Brown Fiona,Collins John,Kanjanabuch Talerngsak,Szeto Cheuk-Chun,Perl Jeffrey Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections lead to significant morbidity. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) guidelines for the prevention and treatment of PD-related infections are based on variable evidence. We describe practice patterns across facilities participating in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS). METHODS:PDOPPS, a prospective cohort study, enrolled nationally representative samples of PD patients in Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Canada, Thailand, Japan, the UK and the USA. Data on PD-related infection prevention and treatment practices across facilities were obtained from a survey of medical directors'. RESULTS:A total of 170 centers, caring for >11 000 patients, were included. The proportion of facilities reporting antibiotic administration at the time of PD catheter insertion was lowest in the USA (63%) and highest in Canada and the UK (100%). Exit-site antimicrobial prophylaxis was variably used across countries, with Japan (4%) and Thailand (28%) having the lowest proportions. Exit-site mupirocin was the predominant exit-site prophylactic strategy in ANZ (56%), Canada (50%) and the UK (47%), while exit-site aminoglycosides were more common in the USA (72%). Empiric Gram-positive peritonitis treatment with vancomycin was most common in the UK (88%) and USA (83%) compared with 10-45% elsewhere. Empiric Gram-negative peritonitis treatment with aminoglycoside therapy was highest in ANZ (72%) and the UK (77%) compared with 10-45% elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS:Variation in PD-related infection prevention and treatment strategies exist across countries with limited uptake of ISPD guideline recommendations. Further work will aim to understand the impact these differences have on the wide variation in infection risk between facilities and other clinically relevant PD outcomes. 10.1093/ndt/gfy204
    Comparison of Patient Survival Between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Among Patients Eligible for Both Modalities. Wong Ben,Ravani Pietro,Oliver Matthew J,Holroyd-Leduc Jayna,Venturato Lorraine,Garg Amit X,Quinn Robert R American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation BACKGROUND:Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) costs less to the health care system compared to in-center hemodialysis (HD), it is an underused therapy. Neither modality has been consistently shown to confer a clear benefit to patient survival. A key limitation of prior research is that study patients were not restricted to those eligible for both therapies. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:All adult patients developing end-stage renal disease from January 2004 to December 2013 at any of 7 regional dialysis centers in Ontario, Canada, who had received at least 1 outpatient dialysis treatment and had completed a multidisciplinary modality assessment. PREDICTOR:HD or PD. OUTCOMES:Mortality from any cause. RESULTS:Among all incident patients with end-stage renal disease (1,579 HD and 453 PD), PD was associated with lower risk for death among patients younger than 65 years. However, after excluding approximately one-third of all incident patients deemed to be ineligible for PD, the modalities were associated with similar survival regardless of age. This finding was also observed in analyses that were restricted to patients initiating dialysis therapy electively as outpatients. The impact of modality on survival did not vary over time. LIMITATIONS:The determination of PD eligibility was based on the judgment of the multidisciplinary team at each dialysis center. CONCLUSIONS:HD and PD are associated with similar mortality among incident dialysis patients who are eligible for both modalities. The effect of modality on survival does not appear to change over time. Future comparisons of dialysis modality should be restricted to individuals who are deemed eligible for both modalities to reflect the outcomes of patients who have the opportunity to choose between HD and PD in clinical practice. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.08.028
    [Icodextrin: What arguments for and against its use as an osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis]. Savenkoff Benjamin,Flechon-Meibody Fleuria,Goffin Éric Nephrologie & therapeutique Icodextrin is a glucose polymer derived from starch that is used as an osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis. Its high molecular weight limits blood absorption and is useful for long dwell since there is few osmotic gradient dispersal. Its benefits are numerous: ltrafiltration optimization and better salt and water control especially in anuric patients with a high peritoneal permeability and also in case of infectious peritonitis, glucose sparing with less metabolic complications and a better preservation of peritoneal membrane, better biocompatibility. However it should not be forgotten that icodextrin has also side effects that must be known: allergies, cases of aseptic peritonitis, overintense water and salt depletion, lymphatic absorption of icodextrin and its metabolites (including maltose) with a risk of false capillary glucose rate estimation and a moderate increase in plasma osmolality. That is why it is not recommended now to use more than one daily icodextrin dwell. Nevertheless, several dialysis units use icodextrin in more than one daily dwell, especially in patients with an important ultrafiltration loss or in those in whom glucose sparing is essential. It seems to profit them with no more side effects. A large multicenter trial is in progress to test the efficacy and safety of icodextrin dwell twice a day in elder incident patients in peritoneal dialysis (DIDo). Moreover, icodextrin is also used combined with glucose in a long dwell (bimodal ultrafiltration) with encouraging results in terms of ultrafiltration and glucose sparing. 10.1016/j.nephro.2017.09.005
    Peritoneal dialysis reduces amyloid-beta plasma levels in humans and attenuates Alzheimer-associated phenotypes in an APP/PS1 mouse model. Jin Wang-Sheng,Shen Lin-Lin,Bu Xian-Le,Zhang Wei-Wei,Chen Si-Han,Huang Zhi-Lin,Xiong Jia-Xiang,Gao Chang-Yue,Dong Zhifang,He Ya-Ni,Hu Zhi-An,Zhou Hua-Dong,Song Weihong,Zhou Xin-Fu,Wang Yi-Zheng,Wang Yan-Jiang Acta neuropathologica Clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ) from the brain is an important therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current studies mainly focus on the central approach of Aβ clearance by introducing therapeutic agents into the brain. In a previous study, we found that peripheral tissues and organs play important roles in clearing brain-derived Aβ, suggesting that the peripheral approach of removing Aβ from the blood may also be effective for AD therapy. Here, we investigated whether peritoneal dialysis, a clinically available therapeutic method for chronic kidney disease (CKD), reduces brain Aβ burden and attenuates AD-type pathologies and cognitive impairments. Thirty patients with newly diagnosed CKD were enrolled. The plasma Aβ concentrations of the patients were measured before and after peritoneal dialysis. APP/PS1 mice were subjected to peritoneal dialysis once a day for 1 month from 6 months of age (prevention study) or 9 months of age (treatment study). The Aβ in the interstitial fluid (ISF) was collected using microdialysis. Behavioural performance, long-term potentiation (LTP), Aβ burden and other AD-type pathologies were measured after 1 month of peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis significantly reduced plasma Aβ levels in both CKD patients and APP/PS1 mice. Aβ levels in the brain ISF of APP/PS1 mice immediately decreased after reduction of Aβ in the blood during peritoneal dialysis. In both prevention and treatment studies, peritoneal dialysis substantially reduced Aβ deposition, attenuated other AD-type pathologies, including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, and synaptic dysfunction, and rescued the behavioural deficits of APPswe/PS1 mice. Importantly, the Aβ phagocytosis function of microglia was enhanced in APP/PS1 mice after peritoneal dialysis. Our study suggests that peritoneal dialysis is a promising therapeutic method for AD, and Aβ clearance using a peripheral approach could be a desirable therapeutic strategy for AD. 10.1007/s00401-017-1721-y
    Extracellular volume expansion and the preservation of residual renal function in Korean peritoneal dialysis patients: a long-term follow up study. Rhee Harin,Baek Min Ja,Chung Hyun Chul,Park Jong Man,Jung Woo Jin,Park Soo Min,Lee Jang Won,Shin Min Ji,Kim Il Young,Song Sang Heon,Lee Dong Won,Lee Soo Bong,Kwak Ihm Soo,Seong Eun Young Clinical and experimental nephrology INTRODUCTION:In chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, preservation of residual renal function (RRF) is a major determinant of patient survival, and maintaining sufficient intravascular volume has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the preservation of RRF. The present study aimed to test this hypothesis using multifrequency bioimpedence analyzer (MFBIA), in Korean peritoneal dialysis patients. METHODS:A total of 129 patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline MFBIA was checked, and the patients were divided into the following two groups: group 1, extracellular water per total body water (ECW/TBW) < median, group 2, ECW/TBW > median. We followed up the patients, and then we analyzed the changes in the urine output (UO) and the solute clearance (weekly uKt/V) in each group. Data associated with patient and technical survivor were collected by medical chart review. The volume measurement was made using Inbody S20 equipment (Biospace, Seoul, Korea). We excluded the anuric patients at baseline. RESULT:The median value of ECW/TBW was 0.396. The mean patient age was 49.74 ± 10.01 years, and 62.1 % of the patients were male; most of the patients were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (89.1 %). The mean dialysis vintage was 26.20 ± 28.71 months. All of the patients were prescribed hypertensive medication, and 48.5 % of the patients had diabetes. After 25.47 ± 6.86 months of follow up, ΔUO and Δweekly Kt/V were not significantly different in the two groups as follows: ΔUO (-236.07 ± 185.15 in group 1 vs -212.21 ± 381.14 in group 2, p = 0.756); Δ weekly Kt/v (-0.23 ± 0.43 in group 1 vs -0.29 ± 0.49 in group 2, p = 0.461). The patient and technical survivor rate was inferior in the group 2, and in the multivariable analysis, initial hypervolemia was an independent factor that predicts both of the patient mortality [HR 1.001 (1.001-1.086), p = 0.047] and the technical failure [HR 1.024 (1.001-1.048), p = 0.042]. CONCLUSIONS:Extracellular volume expansion, measured by MFBIA, does not help preserve residual renal function, and is harmful for the technical and patient survival in Korean peritoneal dialysis patients. 10.1007/s10157-015-1203-2
    Changes in the worldwide epidemiology of peritoneal dialysis. Li Philip Kam-Tao,Chow Kai Ming,Van de Luijtgaarden Moniek W M,Johnson David W,Jager Kitty J,Mehrotra Rajnish,Naicker Sarala,Pecoits-Filho Roberto,Yu Xue Qing,Lameire Norbert Nature reviews. Nephrology As the global burden of chronic kidney disease continues to increase, so does the need for a cost-effective renal replacement therapy. In many countries, patient outcomes with peritoneal dialysis are comparable to or better than those with haemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis is also more cost-effective. These benefits have not, however, always led to increased utilization of peritoneal dialysis. Use of this therapy is increasing in some countries, including China, the USA and Thailand, but has proportionally decreased in parts of Europe and in Japan. The variable trends in peritoneal dialysis use reflect the multiple challenges in prescribing this therapy to patients. Key strategies for facilitating peritoneal dialysis utilization include implementation of policies and incentives that favour this modality, enabling the appropriate production and supply of peritoneal dialysis fluid at a low cost, and appropriate training for nephrologists to enable increased utilization of the therapy and to ensure that rates of technique failure continue to decline. Further growth in peritoneal dialysis use is required to enable this modality to become an integral part of renal replacement therapy programmes worldwide. 10.1038/nrneph.2016.181
    Utility of Scintigraphy in Assessment of Noninfectious Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis. Choudhary Gagandeep,Manapragada Padma P,Wallace Eric,Bhambhvani Pradeep Journal of nuclear medicine technology Dialysis is an artificial process to remove waste products and excess water from the body in patients with kidney failure. Two main types of dialysis are available. Hemodialysis, which uses an artificial filtration apparatus, is usually done at specialized centers but can be done in a patient's home. Peritoneal dialysis functions by placing dialysis fluid, also called dialysate, into the peritoneal cavity, allowing for solute to be removed from the peritoneal capillaries through diffusion across a chemical gradient into the dialysate and removal of water through an osmotic gradient created by hypertonic dextrose. Peritoneal dialysis can be either automated, which is done with the help of a machine called a cycler, or continuous ambulatory, which is a process involving multiple exchanges a day and is performed using only gravity to infuse and drain the solution from the peritoneal cavity. For many reasons, the number of people using home dialysis has recently started to rise, with the largest increase in the United States occurring after the implementation of the prospective bundled payment system for end-stage renal disease. With the increased use of home dialysis, potential complications will increase as well. It is imperative that our health-care system be poised not only to increase the number of home dialysis patients but also to diagnose and manage any complications. Nuclear imaging is a commonly available modality to detect various complications related to peritoneal dialysis. In this review article, we discuss the role of peritoneal scintigraphy in detecting some noninfectious peritoneal dialysis complications, with emphasis on scintigraphy technique; imaging time points; the role of planar, SPECT, and SPECT/CT imaging; and the clinical indications, with illustrative case examples. 10.2967/jnmt.118.223156
    Peritoneal dialysis is associated with better cognitive function than hemodialysis over a one-year course. Neumann Denise,Mau Wilfried,Wienke Andreas,Girndt Matthias Kidney international Impaired cognitive functioning in patients with end-stage renal disease may reduce their capabilities to adhere to complex medical or dietary regimens and to fully participate in medical decisions. With decreasing renal function, cognitive abilities are likely to decline, with cognitive dysfunction improving after initiation of dialysis and even being generally reversible after successful renal transplantation. However, little is known about cognitive changes particularly regarding different treatment modalities. To gain further insight into this, we focused on a one-year course of cognitive functions, comparing peritoneal to hemodialysis patients. Within the CORETH-project, two validated neurocognitive tests, assessing executive functioning (Trail Making Test-B) and attention (d2-Revision-Test) and the self-reported Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form Cognitive Function-subscale, were administered to 271 patients at baseline and after one year. Subsamples were matched by propensity score, adjusting for age, comorbidity, education, and employment status for 96 hemodialysis and 101 peritoneal dialysis patients. The effects of time and treatment modality were investigated, controlling for well-known confounders. Both tests revealed improvement over one year. Peritoneal dialysis was associated with better outcomes than hemodialysis at baseline and follow-up, but comparability between groups may be limited. The opposite pattern applied to self-reporting. Hemodialysis patients had to be excluded from cognitive testing more often than peritoneal dialysis patients. As such, the number of exclusions may have biased the findings, limiting generalizability. Thus, our findings suggest an improvement of cognitive functioning and support previous indications for peritoneal dialysis being associated with better cognitive functions during a one-year course than hemodialysis. 10.1016/j.kint.2017.07.022
    Clinical risk factors and outcomes of massive ascites accumulation after discontinuation of peritoneal dialysis. Chang Ming-Shan,Chen Nai-Ching,Hsu Chih-Yang,Huang Chien-Wei,Lee Po-Tsang,Chou Kang-Ju,Fang Hua-Chang,Chen Chien-Liang Renal failure Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), with high morbidity and mortality that requires an early diagnosis for effective treatment. PD withdrawal and bacterial peritonitis are important triggers for the onset of EPS. However, few studies have focused on cases of PD withdrawal without a clinical diagnosis of peritonitis, cirrhosis, or carcinomatosis. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and computed tomography (CT) images of patients with or without ascites in such situations and assess clinical outcomes in terms of mortality. Our retrospective review included 78 patients who withdraw PD between January 2000 and December 2017. Ten patients had ascites, and 68 did not have a significant intra-abdominal collection. The ascites group had a significantly longer PD duration (months; 134.41 [range, 35.43-181.80] vs. 32.42 [733-183.47],  < 0.001) and higher peritoneal membrane transport status based on the dialysate-to-plasma ratios of creatinine (0.78 ± 0.08 vs. 0.68 ± 0.11,  = 0.009) and glucose (0.27 ± 0.07 vs. 0.636 ± 0.08,  = 0.001) than the control group. CT parameters, including peritoneal calcification, thickness, bowel tethering, or bowel dilatation, were not all present in each patient with ascites and EPS. During the 12-month study period, the ascites group had a higher risk for developing EPS (70% vs. 0%,  < 0.001) and a higher 12-month all-cause mortality (30% vs. 0%,  = 0.002). Ascites accumulation was not rare after PD discontinuation. A longer PD duration and high peritoneal membrane transport status could predict subsequent ascites accumulation. Furthermore, patients with ascites were at a higher risk of EPS. 10.1080/0886022X.2019.1700804
    Emergent Start Peritoneal Dialysis for End-Stage Renal Disease: Outcomes and Advantages. Nayak K Shivanand,Subhramanyam Sreepada V,Pavankumar Navva,Antony Sinoj,Sarfaraz Khan M A Blood purification BACKGROUND/AIMS:Initiating renal replacement therapy in late referred patients with central venous catheter (CVC) hemodialysis (HD) causes serious complications. In urgent start peritoneal dialysis, initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD) within 14 days of catheter insertion still needs HD with CVC. We initiated Emergent start PD (ESPD) with Automated PD (APD) at our center within 48 h from the time of presentation. METHODS:A prospective, case-controlled, intention-to-treat study with 56 patients was conducted between March 2016 and August 2017. Group A (24 patients) underwent conventional PD 14 days after catheter insertion. Group B (32 patients), underwent ESPD with APD. Exit site leak (ESL), catheter blockage, and peritonitis at 90 days were primary outcomes. Technique survival was secondary outcome. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were similar with 3 episodes of ESLs (9.4%) in the study group and none in the control group (p = 0.123). Catheter blockage (16.7%-Group A, 25%-Group B) and peritonitis (none vs. 9.4% in study group) were similar in terms of statistical details just as technique survival (95%-Group A, 88.2%-Group B at 90 days). CONCLUSION:ESPD with APD in the unplanned patient is an appropriate approach. 10.1159/000486543
    Knowledge, understanding and experiences of peritonitis amongst patients, and their families, undertaking peritoneal dialysis: A mixed methods study protocol. Baillie Jessica,Gill Paul,Courtenay Molly Journal of advanced nursing AIM:This article is a report of a study protocol designed to examine patients' and families' knowledge and experiences of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. BACKGROUND:Peritonitis is a considerable problem for people using peritoneal dialysis, leading to antibiotics, hospitalization and decreased quality of life. For some patients, peritonitis requires changing renal replacement therapy and can be fatal. Peritonitis is distressing and some patients are unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms. Patients with better knowledge of peritonitis and adherence to peritoneal dialysis procedures have lower rates of peritonitis. Little is known about patients' and families' knowledge and experience of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis in the United Kingdom. DESIGN:Ethical approval was gained in March 2017. To meet the study aim, a two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study is proposed. METHODS:Phase One: An author-developed questionnaire will be sent to patients using peritoneal dialysis at five sites in England and Wales. Patients will be asked to consider inviting a relative to participate. The questionnaire will assess peritonitis knowledge and experience. Data will be analysed statistically. Phase Two: Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with a purposive sample of Phase One participants (n = 30) to explore their experiences of peritonitis in further depth. The data will be analysed thematically using Wolcott's (1994) approach. DISCUSSION:Data from the two phases will be synthesized to identify patients' and families' peritonitis information needs, to ensure they are appropriately supported to prevent, monitor, identify and report peritonitis. 10.1111/jan.13400
    Membrane transport status does not predict peritonitis risk in patients on peritoneal dialysis. So Sarah,Aw Laraine,Sud Kamal,Lee Vincent W Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) AIM:The aim of this study is to determine whether peritoneal membrane transport status (MTS) is associated with peritonitis or poor peritoneal dialysis-related outcomes. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study analysed data of incident adult patients on peritoneal dialysis in Western Sydney between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2012. Only patients who underwent peritoneal equilibration and adequacy tests within 6 months of commencement were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for time until first peritonitis and time until composite endpoint of peritonitis, death or technique failure, censored for transplant, were constructed. RESULTS:About 397 patients, mean age 58.8(+/-2SD29) years, body mass index (BMI) 26.6(+/-5) kg/m and serum albumin 35.4(+/-5) g/L were included. About 59.2% had high/high-average peritoneal MTS; 45.8% were past and current smokers; 51.9% developed at least one episode of peritonitis; 7.6% changed to haemodialysis; 6.3% underwent transplantation; 8.8% died; and 25.4% remained free of the aforementioned events over a mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range 0-115 months). Peritoneal MTS was not associated with time to first peritonitis (p = 0.67) or composite endpoint of peritonitis, death or technique failure (p = 0.12). Smoking and hypoalbuminaemia independently predicted time to first peritonitis. Past and current smokers had a hazard ratio of 1.38 (95% CI 1.03-1.86) for shorter time to first peritonitis, significant after adjustment for serum albumin (p = 0.033). Serum albumin <32 g/L had a hazard ratio of 1.74 (95% CI 1.13-2.67) for shorter time to first peritonitis, significant after adjusting for smoking (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION:Smoking and hypoalbuminaemia, but not MTS, were associated with shorter time to first peritonitis and composite endpoint of peritonitis, death and technique failure. 10.1111/nep.13063
    Proteomic profiling of peritoneal dialysis effluent-derived extracellular vesicles: a longitudinal study. Carreras-Planella Laura,Soler-Majoral Jordi,Rubio-Esteve Cristina,Morón-Font Miriam,Franquesa Marcella,Bonal Jordi,Troya-Saborido Maria Isabel,Borràs Francesc E Journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an optimal renal replacement therapy for patients while waiting for kidney transplantation, but functional failure of the peritoneal membrane (PM), mainly induced by exposure to PD solutions, force many patients to early abandon PD therapy. PM function is evaluated by the peritoneal equilibration test (PET), a tedious technique only detecting alterations in extensively damaged PM. In a previous study, we showed that peritoneal dialysis effluent contained extracellular vesicles (PDE-EV), and that their proteome was significantly different between newly enrolled and long-term PD patients. Here, we report the results of a longitudinal study and compare PDE-EV proteome changes with PET results. METHODS:PDE was collected from 11 patients every 6 months (coincident with PET controls) from 0 months up to 24 months on PD. PDE-EV were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography and the proteome was analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Bioinformatic analyses were conducted to evaluate differences between groups. RESULTS:At follow-up endpoint, patients were classified as Stable (n = 7) or Unstable (n = 4) according to PET evolution. Strikingly, PDE-EV from the Stable group showed a significantly higher protein expression compared to Unstable patients already at 6 months on PD, when PET alterations had not been detected yet. CONCLUSIONS:PDE-EV proteome show alterations much earlier than PET monitoring, thus unveiling the potential of PDE-EV proteins as feasible biomarkers of PM alteration in PD patients. 10.1007/s40620-019-00658-3
    Establishing a Core Outcome Set for Peritoneal Dialysis: Report of the SONG-PD (Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Peritoneal Dialysis) Consensus Workshop. Manera Karine E,Johnson David W,Craig Jonathan C,Shen Jenny I,Gutman Talia,Cho Yeoungjee,Wang Angela Yee-Moon,Brown Edwina A,Brunier Gillian,Dong Jie,Dunning Tony,Mehrotra Rajnish,Naicker Saraladevi,Pecoits-Filho Roberto,Perl Jeffrey,Wilkie Martin,Tong Allison, American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation Outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials in peritoneal dialysis (PD) are diverse, are measured inconsistently, and may not be important to patients, families, and clinicians. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Peritoneal Dialysis (SONG-PD) initiative aims to establish a core outcome set for trials in PD based on the shared priorities of all stakeholders. We convened an international SONG-PD stakeholder consensus workshop in May 2018 in Vancouver, Canada. Nineteen patients/caregivers and 51 health professionals attended. Participants discussed core outcome domains and implementation in trials in PD. Four themes relating to the formation of core outcome domains were identified: life participation as a main goal of PD, impact of fatigue, empowerment for preparation and planning, and separation of contributing factors from core factors. Considerations for implementation were identified: standardizing patient-reported outcomes, requiring a validated and feasible measure, simplicity of binary outcomes, responsiveness to interventions, and using positive terminology. All stakeholders supported inclusion of PD-related infection, cardiovascular disease, mortality, technique survival, and life participation as the core outcome domains for PD. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.09.017
    A surgical girdle postoperatively may prevent pain and tunnel infections of peritoneal dialysis patients. Nilsson Christina,Sperker Wolfgang,Schien Claudia,Isaksson Malin,Stegmayr Bernd G The International journal of artificial organs AIM:When performing acute onset dialysis after insertion of catheters for peritoneal dialysis, pain exists and tunnel infections may develop. This study investigated whether patients benefit from the use of a surgical girdle and specific dressing postoperatively to prevent pain and tunnel infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In 85 consecutive patients, the development of tunnel infections was followed. The patients used a surgical girdle when they were in supine position from day 1 to day 3. The peritoneal dialysis catheter was fixed in a curvature avoiding stretch in the exit. A total of 53 patients participated in a retrospective questionnaire to evaluate abdominal pain within the first 3 days after surgery either with or without girdle. A visual analogue scale from 0 to 10 was used. RESULTS:In 23 patients, data on pain both with and without the girdle could be recorded. Pain was relieved more when using the girdle versus no girdle (median day 1 3.0 vs 4.0, p < 0.001, n = 30, Wilcoxon paired). The development of tunnel infections during the latest 7-year period (exposure period 1487 months) showed a total of three episodes (one every 495 months) of which one caused a subsequent peritonitis, while the other two resolved after antibiotic therapy. Peritonitis episodes appeared at a mean of 37-month interval. CONCLUSION:The use a surgical girdle for 3 days postoperatively and a fixation of the peritoneal dialysis catheter in a curved loop relieves the pain and results in few tunnel infections and subsequent episodes of peritonitis. 10.1177/0391398819882439
    Role of Small Interfering RNA Silencing Protein Kinase C-α Gene on the Occurrence of Ultrafiltration Failure in Peritoneal Dialysis Rats. Sun Zhi-Wei,Wang Jian,Weng Min,Tang Jian-Zhong,Wang Jun-Feng,Xu Jian,Lin Ling,Yuan Hong-Ling Journal of cellular biochemistry This study aims to explore the effect of PKC-α gene silencing on the occurrence of ultrafiltration failure (UFF) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) rats. Forty-eight male SD rats were collected to establish 5/6 renal resection uremic and uremic PD rats models. Rats were assigned into control, sham operation, uremia, PD-2 W (peritoneal dialysis for 2 weeks), PD-4 W (peritoneal dialysis for 4 weeks), negative control (NC) (peritoneal dialysis for 4 weeks, and injected 0.1 mg/kg blank plasmid into abdominal cavity) and PKC-α siRNA (peritoneal dialysis for 4 weeks, and injected 0.1 mg/kg PKC-α siRNA into abdominal cavity) groups. CD34 staining was performed to determine microvessel density (MVD) for peritoneal tissues. The mRNA and protein expression of PKC-α in peritoneal tissue were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Compared with the control group, MVD, the mRNA and protein expression of PKC-α were significantly increased in rats of the uremia, PD-2 W, PD-4 W, NC, and PKC-α siRNA groups. Compared with the uremia group, MVD, the mRNA and protein expression of PKC-α were increased, the changes observed in the PD-4 W and NC groups were better obvious than in the PD-2 W group. In comparison with the PD-4 W and NC groups, MVD, the mRNA and protein expression of PKC-α in rats were decreased in the PKC-α siRNA group. PKC-α gene has a high expression in uremic PD rats, and PKC-α gene silencing is able to increase UF while decrease MVD and glucose transport in peritoneal tissues thus reversing UFF in PD rats. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4607-4616, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/jcb.26125
    A pathogenetic role for M1 macrophages in peritoneal dialysis-associated fibrosis. Li Qing,Zheng Min,Liu Yueheng,Sun Wei,Shi Jun,Ni Jie,Wang Qiong Molecular immunology Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) accompanied by the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Recently, the function of macrophages in an inflammatory microenvironment during PD remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the role of distinct macrophage phenotypes in the progression of PF through macrophage depletion in a peritoneal dialysis-induced mouse model. After injection of 200 μl liposomal clodronate (LC) at the start of instillation PD fluids (PDFs), mice were injected with 100 μL LC every 4 days after the first time injection for longer macrophage depletion, while control mice were co-treated with PBS liposomes. For macrophages transfusion,primary macrophages (M0) were stimulated into M1 and M2 macrophages and transfuritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) accompanied by the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Recently, the function of macrophages in an inflammatory microenvironment during PD remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the role of distinct macrophage phenotypes in the progression of PF through macrophage depletion in a peritoneal dialysis-induced mouse model. After injection of 200 μl liposomal clodronate (LC) at the start of instillation PD fluids (PDFs), mice were injected with 100 μL LC every 4 days after the first time injection for longer macrophage depletion, while control mice were co-treated with PBS liposomes. For macrophages transfusion,primary macrophages (M0) were stimulated into M1 and M2 macrophages and transfused into the mice the next day after each LC injection. Mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks of PDFs treatment for the assessment of histological changes, ECM deposition and peritoneal ultrafiltration function. Systemic monocyte/macrophage depletion resulted in less severe structural alterations, including thickening and cubic transformation of mesothelial cells, fibrin deposition, fibrous capsule formation, and interstitial fibrosis. A strong reduction of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin expression, as well as an increased E-cadherin expression was also observed, indicating an overall inhibition of peritoneal fibrosis in macrophages depletion mice.M1 macrophage reperfusion showed a significant increase in histological damages, ECM deposition and peritoneal ultrafiltration functional decline compared with those of the M2 and control groups. TLR4 expression was enhanced in M1 macrophage-treated group. These results suggest that M1 macrophages are an important mediator of peritoneal fibrosis. 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.12.023
    Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis in resource-limited settings. Niang Abdou,Iyengar Arpana,Luyckx Valerie A Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To assess the use, access to and outcomes of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in low-resource settings. RECENT FINDINGS:Hemodialysis tends to predominate because of costs and logistics, however services tend to be located in larger cities, often paid for out of pocket. Outcomes of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease may be similar with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and therefore choice of therapy is dominated by availability, accessibility and patient or physician choice. Some countries have implemented peritoneal dialysis-first policies to reduce costs and improve access, because peritoneal dialysis requires less infrastructure, can be scaled up more easily and can be cheaper when fluids are manufactured locally. SUMMARY:Access to both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis remains highly inequitable in lower-resource settings. Although challenges associated with dialysis in low-resource settings are similar, and there are more adults who require dialysis in low-resource settings, addressing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis needs of children in low-resource settings requires attention as the global inequities are greatest in this area. Lower-income countries are increasingly seeking to improve access to dialysis through various strategies, but meeting the costs of the entire dialysis population continues to be a major challenge. 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000455
    Radiological Tenckhoff catheter insertion for peritoneal dialysis: A cost-effective approach. Lee James,Mott Nigel,Mahmood Usman,Clouston John,Summers Kara,Nicholas Pauline,Gois Pedro Henrique França,Ranganathan Dwarakanathan Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology INTRODUCTION:Radiological insertion of Tenckhoff catheters can be an alternative option for peritoneal dialysis access creation, as compared to surgical catheter insertion. This study will review the outcomes and complications of radiological Tenckhoff catheter insertion in a metropolitan renal service and compare costs between surgical and radiological insertion. METHODS:Data were collected prospectively for all patients who had a Tenckhoff catheter insertion for peritoneal dialysis (PD) under radiological guidance at our hospital from May 2014 to November 2016. The type of catheter used and complications, including peri-catheter leak, exit site infection and peritonitis were reviewed. Follow-up data were also collected at points 3, 6 and 12 months from catheter insertion. Costing data were obtained from Queensland Health Electronic Reporting System (QHERS) data, average staff salaries and consumable contract price lists. RESULTS:In the 30-month evaluation period, 70 catheters were inserted. Two patients had an unsuccessful procedure due to the presence of abdominal adhesions. Seven patients had an episode of peri-catheter leak, and four patients had an exit site infection following catheter insertion. Peritonitis was observed in nine patients during the study period. The majority of patients (90%) remained on peritoneal dialysis at 3-month follow-up. The average costs of surgical and radiological insertion were noted to be AUD$7788.34 and AUD$1597.35, respectively. CONCLUSION:Radiological Tenckhoff catheter insertion for peritoneal dialysis appears to be an attractive and cost-effective option given less waiting periods for the procedure, the relatively low cost of insertion and comparable rates of complications. 10.1111/1754-9485.12643
    Visions in a Crystal Ball: The Future of Peritoneal Dialysis. Bargman Joanne M,Girsberger Michael Blood purification BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one of the corner stones of renal replacement therapy and should be strongly considered if preemptive kidney transplantation is not available. SUMMARY:There are several initiatives that may help the growth in the use of PD around the world. First, PD is an underused and valuable option in patients with heart failure and the chronic cardiorenal syndrome, especially in those with frequent hospitalizations despite optimal medical therapy. To identify these patients, an interdisciplinary approach of nephrologists and cardiologists is needed. These patients and other CKD patients with significant residual kidney function may do well with a regimen employing fewer than the usual number of bag exchanges, referred to as "incremental" dialysis. Second, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a worldwide burden with high morbidity and mortality, especially in low income countries. To reach the goal of zero preventable deaths caused by AKI by 2025 endorsed by the International Society of Nephrology, PD is the therapy of choice for treatment in this setting. Third, although dextrose has served well as the osmotic agent in PD solutions, there has been a continuous search for alternative agents. Hyperbranched polyglycerol might be such an osmole. Finally, to obviate the need for production and delivery of bags of PD solution, the development of home-generated dialysate is of interest. Key Message: The future of PD lies not only in accruing experience from the past decades, but also in staying open to other uses. 10.1159/000485158
    Longer-Period Effects of Bicarbonate/Lactate-Buffered Neutral Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis. Hoshino Taro,Kaneko Shohei,Minato Saori,Yanai Katsunori,Mutsuyoshi Yuko,Ishii Hiroki,Kitano Taisuke,Shindo Mitsutoshi,Miyazawa Haruhisa,Aomatsu Akinori,Ito Kiyonori,Ueda Yuichiro,Hirai Keiji,Ookawara Susumu,Morishita Yoshiyuki Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy High concentrations of lactate are considered to contribute to impairment of the peritoneal membrane. We investigated the longer-period effects of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered neutral peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) in patients undergoing PD for about 2 years. Patients undergoing PD were changed from a lactate-buffered neutral PDF to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered neutral PDF. We then investigated the patients' clinical outcomes and peritoneal membrane functions as well as the surrogate markers in the drained dialysate. Fourteen patients undergoing PD were enrolled. Peritonitis was observed in one patient. No other adverse events were observed. Peritoneal function did not change as the ultrafiltration volume decreased. Fibrin degradation products and vascular endothelial growth factor in the drained dialysate decreased while the interleukin level increased. These results suggest that bicarbonate/lactate-buffered neutral PDF may have beneficial effects in terms of peritoneal preservation and can be safely used in patients undergoing PD. 10.1111/1744-9987.12709
    Peritoneal dialysis effectively removes toxic substances and improves liver functions of liver failure patients. Zhao W-X,Liu X-M,Yu C-M,Xu H,Dai J-R,Chen H-Y,Li L,Chen F,Ou Y-L,Zhao Z-K European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:Liver failure (LF) is a clinically complex disorder that characterizes with hepatic dysfunction. This study aimed at observing the therapeutic effects of peritoneal dialysis on liver function in LF patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study involves 62 patients diagnosed as LF hospitalized from February 2005 to December 2016. The 62 LF patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, including artificial liver applying plasma exchange group (PE, n = 28), peritoneal dialysis group (PD, n = 22), and conservative treatment group (CT, n=12). Laboratory indexes, including serum total bilirubin (TBiL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin (ALB), blood ammonia (AMMO), international normalized ratio (INR), and creatinine (Cr) were evaluated. Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT) were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. RESULTS:Peritoneal dialysis significantly improves clinical outcomes, including decreased mortality, increased survival rate and total effective rate, compared to conservative treatment (p < 0.05). Peritoneal dialysis reduced hospitalization expenses compared to PE method and conservative treatment (p < 0.05). Peritoneal dialysis significantly removed toxic substances (including TBiL, AMMO, Cr) compared to conservative treatment (p < 0.05). The post-treatment level of Cr in peritoneal dialysis group was significantly lower compared to post-treatment level of Cr in PE group (p < 0.05). Peritoneal dialysis significantly improved liver function compared to conservative treatment (p < 0.05). Peritoneal dialysis prevented bleeding tendency compared to conservative treatment (p < 0.05). Peritoneal dialysis alleviated inflammatory response compared to conservative treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Peritoneal dialysis effectively removed toxic substances and improved liver functions of liver failure patients and with a lower therapeutic cost. 10.26355/eurrev_201804_14836
    The impact of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis on mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. Ye Hongjian,Zhou Qian,Fan Li,Guo Qunying,Mao Haiping,Huang Fengxian,Yu Xueqing,Yang Xiao BMC nephrology BACKGROUND:Results concerning the association between peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients are inconclusive, with one potential reason being that the time-dependent effect of peritonitis has rarely been considered in previous studies. This study aimed to evaluate whether peritonitis has a negative impact on mortality in a large cohort of peritoneal dialysis patients. We also assessed the changing impact of peritonitis on patient mortality with respect to duration of follow-up. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included incident patients who started peritoneal dialysis from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011. Episodes of peritonitis were recorded at the time of onset, and peritonitis was parameterized as a time-dependent variable for analysis. We used the Cox regression model to assess whether peritonitis has a negative impact on mortality. RESULTS:A total of 1321 patients were included. The mean age was 48.1 ± 15.3 years, 41.3% were female, and 23.5% with diabetes mellitus. The median (interquartile) follow-up time was 34 (21-48) months. After adjusting for confounders, peritonitis was independently associated with 95% increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.60), 90% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.81) and near 4-fold increased risk of infection-related mortality (hazard ratio, 4.94; 95% confidence interval: 2.47-9.86). Further analyses showed that peritonitis was not significantly associated with mortality within 2 years of peritoneal dialysis initiation, but strongly influenced mortality in patients dialysed longer than 2 years. CONCLUSIONS:Peritonitis was independently associated with higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and infection-related mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients, and its impact on mortality was more significant in patients with longer peritoneal dialysis duration. 10.1186/s12882-017-0588-4
    Development of a risk prediction model for infection-related mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Tsujikawa Hiroaki,Tanaka Shigeru,Matsukuma Yuta,Kanai Hidetoshi,Torisu Kumiko,Nakano Toshiaki,Tsuruya Kazuhiko,Kitazono Takanari PloS one BACKGROUND:Assessment of infection-related mortality remains inadequate in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. This study was performed to develop a risk model for predicting the 2-year infection-related mortality risk in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. METHODS:The study cohort comprised 606 patients who started and continued peritoneal dialysis for 90 at least days and was drawn from the Fukuoka Peritoneal Dialysis Database Registry Study in Japan. The patients were registered from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2016 and followed up until 31 December 2017. To generate a prediction rule, the score for each variable was weighted by the regression coefficients calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted by risk factors for infection-related mortality, including patient characteristics, comorbidities, and laboratory data. RESULTS:During the follow-up period (median, 2.2 years), 138 patients died; 58 of them of infectious disease. The final model for infection-related mortality comprises six factors: age, sex, serum albumin, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, and weekly renal Kt/V. The incidence of infection-related mortality increased linearly with increasing total risk score (P for trend <0.001). Furthermore, the prediction model showed adequate discrimination (c-statistic = 0.79 [0.72-0.86]) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.47). CONCLUSION:In this study, we developed a new model using clinical measures for predicting infection-related mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. 10.1371/journal.pone.0213922
    Solute Clearance and Fluid Removal: Large-Dose Cyclic Tidal Peritoneal Dialysis. Hibino Satoshi,Uemura Osamu,Uchida Hiroshi,Majima Hisakazu,Yamaguchi Reiko,Tanaka Kazuki,Kawaguchi Azusa,Yamakawa Satoshi,Fujita Naoya Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy Large-dose cyclic tidal peritoneal dialysis (TPD) is an original prescription of TPD involving frequent infusion and drainage of the dialysate to increase weekly urea clearance normalized to total body water (Kt/V ) and fluid removal. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of solute clearance and fluid removal achieved with large-dose cyclic TPD compared to that achieved with nightly peritoneal dialysis (NPD). Seventeen patients with end-stage renal disease, for whom maintenance PD was changed from NPD to large-dose cyclic TPD, were enrolled. Their median age at administration of PD was 4.9 years. Kt/V and fluid removal were compared between large-dose cyclic TPD and NPD. The median peritoneal Kt/V achieved with NPD and large-dose cyclic TPD was 1.5 and 2.7, respectively. The median peritoneal Kt/V per hour with large-dose cyclic TPD was significantly higher than that with NPD (P = 0.0003). Among nine patients who used dialysates with the same glucose concentration for both NPD and large-dose cyclic TPD, nightly fluid removal amount per hour with large-dose cyclic TPD was significantly higher than that with NPD (P = 0.0039). Large-dose cyclic TPD is a useful prescription of PD for increasing Kt/V and fluid removal. 10.1111/1744-9987.12765
    Multicenter Registry Analysis of Center Characteristics Associated with Technique Failure in Patients on Incident Peritoneal Dialysis. Htay Htay,Cho Yeoungjee,Pascoe Elaine M,Darssan Darsy,Nadeau-Fredette Annie-Claire,Hawley Carmel,Clayton Philip A,Borlace Monique,Badve Sunil V,Sud Kamal,Boudville Neil,McDonald Stephen P,Johnson David W Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Technique failure is a major limitation of peritoneal dialysis. Our study aimed to identify center- and patient-level predictors of peritoneal dialysis technique failure. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:All patients on incident peritoneal dialysis in Australia from 2004 to 2014 were included in the study using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. Center- and patient-level characteristics associated with technique failure were evaluated using Cox shared frailty models. Death-censored technique failure and cause-specific technique failure were analyzed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS:The study included 9362 patients from 51 centers in Australia. The technique failure rate was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.36) episodes per patient-year, with a sevenfold variation across centers that was mainly associated with center-level characteristics. Technique failure was significantly less likely in centers with larger proportions of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (>29%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.94) and more likely in smaller centers (<16 new patients per year; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.21) and centers with lower proportions of patients achieving target baseline serum phosphate levels (<40%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.29). Similar results were observed for death-censored technique failure, except that center target phosphate achievement was not significantly associated. Technique failure due to infection, social reasons, mechanical causes, or death was variably associated with center size, proportion of patients on peritoneal dialysis, and/or target phosphate achievement, automated peritoneal dialysis exposure, icodextrin use, and antifungal use. The variation of hazards of technique failure across centers was reduced by 28% after adjusting for patient-specific factors and an additional 53% after adding center-specific factors. CONCLUSIONS:Technique failure varies widely across centers in Australia. A significant proportion of this variation is related to potentially modifiable center characteristics, including peritoneal dialysis center size, proportion of patients on peritoneal dialysis, and proportion of patients on peritoneal dialysis achieving target phosphate level. 10.2215/CJN.12321216
    Sodium removal by peritoneal dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Borrelli Silvio,La Milia Vincenzo,De Nicola Luca,Cabiddu Gianfranca,Russo Roberto,Provenzano Michele,Minutolo Roberto,Conte Giuseppe,Garofalo Carlo, Journal of nephrology Achievement of sodium and fluid balance is considered a major determinant of dialysis adequacy in peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the contribution of different PD modalities to dialytic sodium removal (DSR) remains ill-defined. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare DSR by manual (continuous ambulatory PD, CAPD) versus automated PD (APD). Alternative PD strategies to remove sodium were also analyzed. Seven cohort studies, including 683 patients, 406 in CAPD and 277 in APD, were meta-analyzed out of the 30 studies selected based on DSR data availability. Overall, the unstandardized mean difference between CAPD and APD was significant [- 56 mmol/day (95% CI - 106, - 6), p = 0.027]. Heterogeneity was high (I 87.2%; p < 0.001). Meta-regression showed a strict correlation of DSR difference with creatinine dialysate/plasma ratio (D/P) (p = 0.04). DSR was significantly lower in APD than CAPD [86.2 (57.3-115.1) vs. 141.3 (107.6-174.9) mmol/day, p = 0.015]. Conversely, ultrafiltration (UF) did not differ [1122.6 (891.2-1354.0) in CAPD and 893.6 (823.0-964.2) ml/day in APD, p = 0.064]. A very strong correlation between DSR and achieved UF was found in CAPD (R = 0.94; p < 0001) while no relationship was detected in APD (R = - 0.07; p = 0.85). CAPD allows a higher DSR than APD, even though UF is not different. APD removes more water than sodium; therefore, DSR should be measured rather than estimated from the achieved UF. The difference in DSR between the two modalities decreases in high transporters. Novel strategies proposed to increase DSR, e.g. lower sodium dialysate or adapted-APD, are promising, but ad hoc studies are necessary. 10.1007/s40620-018-0507-1
    A simple modified open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion procedure reduces the need for secondary surgery. Li Yingqin,Zhu Ye,Liang Zibin,Zheng Xiaobin,Zhang Huitao,Zhu Weiping International urology and nephrology BACKGROUND:The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy of a modified peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion technique for reducing the incidence of mechanical complications. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data of 346 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion at our peritoneal dialysis center. The traditional procedure was performed in 157 patients (group A) and the modified procedure in 189 patients (group B). The double-polyester-cuff straight Tenckhoff catheter was used in all patients. RESULTS:At the end of 1 year, tunnel inflammation was more common in group A (21 patients after 0.011 patient-months follow-up versus 10 patients in group B after 0.007 patient-months of follow-up; p = 0.009). Technical survival rate of the catheter was significantly higher in group B (97.35% in group B vs. 89.81% in group A; p = 0.005). All-cause mortality was not significantly different between the two groups (4.5% in group A vs. 3.2% in group B; p = 0.532). Postoperative mechanical complications were also higher in group A (32 patients [20.4%] in group A vs. 3 patients [1.6%] in group B; p < 0.001). The incidences of complications such as hernia, dialysis fluid leakage, hemorrhage, incision infection, and prolapse of the polyester cuff were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION:The simple modified peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion procedure decreases the occurrence of catheter migration andomental encapsulation and improves the technical survival rate of the catheter. 10.1007/s11255-019-02101-9
    Early Start Peritoneal Dialysis: Technique Survival in Long-Term Follow-Up. Silva Bruno C,Adelina Erica,Pereira Benedito J,Cordeiro Lilian,Rodrigues Camila E,Duarte Ricardo J,Abensur Hugo,Elias Rosilene M Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND/AIMS:Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has gained interest over the last decade as a viable option for early start dialysis. It is still unknown if shorter break-in periods and less time for proper patient evaluation and training could influence technique survival in comparison to planned-start PD. METHODS:A prospective and observational study that compared technique survival in a cohort of patients who started either early or planned PD. Early start PD was defined as break-in period from 3 to 14 days with no previous nephrologist follow-up or patient training. RESULTS:A total of 154 patients were included (40 as early start PD), followed by a median time of 381 days. Comparing early vs. planned-start PD, groups were similar concerning age 56 (40; 70) vs. 48 (32; 63) years, p=0.071, body mass index (BMI) 23.3 ± 4.2 vs. 23.8 ± 4.0 kg/m2, p=0.567 and male gender (60 vs. 48%, p=0.201), respectively. Comparing early vs. planned-start groups, there were no differences regarding PD dropout for peritonitis (7.5 vs. 11.4%, p=0.764), catheter dysfunction (12.5 vs. 17.5%, p=0.619) and patient burnout (0 vs. 4.4%, p=0.328), respectively. Less patients in early start group quit PD for peritoneal membrane failure in comparison to planned-start group (2.5 vs. 16.7%, p=0.026). In multivariate cox-regression analysis, the only factors independently associated with technique failure were BMI> 25 kg/m² (p=0.033) and Diabetes Mellitus (p=0.013), whereas no differences regarding early vs. planned-PD start were observed (p=0.184). CONCLUSION:Despite the adverse scenario for initiating dialysis, early start PD had similar outcomes in comparison to planned-start PD in long-term follow-up. 10.1159/000495386
    Peritoneal Equilibration Test Reference Values Using a 3.86% Glucose Solution During the First Year of Peritoneal Dialysis: Results of a Multicenter Study of a Large Patient Population. La Milia Vincenzo,Cabiddu Gianfranca,Virga Giovambattista,Vizzardi Valerio,Giuliani Anna,Finato Viviana,Feriani Mariano,Filippini Armando,Neri Loris,Lisi Lucia, Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis BACKGROUND:The original peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was used to classify peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using a 2.27% glucose solution. It has since been suggested that a 3.86% glucose solution be used because this provides better information about ultrafiltration (UF) capacity and the sodium (Na) sieving of the peritoneal membrane. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine reference values for a PET using a 3.86% glucose solution (PET-3.86%). METHODS:We evaluated the PET-3.86% in a large population of incident PD patients attending 27 Italian dialysis centers. RESULTS:We evaluated the results of 758 PET-3.86% in 758 incident PD patients (1 test per patient). The mean duration of PD was 5 ± 3 months. The ratio of the concentrations of creatinine in dialysate/plasma (D/P) was 0.73 ± 0.1 (median 0.74). The ratio between the concentrations of glucose at the end/beginning of the test (D/D) was 0.25 ± 0.08 (median 0.24). Ultrafiltration uncorrected and corrected for bag overfill was respectively 776 ± 295 mL (median 781 mL) and 675 ± 308 mL (median 689 mL). Sodium sieving was 8.4 ± 3.8 mmol/L (median 8.0 mmol/L). CONCLUSION:The results of the study provide PET-3.86% reference values for the beginning of PD that can be used to classify PD patients into transport classes and monitor them over time. 10.3747/pdi.2017.00004
    Autophagy promotes fibrosis and apoptosis in the peritoneum during long-term peritoneal dialysis. Wu Jingjing,Xing Changying,Zhang Li,Mao Huijuan,Chen Xuguan,Liang Mingxing,Wang Fang,Ren Haibin,Cui Hongqing,Jiang Aiqin,Wang Zibin,Zou Meijuan,Ji Yong Journal of cellular and molecular medicine Long-term peritoneal dialysis is accompanied by functional and histopathological alterations in the peritoneal membrane. In the long process of peritoneal dialysis, high-glucose peritoneal dialysis solution (HGPDS) will aggravate the peritoneal fibrosis, leading to decreased effectiveness of peritoneal dialysis and ultrafiltration failure. In this study, we found that the coincidence of elevated TGF-β1 expression, autophagy, apoptosis and fibrosis in peritoneal membrane from patients with peritoneal dialysis. The peritoneal membranes from patients were performed with immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells were treated with 1.5%, 2.5% and 4.25% HGPDS for 24 hrs; Human peritoneal mesothelial cells pre-treated with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) or transfected with siRNA Beclin1 were treated with 4.25% HGPDS or vehicle for 24 hrs. We further detected the production of TGF-β1, activation of TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signalling, induction of autophagy, EMT, fibrosis and apoptosis. We also explored whether autophagy inhibition by siRNA targeting Beclin 1 reduces EMT, fibrosis and apoptosis in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. HGPDS increased TGF-β1 production, activated TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signalling and induced autophagy, fibrosis and apoptosis hallmarks in human peritoneal mesothelial cells; HGPDS-induced Beclin 1-dependent autophagy in human peritoneal mesothelial cells; Autophagy inhibition by siRNA Beclin 1 reduced EMT, fibrosis and apoptosis in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Taken all together, these studies are expected to open a new avenue in the understanding of peritoneal fibrosis, which may guide us to explore the compounds targeting autophagy and achieve the therapeutic improvement of PD. 10.1111/jcmm.13393
    Peritoneal Dialysis Access Revision in Children: Causes, Interventions, and Outcomes. Borzych-Duzalka Dagmara,Aki T Fazil,Azocar Marta,White Colin,Harvey Elizabeth,Mir Sevgi,Adragna Marta,Serdaroglu Erkin,Sinha Rajiv,Samaille Charlotte,Vanegas Juan Jose,Kari Jameela,Barbosa Lorena,Bagga Arvind,Galanti Monica,Yavascan Onder,Leozappa Giovanna,Szczepanska Maria,Vondrak Karel,Tse Kei-Chiu,Schaefer Franz,Warady Bradley A, Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Little published information is available about access failure in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Our objectives were to evaluate frequency, risk factors, interventions, and outcome of peritoneal dialysis access revision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Data were derived from 824 incident and 1629 prevalent patients from 105 pediatric nephrology centers enrolled in the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry between 2007 and 2015. RESULTS:In total, 452 access revisions were recorded in 321 (13%) of 2453 patients over 3134 patient-years of follow-up, resulting in an overall access revision rate of 0.14 per treatment year. Among 824 incident patients, 186 (22.6%) underwent 188 access revisions over 1066 patient-years, yielding an access revision rate of 0.17 per treatment year; 83% of access revisions in incident patients were reported within the first year of peritoneal dialysis treatment. Catheter survival rates in incident patients were 84%, 80%, 77%, and 73% at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk of access revision was associated with younger age (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 0.95; P<0.001), diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.59; P=0.02), coexisting ostomies (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.87; P=0.01), presence of swan neck tunnel with curled intraperitoneal portion (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.63; P=0.02), and high gross national income (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.19; P=0.01). Main reasons for access revisions included mechanical malfunction (60%), peritonitis (16%), exit site infection (12%), and leakage (6%). Need for access revision increased the risk of peritoneal dialysis technique failure or death (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.65; P=0.003). Access dysfunction due to mechanical causes doubled the risk of technique failure compared with infectious causes (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 2.30; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Peritoneal dialysis catheter revisions are common in pediatric patients on peritoneal dialysis and complicate provision of chronic peritoneal dialysis. Attention to potentially modifiable risk factors by pediatric nephrologists and pediatric surgeons should be encouraged. 10.2215/CJN.05270516
    Residual Renal Function and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Peritoneal Dialysis: A Pilot Study. Lanis Aviya,Kerns Eric,Hu Susie L,Bublitz Margaret H,Risica Patricia,Martin Susan,Parker Jeffrey,Millman Richard,Dworkin Lance D,Bourjeily Ghada Lung PURPOSE:Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with end-stage renal disease, and there is increasing evidence that clinical factors specific to end-stage renal disease contribute pathophysiologically to obstructive sleep apnea. It is not known whether circumstances specific to dialysis modality, in this case peritoneal dialysis, affect obstructive sleep apnea. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in the peritoneal dialysis population and the relevance of dialysis-specific measures and kidney function in assessing this bidirectional relationship. METHODS:Participants with end-stage renal disease who were treated with nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis for at least 3 months were recruited from a hospital-based dialysis center. Laboratory measures of dialysis adequacy, peritoneal membrane transporter status, and residual renal function were gathered by chart review. Patients participated in a home sleep apnea test using a level III sleep apnea monitor. RESULTS:Of fifteen participants recruited, 33% had obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed by apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events per hour of sleep. Renal creatinine clearance based upon 24-h urine collection was negatively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (ρ = - 0.63, p = 0.012). There were no significant associations between anthropometric measures, intra-abdominal dwell volume, or peritoneal membrane transporter status and obstructive sleep apnea measures. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleep disturbances is high in participants receiving peritoneal dialysis. Elevated apnea-hypopnea index is associated with lower residual renal function, whereas dialysis-specific measures such as intra-abdominal dwell volume and peritoneal membrane transporter status do not correlate with severity of obstructive sleep apnea. 10.1007/s00408-018-0127-5
    Effects of prophylactic antibiotics before peritoneal dialysis catheter implantation on the clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis patients. Liu Xihui,Zuo Xiaoyan,Sun Xia,Hu Zhao Renal failure BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis (PD) related infections, such as peritonitis, are still the main obstacle for the development of PD. Prophylactic antibiotic as one of the interventions to prevent early peritonitis was recommended to use before PD catheter insertion by International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) guidelines, In our hospital, however, since 2012, the prophylactic antibiotics for insertion of PD catheters were not allowed to use because of our hospital's regulation. In order to analyze the outcomes of PD patients without using prophylactic antibiotics before the PD catheter insertion, we compared the PD patients with or without prophylactic antibiotics before PD catheter insertion. METHODS:This retrospective study included 247 patients undergoing permanent PD catheter placement with conventional open surgical method consecutively between February 2008 and June 2013. Of these, 154 patients were given intravenous cefazolin, 1.0 g, 0.5-2 h before the procedure (antibiotic group) and 93 patients were not given prophylactic antibiotics (nonantibiotic group). All the patients were administered intermittent PD within 24 h after PD catheter insertion. The early complications and long-term outcomes were recorded respectively. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in the incidence of peritonitis and exit-site/tunnel infection and mechanical complications between the two groups in the first 30 days after the PD catheter implantation. In addition, after 6 years of follow-up, no difference was seen between the two groups in patient survival, technique survival, and peritonitis-free survival. CONCLUSIONS:Our study does not show any beneficial effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the postoperative peritonitis. 10.1080/0886022X.2019.1568259
    Urgent start peritoneal dialysis. Ponce Daniela,Brabo Alexandre Minetto,Balbi André Luís Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Although historically peritoneal dialysis was widely used in nephrology, it has been underutilized in recent years. In this review, we present several key opportunities and strategies for revitalization of urgent start peritoneal dialysis use, and discuss the recent literature on clinical experience with peritoneal dialysis use in the acute and unplanned setting. RECENT FINDINGS:Interest in using urgent start peritoneal dialysis to manage acute kidney injury (AKI) and unplanned chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 patients has been increasing. To overcome some of the classic limitations of peritoneal dialysis use in AKI, such as a high chance of infectious and mechanical complications, and no control of urea, the use of cycles, flexible catheters, and a high volume of dialysis fluid has been proposed. This knowledge can be used in the case of an unplanned start on chronic peritoneal dialysis, and may be a tool to increase the peritoneal dialysis penetration rate among incident patients starting chronic dialysis therapy. SUMMARY:Peritoneal dialysis should be offered in an unbiased way to all patients starting unplanned dialysis, and without contraindications to peritoneal dialysis. It may be a feasible, well tolerated, and complementary alternative to hemodialysis, not only in the chronic setting, but also in the acute. 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000451
    Impact of Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis Modality on Outcomes: A Cohort Study of the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. Guilloteau Solène,Lobbedez Thierry,Guillouët Sonia,Verger Christian,Ficheux Maxence,Lanot Antoine,Béchade Clémence American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be assisted by a nurse or a family member and treated either by automated PD (APD) or continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PD modality and type of assistance on the risk of transfer to haemodialysis (HD) and on the peritonitis risk in assisted PD patients. METHOD:This was a retrospective study based on data from the French Language PD Registry. All adults starting assisted PD in France between 2006 and 2015 were included. Events of interest were transfer to HD, peritonitis and death. Cox regression models were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Among the 12,144 incident patients who started PD in France during the study period, 6,167 were assisted. There were 5,060 nurse-assisted and 1,095 family-assisted PD patients. Overall, 5,171 were treated by CAPD and 996 by APD. In multivariate analysis, CAPD, compared to APD, was not associated with the risk of transfer to HD (cause specific hazard ratios [cs-HR] 0.96 [95% CI 0.84-1.09]). Patients on nurse-assisted PD had a lower risk of transfer to HD than family assisted PD patients (cs-HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.97]). Neither PD modality nor type of assistance were associated with peritonitis risk. CONCLUSIONS:In assisted PD, technique survival was not associated with PD modality. Nurse-assisted patients had a lower risk of transfer to HD than family assisted patients. Peritonitis risk was not influenced either by PD modality, or by type of assistance. Both APD and CAPD should be offered to assisted-PD patients. 10.1159/000494664
    Differences in peritoneal dialysis technique survival between patients treated with peritoneal dialysis systems from different companies. Boudville Neil,Ullah Shahid,Clayton Phil,Sud Kamal,Borlace Monique,Badve Sunil V,Chakera Aron,Johnson David W Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association BACKGROUND:A number of peritoneal dialysis (PD) systems are available but there have been few studies comparing them. The aim of this study was to examine technique failure and patient survival between different PD company systems. METHODS:The study included all patients who commenced PD between 1995 and 2014 in Australia and New Zealand. Groups were compared according to the initial PD company system that they received. The primary outcome was a composite of PD technique failure and death. RESULTS:A total of 16 575 patients commenced PD using systems manufactured by Baxter [n = 13 438 (81%)], Fresenius Medical Care [n = 2848 (17%)] or Gambro [n = 289 (2%)]. Of these, 11 870 (72%) developed technique failure, including 5421 (33%) who died. The median time to technique failure or death for all patients was 625 [interquartile range (IQR) 318-1114] days: 629.5 (IQR 321-1121) days with Baxter, 620.5 (IQR 311-1069) days with Fresenius Medical Care and 538 (IQR 272-1001) days with Gambro systems (P = 0.023). There was a statistically significant increase in technique failure or mortality rates in patients on Gambro {adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.62]} and Fresenius [adjusted IRR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.19)] systems compared with Baxter systems. No difference in patient survival was observed between the three PD systems. CONCLUSIONS:PD systems manufactured by different companies may be associated with important differences in PD technique survival. This needs to be confirmed with adequately powered, prospective randomized controlled clinical trials. 10.1093/ndt/gfy340
    Neutral pH and low-glucose degradation product dialysis fluids induce major early alterations of the peritoneal membrane in children on peritoneal dialysis. Schaefer Betti,Bartosova Maria,Macher-Goeppinger Stephan,Sallay Peter,Vörös Peter,Ranchin Bruno,Vondrak Karel,Ariceta Gema,Zaloszyc Ariane,Bayazit Aysun K,Querfeld Uwe,Cerkauskiene Rimante,Testa Sara,Taylan Christina,VandeWalle Johan,Yap YokChin,Krmar Rafael T,Büscher Rainer,Mühlig Anne K,Drozdz Dorota,Caliskan Salim,Lasitschka Felix,Fathallah-Shaykh Sahar,Verrina Enrico,Klaus Günter,Arbeiter Klaus,Bhayadia Raj,Melk Anette,Romero Philipp,Warady Bradley A,Schaefer Franz,Ujszaszi Akos,Schmitt Claus Peter Kidney international The effect of peritoneal dialysates with low-glucose degradation products on peritoneal membrane morphology is largely unknown, with functional relevancy predominantly derived from experimental studies. To investigate this, we performed automated quantitative histomorphometry and molecular analyses on 256 standardized peritoneal and 172 omental specimens from 56 children with normal renal function, 90 children with end-stage kidney disease at time of catheter insertion, and 82 children undergoing peritoneal dialysis using dialysates with low-glucose degradation products. Follow-up biopsies were obtained from 24 children after a median peritoneal dialysis of 13 months. Prior to dialysis, mild parietal peritoneal inflammation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and vasculopathy were present. After up to six and 12 months of peritoneal dialysis, blood microvessel density was 110 and 93% higher, endothelial surface area per peritoneal volume 137 and 95% greater, and submesothelial thickness 23 and 58% greater, respectively. Subsequent peritoneal changes were less pronounced. Mesothelial cell coverage was lower and vasculopathy advanced, whereas lymphatic vessel density was unchanged. Morphological changes were accompanied by early fibroblast activation, leukocyte and macrophage infiltration, diffuse podoplanin presence, epithelial mesenchymal transdifferentiation, and by increased proangiogenic and profibrotic cytokine abundance. These transformative changes were confirmed by intraindividual comparisons. Peritoneal microvascular density correlated with peritoneal small-molecular transport function by uni- and multivariate analysis. Thus, in children on peritoneal dialysis neutral pH dialysates containing low-glucose degradation products induce early peritoneal inflammation, fibroblast activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and marked angiogenesis, which determines the PD membrane transport function. 10.1016/j.kint.2018.02.022
    International Variations in Peritoneal Dialysis Utilization and Implications for Practice. Briggs Victoria,Davies Simon,Wilkie Martin American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation In many countries, the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains low despite arguments that support its greater use, including dialysis treatment away from hospital settings, avoidance of central venous catheters, and potential health economic advantages. Training patients to manage aspects of their own care has the potential to enhance health literacy and increase patient involvement, independence, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of care. Complex reasons underlie the variable use of PD across the world, acting at the level of the patient, the health care team that is responsible for them, and the health care system that they find themselves in. Important among these is the availability of competitively priced dialysis fluid. A number of key interventions can affect the uptake of PD. These include high-quality patient education around dialysis modality choice, timely and successful catheter placement, satisfactory patient training, and continued support that is tailored for specific needs, for example, when people present late requiring dialysis. Several health system changes have been shown to increase PD use, such as targeted funding, PD First initiatives, or physician-inserted PD catheters. This review explores the factors that explain the considerable international variation in the use of PD and presents interventions that can potentially affect them. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.12.033
    Early Peritoneal Dialysis and Major Adverse Events After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Propensity Score Analysis. Namachivayam Siva P,Butt Warwick,Millar Johnny,Konstantinov Igor E,Nguyen Cattram,d'Udekem Yves Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies OBJECTIVES:Early peritoneal dialysis may have a role in modulating the inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass. This study sought to test the effect of early peritoneal dialysis on major adverse events after pediatric cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN:In this observational study, the outcomes in infants post cardiac surgery who received early peritoneal dialysis (within 6 hr of completing cardiopulmonary bypass) were compared with those who received late peritoneal dialysis. The primary outcome was a composite of one or more of cardiac arrest, emergency chest reopening, requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or death. Secondary outcomes included duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care, and hospital stay. A propensity score methodology utilizing inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to minimize selection bias due to timing of peritoneal dialysis. SETTING:Cardiac ICU, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. PATIENTS:From 2012 to 2015, infants who were commenced on peritoneal dialysis after cardiac surgery were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Among 239 eligible infants, 56 (23%) were commenced on early peritoneal dialysis and 183 (77%) on late peritoneal dialysis. At 90 days, early peritoneal dialysis as compared with late peritoneal dialysis was associated with a decreased risk of primary outcome (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05-0.47; p < 0.001 and absolute risk difference, -18.1%; 95% CI, -25.1 to -11.1; p < 0.001). Early peritoneal dialysis was also associated with a decrease in duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care stay. Among infants with a cardiopulmonary bypass greater than 150 minutes, early peritoneal dialysis was also associated with a survival advantage (relative risk, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.84; p = 0.03 and absolute risk difference, -7.8; 95% CI, -13.6 to -2; p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS:Early peritoneal dialysis in infants post cardiac surgery is associated with a decrease in the rate of major adverse events. The role of early peritoneal dialysis warrants the conduct of randomized trials both in high and low-to-middle income countries; any beneficial effects if confirmed have the potential to strongly influence outcomes for children born with congenital heart disease. 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001793
    Coronary Artery Calcification in Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis. Jansz Thijs T,van Reekum Franka E,Özyilmaz Akin,de Jong Pim A,Boereboom Franciscus T J,Hoekstra Tiny,Verhaar Marianne C,van Jaarsveld Brigit C American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Vascular calcification is seen in most patients on dialysis and is strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Vascular calcification is promoted by phosphate, which generally reaches higher levels in hemodialysis than in peritoneal dialysis. However, whether vascular calcification develops less in peritoneal dialysis than in hemodialysis is currently unknown. Therefore, we compared coronary artery calcification (CAC), its progression, and calcification biomarkers between patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. METHODS:We measured CAC in 134 patients who had been treated exclusively with hemodialysis (n = 94) or peritoneal dialysis (n = 40) and were transplantation candidates. In 57 of them (34 on hemodialysis and 23 on peritoneal dialysis), we also measured CAC progression annually up to 3 years and the inactive species of desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), fetuin-A, osteoprotegerin. We compared CAC cross-sectionally with Tobit regression. CAC progression was compared in 2 ways: with linear mixed models as the difference in square root transformed volume score per year (ΔCAC SQRV) and with Tobit mixed models. We adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS:In the cross-sectional cohort, CAC volume scores were 92 mm3 in hemodialysis and 492 mm3 in peritoneal dialysis (adjusted difference 436 mm3; 95% CI -47 to 919; p = 0.08). In the longitudinal cohort, peritoneal dialysis was associated with significantly more CAC progression defined as ΔCAC SQRV (adjusted difference 1.20; 95% CI 0.09 to 2.31; p = 0.03), but not with Tobit mixed models (adjusted difference in CAC score increase per year 106 mm3; 95% CI -140 to 352; p = 0.40). Peritoneal dialysis was associated with higher osteoprotegerin (adjusted p = 0.02) but not with dp-ucMGP or fetuin-A. CONCLUSIONS:Peritoneal dialysis is not associated with less CAC or CAC progression than hemodialysis, and perhaps with even more progression. This indicates that vascular calcification does not develop less in peritoneal dialysis than in hemodialysis. 10.1159/000494665
    Protective effects and mechanisms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on intestinal injury and macrophage polarization in peritoneal dialysis rats. Tang Hanfen,Zhu Xuping,Gong Cai,Liu Haiyang,Liu Fuyou Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) AIM:This study was conducted to investigate the chronic injury of peritoneal glucose injection on the peritoneum and intestine and the protective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3PUFA) during peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS:Peritoneal dialysis animal models were established by intraperitoneal injection of 4.25% glucose for 28 days. Protein expression in ileum and peritoneum was measured by immunofloresence and immunohistochemistry. Protein expression in macrophages was measured by Western blot. Fibrosis was analyzed by Masson staining. RESULTS:Peritoneal dialysis significantly increased the structural injury and decreased junction-related protein ZO-1 and occludin expression in ileum, the expression of proteins relating to the activation of M2 (Erg2, IRF4), but not M1 (CD38, IRF5) macrophages. PD significantly increased the expression of TGF-β1, VEGF and ALK5 protein in peritoneal tissues. PD significantly increased fibrosis (Masson staining) and the expression of fibroblast marker α-SMA in peritoneal tissues. Injection of macrophage clean reagent and ω-3PUFA significantly inhibited M2 activation, and decreased Masson staining, α-SMA, TGF-β1, VEGF and ALK5 protein expression in peritoneal tissues in PD treated rats. ω-3PUFA injection significantly decreased PD-induced injury in ileum and normalized the expression of ZO-1 and occludin in the ileum of PD rats. CONCLUSION:Omega-3 fatty acids can provide a protective role on PD-induced peritoneal fibrosis and injury of the intestine. 10.1111/nep.13587
    A study on the information-motivation-behavioural skills model among Chinese adults with peritoneal dialysis. Chang Tian-Ying,Zhang Yi-Lin,Shan Yan,Liu Sai-Sai,Song Xiao-Yue,Li Zheng-Yan,Du Li-Ping,Li Yan-Yan,Gao Douqing Journal of clinical nursing AIM AND OBJECTIVE:To examine whether the information-motivation-behavioural skills model could predict self-care behaviour among Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients. BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis is a treatment performed by patients or their caregivers in their own home. It is important to implement theory-based projects to increase the self-care of patients with peritoneal dialysis. The information-motivation-behavioural model has been verified in diverse populations as a comprehensive, effective model to guide the design, implementation and evaluation of self-care programmes. DESIGN:A cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS:A total of 201 adults with peritoneal dialysis were recruited at a 3A grade hospital in China. Participant data were collected on demographics, self-care information (knowledge), social support (social motivation), self-care attitude (personal motivation), self-efficacy (behaviour skills) and self-care behaviour. We also collected data on whether the recruited patients had peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis from electronic medical records. Measured variable path analysis was performed using mplus 7.4 to identify the information-motivation-behavioural model. RESULTS:Self-efficacy, information and social motivation predict peritoneal dialysis self-care behaviour directly. Information and personal support affect self-care behaviour through self-efficacy, whereas peritoneal dialysis self-care behaviour has a direct effect on the prevention of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. CONCLUSIONS:The information-motivation-behavioural model is an appropriate and applicable model to explain and predict the self-care behaviour of Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients. Poor self-care behaviour among peritoneal dialysis patients results in peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The findings suggest that self-care education programmes for peritoneal dialysis patients should include strategies based on the information-motivation-behavioural model to enhance knowledge, motivation and behaviour skills to change or maintain self-care behaviour. 10.1111/jocn.14304
    Straight Versus Coiled Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Chow Kai Ming,Wong Steve Siu Man,Ng Jack Kit Chung,Cheng Yuk Lun,Leung Chi Bon,Pang Wing Fai,Fung Winston Wing Shing,Szeto Cheuk Chun,Li Philip Kam Tao American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE:Despite a recent meta-analysis favoring straight catheters, the clinical benefits of straight versus coiled peritoneal dialysis catheters remain uncertain. We conducted a randomized controlled study to compare the complication rates associated with these 2 types of double-cuffed peritoneal dialysis catheters. STUDY DESIGN:Multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:308 adult continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. INTERVENTION:Participants were randomly assigned to receive either straight or coiled catheters. OUTCOMES:The primary outcome was the incidence of catheter dysfunction requiring surgical intervention. Secondary outcomes included time to catheter dysfunction requiring intervention, catheter migration with dysfunction, infusion pain measured using a visual analogue scale, peritonitis, technique failure, and peritoneal catheter survival. RESULTS:153 patients were randomly assigned to straight catheters; and 155, to coiled catheters. Among randomly assigned patients who underwent peritoneal dialysis, during a mean follow-up of 21 months, the primary outcome of catheter dysfunction or drainage failure occurred in 9 (5.8%) patients who received a coiled catheter and 1 (0.7%) patient who received a straight catheter. Straight catheters had 5.1% lower risk for catheter dysfunction (95% CI, 1.2%-9.1%; P=0.02). The HR of the primary outcome for coiled versus straight catheters was 8.69 (95% CI, 1.10-68.6; P=0.04). Patients who received a coiled catheter had similar risk for peritonitis but reported higher infusion pain scores than those who received straight catheters. LIMITATIONS:Generalizability to other peritoneal dialysis centers with lower volumes and other races and nationalities. CONCLUSIONS:Use of straight Tenckhoff catheters compared with coiled catheters reduced the rate of catheter dysfunction requiring surgical intervention. FUNDING:Funded by the Chinese University of Hong Kong. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with study number NCT02479295. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.05.024
    Application of instant messaging software in the follow-up of patients using peritoneal dialysis, a randomised controlled trial. Cao Fang,Li Lanfei,Lin Miao,Lin Qinyu,Ruan Yiping,Hong Fuyuan Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:This study aims to investigate the application value of Internet-based instant messaging software in the follow-up of patients using peritoneal dialysis. BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis is an effective renal replacement treatment for end-stage renal disease. The clinical usefulness of Internet-based instant messaging software in the follow-up of peritoneal dialysis patients, including the incidence of peritonitis and exit-site infection, the levels of albumin and electrolytes and the degree of patients' satisfaction, remains unknown. DESIGN:Between January 2009-April 2016, a total of 160 patients underwent continuous peritoneal dialysis in the Department of Nephrology, Fujian Provincial Hospital were invited to participate voluntarily in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to the instant messenger (QQ) follow-up group (n = 80) and the traditional follow-up group (n = 80). The differences in death, hospitalisation, peritonitis, exit-site infection, and patients' satisfaction were investigated during 1 year of follow-up. The mean follow-up duration is 11.4 ± 1.5 months. RESULTS:Compared with the patients in the traditional follow-up group, patients in the QQ follow-up group showed higher levels of serum albumin (p = .009) and haemoglobin (p = .009), lower levels of phosphorus (p < .001) and calcium-phosphorus product (p = .001), and better degree of satisfaction (p < .001). RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Internet-based follow-up by instant messaging software appears to be a feasible and acceptable method of delivering peritoneal dialysis treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. 10.1111/jocn.14487
    Peritoneal Dialysis Does Not Carry the Same Risk as Hemodialysis in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty. Browne James A,Casp Aaron J,Cancienne Jourdan M,Werner Brian C The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume BACKGROUND:Dialysis has been associated with increased complication rates following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The current literature on this issue is limited and does not distinguish between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the differences in the infection and other complication rates after THA or TKA between patients on peritoneal dialysis and those on hemodialysis and (2) the differences in complication rates after THA or TKA between patients on peritoneal dialysis and matched controls without dialysis dependence. METHODS:Patients who had undergone primary THA or TKA from 2005 to 2014 were identified in the 100% Medicare files; 531 patients who underwent TKA and 572 patients who underwent THA were on peritoneal dialysis. These patients were matched 1:1 to patients on hemodialysis and 1:3 with patients who were not receiving either form of dialysis. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine several adverse events, including the prevalence of infection at 1 year and hospital readmission at 30 days. RESULTS:The infection rates at 1 year after THA were significantly lower in the peritoneal dialysis group than in the hemodialysis group: 1.57% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 3.0%) and 4.20% (95% CI = 2.7% to 6.2%), respectively, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.30 (95% CI = 0.12 to 0.71). This was also the case for the infection rates 1 year after TKA (3.39% [95% CI = 2.0% to 5.3%] and 6.03% [95% CI = 4.2% to 8.4%], respectively; OR = 0.67 [95% CI = 0.49 to 0.93]). Peritoneal dialysis appears to result in a similar infection rate when compared with matched controls. The rates of other assessed complications, such as hospital readmission, emergency room visits, and mortality, were very similar between the peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis groups but were often significantly higher than the rates in non-dialysis-dependent controls. CONCLUSIONS:The increased risk of complications in dialysis-dependent patients following THA or TKA depends on the mode of the dialysis. Whereas patients on hemodialysis have a significantly higher risk of infection, patients on peritoneal dialysis do not appear to have this same risk when compared with non-dialysis-dependent patients. These results suggest that the mode of dialysis should be considered when assessing the risk associated with THA or TKA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.2106/JBJS.18.00936
    Clinic and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring for the Detection of Ambulatory Hypertension Among Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis. Vaios Vasilios,Georgianos Panagiotis I,Vareta Georgia,Dounousi Evangelia,Dimitriadis Chrysostomos,Eleftheriadis Theodoros,Papagianni Aikaterini,Zebekakis Pantelis E,Liakopoulos Vassilios Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) The International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis recommends that adequate blood pressure (BP) assessment among patients on peritoneal dialysis should at least include measurements performed once-weekly at home and at each visit at clinic. However, the quality of evidence to support this guidance is suboptimal. Using ambulatory daytime BP as reference standard, we explored the diagnostic performance of clinic and home BP recordings in a cohort of 81 stable patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. BP was recorded using 3 different methodologies: (1) triplicate automated clinic BP recordings after a 5-minute seated rest with the validated monitor HEM 705 CP (Omron Healthcare); (2) 1-week averaged home BP recorded with a validated automated monitor on awaking and at bedtime; and (3) ambulatory BP monitoring with the Mobil-O-Graph device (IEM, Germany). The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves in detection of ambulatory daytime systolic BP (SBP) ≥135 mm Hg was similar for clinic [area under the curve, 0.859; 95% CI, 0.776-0.941] and home SBP (area under the curve, 0.895; 95% CI, 0.815-0.976). In Bland-Altman analysis, clinic SBP overestimated daytime ambulatory SBP by 5.02 mm Hg with 95% limits of agreement ranging from -17.92 to 27.96 mm Hg. Similarly, home SBP overestimated daytime ambulatory SBP by 4.23 mm Hg, again with wide 95% limits of agreement (-16.05 to 24.51 mm Hg). These results show that 1-week averaged home SBP is of at least similar accuracy with standardized clinic SBP in diagnosing hypertension confirmed by ambulatory BP monitoring among patients on peritoneal dialysis. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.13443
    Impact of remote biometric monitoring on cost and hospitalization outcomes in peritoneal dialysis. Lew Susie Q,Sikka Neal,Thompson Clinton,Magnus Manya Journal of telemedicine and telecare INTRODUCTION:Peritoneal dialysis is a home-based therapy for individuals with end-stage renal disease. Telehealth, and in particular - remote monitoring, is making inroads in managing this cohort. METHODS:We examined whether daily remote biometric monitoring (RBM) of blood pressure and weight among peritoneal dialysis patients was associated with changes in hospitalization rate and hospital length of stay, as well as outpatient, inpatient and overall cost of care. RESULTS:Outpatient visit claim payment amounts (in US dollars derived from CMS data) decreased post-intervention relative to pre-intervention for those at age 18-54 years. For certain subgroups, non- or nearly-significant changes were found among female and Black participants. There was no change in inpatient costs post-intervention relative to pre-intervention for females and while the overall visit claim payment amounts increased in the outpatient setting slightly (US$511.41 (1990.30) . US$652.61 (2319.02),  = 0.0783) and decreased in the inpatient setting (US$10,835.30 (6488.66) . US$10,678.88 (15,308.17),  = 0.4588), these differences were not statistically significant. Overall cost was lower if RBM was used for assessment of blood pressure and/or weight (US$-734.51,  < 0.05). Use of RBM collected weight was associated with fewer hospitalizations (adjusted odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.89) and fewer days hospitalized (adjusted odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.81). Use of RBM collected blood pressure was associated with increased days of hospitalization and increased odds of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS:RBM offers a powerful opportunity to provide care to those receiving home therapies such as peritoneal dialysis. RBM may be associated with reduction in both inpatient and outpatient costs for specific sub-groups receiving peritoneal dialysis. 10.1177/1357633X18784417
    Peritoneal dialysis as initial dialysis modality: a viable option for late-presenting end-stage renal disease. Javaid Muhammad Masoom,Khan Behram Ali,Subramanian Srinivas Journal of nephrology Late-presenting end-stage renal disease is a significant problem worldwide. Up to 70% of patients start dialysis in an unplanned manner without a definitive dialysis access in place. Haemodialysis via a central venous catheter is the default modality for the majority of such patients, and peritoneal dialysis is usually not considered as a feasible option. However, in the recent years, some reports on urgent-start peritoneal dialysis in the late-presenting end-stage renal disease have been published. The collective experience shows that PD can be a safe, efficient and cost-effective alternative to haemodialysis in late-presenting end-stage renal disease with comparable outcomes to the conventional peritoneal dialysis and urgent-start haemodialysis. More importantly, as compared to urgent-start haemodialysis via a central venous catheter, urgent-start peritoneal dialysis has significantly fewer incidences of catheter-related bloodstream infections, dialysis-related complications and need for dialysis catheter re-insertions during the initial phase of the therapy. This article examines the rationale and feasibility for starting peritoneal dialysis urgently in late-presenting end-stage renal disease patients and reviews the literature to compare the urgent-start peritoneal dialysis with conventional peritoneal dialysis and urgent-start haemodialysis. 10.1007/s40620-018-0485-3
    Comparison of sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis patients treated by continuous ambulatory and automated peritoneal dialysis. Maharjan Sarju Raj Singh,Davenport Andrew Journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Optimal fluid balance for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients requires both water and sodium removal. Previous studies have variously reported that continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) removes more or equivalent amounts of sodium than automated PD (APD) cyclers. We therefore wished to determine peritoneal dialysate losses with different PD treatments. METHODS:Peritoneal and urinary sodium losses were measured in 24-h collections of urine and PD effluent in patients attending for their first assessment of peritoneal membrane function. We adjusted fluid and sodium losses for CAPD patients for the flush before fill technique. RESULTS:We reviewed the results from 659 patients, mean age 57 ± 16 years, 56.3% male, 38.9% diabetic, 24.0% treated by CAPD, 22.5% by APD and 53.5% APD with a day-time exchange, with icodextrin prescribed to 72.8% and 22.7 g/L glucose to 31.7%. Ultrafiltration was greatest for CAPD 650 (300-1100) vs 337 (103-598) APD p < 0.001, vs 474 (171-830) mL/day for APD with a day exchange. CAPD removed most sodium 79 (33-132) vs 23 (- 2 to 51) APD p < 0.001, and 51 (9-91) for APD with a day exchange, and after adjustment for the CAPD flush before fill 57 (20-113), p < 0.001 vs APD. APD patients with a day exchanged used more hypertonic glucose dialysates [0 (0-5) vs CAPD 0 (0-1) L], p < 0.001. CONCLUSION:CAPD provides greater ultrafiltration and sodium removal than APD cyclers, even after adjusting for the flush-before fill, despite greater hypertonic usage by APD cyclers. Ultrafiltration volume and sodium removal were similar between CAPD and APD with a day fill. 10.1007/s40620-019-00646-7
    After peritoneal dialysis discontinuation: When will we remove peritoneal dialysis catheter? Kasuga Hirotake The journal of vascular access Most of the peritoneal dialysis patients stop their peritoneal dialysis therapy and transfer to hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. In Japan, most end-stage kidney disease patients select hemodialysis after peritoneal dialysis discontinuation. Peritoneal dialysis catheter will be removed after stopping peritoneal dialysis. If peritoneal dialysis patients suffer from refractory peritonitis or severe tunnel infection, we remove the peritoneal dialysis catheter immediately. However, the causes of peritoneal dialysis discontinuation are ultrafiltration failure or peritoneal membrane dysfunction, and we have to consider the timing of peritoneal dialysis catheter removal. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is the most important adverse event of peritoneal dialysis. And encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis often develops after stopping peritoneal dialysis. Risk factors associated with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis are high peritoneal equilibration test values, longer peritoneal dialysis period, frequent peritonitis, and so on. There is no evidence to prevent encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis completely. Therefore, we can preserve the peritoneal dialysis catheter and assess the changes of peritoneal function after peritoneal dialysis discontinuation, if patient is suspected to have high risk of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. 10.1177/1129729817751620
    Outcomes following peritoneal dialysis catheter removal with reinsertion or permanent transfer to haemodialysis. Kwan Jia Rui,Chong Tze Tec,Low Gerard Zx,Low Gabriel Wt,Htay Htay,Foo Marjorie Wy,Tan ChiehSuai The journal of vascular access INTRODUCTION:Long-term use of peritoneal dialysis catheter is associated with complications such as infection and malfunction, necessitating removal of catheter with subsequent reinsertion or permanent transfer to haemodialysis. This study aims to investigate the outcome in patients who underwent reinsertion. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A single-centre retrospective study was performed in Singapore General Hospital for all adult incident peritoneal dialysis patients between January 2011 and January 2016. Study data were retrieved from patient electronic medical records up till 1 January 2017. RESULTS:A total of 470 patients had peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion with median follow-up period of 29.2 (interquartile range = 16.7-49.7) months. A total of 92 patients required catheter removal. Thirty-six (39%) patients underwent catheter reinsertion. The overall technique survival at 3 and 12 months were 83% and 67%. Median time to technique failure of the second catheter was 6.74 (interquartile range = 0-50.2) months. The mean survival for patients who converted to haemodialysis and re-attempted peritoneal dialysis was comparable (54.9 ± 5.5 vs 57.3 ± 3.6 months; p = 0.75). Twelve (13%) patients had contraindication for peritoneal dialysis and were excluded from analysis. Of 11 patients who required catheter removal due to malfunction, 7 (64%) underwent catheter reinsertion and 6 (86%) patients ultimately converted to haemodialysis during study period. Of the 69 patients who had catheter removal due to infection, 29 (42%) underwent catheter reinsertion and 8 (28%) patients eventually converted to haemodialysis during the study period. CONCLUSION:Patient survival was comparable between patients who re-attempted peritoneal dialysis and patients who transferred to haemodialysis. Patients who had previous catheter removal due to infections had favourable technique survival than those due to catheter malfunction. 10.1177/1129729818773984
    Sodium loss, extracellular volume overload and hypertension in peritoneal dialysis patients treated by automated peritoneal dialysis cyclers. Mohamed Ahmed,Davenport Andrew The International journal of artificial organs INTRODUCTION:Achieving sodium balance is important for peritoneal dialysis patients, as sodium excess may lead to hypertension and extracellular water expansion. We wished to determine whether greater sodium removal had adverse consequences. METHODS:We calculated 24-h urinary and peritoneal sodium losses in peritoneal dialysis patients treated by automated cyclers, when attending for peritoneal membrane and bioimpedance assessments. RESULTS:We reviewed 439 peritoneal dialysis patients, 56.7% male, average age 54.6 years, median sodium loss 110 (68-155) mmol/day. Sodium loss was strongly associated with urine volume, r = 0.37, protein nitrogen appearance rate, r = 0.29, and body cell mass, r = 0.21, all p < 0.001. We found no association with blood pressure or anti-hypertensive medication prescription, or extracellular water. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, sodium loss was associated with greater urine output, odds ratio 1.001, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.001, p < 0.001, and protein nitrogen appearance (odds ratio 1.023, confidence interval 1.006-1.04), p = 0.008. Adjusting for body weight, sodium loss was associated with urine output (odds ratio 1.001, confidence interval 1.001-1.002, p < 0.001), and negatively with body fat index (odds ratio 0.96, confidence interval 0.93-0.99, p = 0.008) and co-morbidity grade (odds ratio 0.58, confidence interval 0.36-0.39, p = 0.023). CONCLUSION:Heavier peritoneal dialysis patients with greater estimated dietary protein intake (protein nitrogen appearance), those with greater residual renal function and peritoneal clearances, along with lower co-morbidity, had greater daily sodium losses. Adjusting for body weight, then sodium losses were greater with higher daily urine output, and lower in patients with proportionately more body fat and co-morbidity. Sodium losses would appear to primarily determined by body size and not associated with hypertension or extracellular water expansion. 10.1177/0391398819864368
    Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Infection Rates and Outcomes: Results From the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS). Perl Jeffrey,Fuller Douglas S,Bieber Brian A,Boudville Neil,Kanjanabuch Talerngsak,Ito Yasuhiko,Nessim Sharon J,Piraino Beth M,Pisoni Ronald L,Robinson Bruce M,Schaubel Douglas E,Schreiber Martin J,Teitelbaum Isaac,Woodrow Graham,Zhao Junhui,Johnson David W American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE:Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis carries high morbidity for PD patients. Understanding the characteristics and risk factors for peritonitis can guide regional development of prevention strategies. We describe peritonitis rates and the associations of selected facility practices with peritonitis risk among countries participating in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS). STUDY DESIGN:Observational prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:7,051 adult PD patients in 209 facilities across 7 countries (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States). EXPOSURES:Facility characteristics (census count, facility age, nurse to patient ratio) and selected facility practices (use of automated PD, use of icodextrin or biocompatible PD solutions, antibiotic prophylaxis strategies, duration of PD training). OUTCOMES:Peritonitis rate (by country, overall and variation across facilities), microbiology patterns. ANALYTICAL APPROACH:Poisson rate estimation, proportional rate models adjusted for selected patient case-mix variables. RESULTS:2,272 peritonitis episodes were identified in 7,051 patients (crude rate, 0.28 episodes/patient-year). Facility peritonitis rates were variable within each country and exceeded 0.50/patient-year in 10% of facilities. Overall peritonitis rates, in episodes per patient-year, were 0.40 (95% CI, 0.36-0.46) in Thailand, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.32-0.46) in the United Kingdom, 0.35 (95% CI, 0.30-0.40) in Australia/New Zealand, 0.29 (95% CI, 0.26-0.32) in Canada, 0.27 (95% CI, 0.25-0.30) in Japan, and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.24-0.27) in the United States. The microbiology of peritonitis was similar across countries, except in Thailand, where Gram-negative infections and culture-negative peritonitis were more common. Facility size was positively associated with risk for peritonitis in Japan (rate ratio [RR] per 10 patients, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09). Lower peritonitis risk was observed in facilities that had higher automated PD use (RR per 10 percentage points greater, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00), facilities that used antibiotics at catheter insertion (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99), and facilities with PD training duration of 6 or more (vs <6) days (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96). Lower peritonitis risk was seen in facilities that used topical exit-site mupirocin or aminoglycoside ointment, but this association did not achieve conventional levels of statistical significance (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62-1.01). LIMITATIONS:Sampling variation, selection bias (rate estimates), and residual confounding (associations). CONCLUSIONS:Important international differences exist in the risk for peritonitis that may result from varied and potentially modifiable treatment practices. These findings may inform future guidelines in potentially setting lower maximally acceptable peritonitis rates. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.09.016
    Low-Volume Tidal Peritoneal Dialysis Is a Preferable Mode in Patients Initiating Urgent-Start Automated Peritoneal Dialysis: A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Control Study. Xie Jianteng,Wang Huizhen,Li Sheng,Zuo Yangyang,Wang Yanhui,Zhang Yifan,Liang Tiantian,Li Jing,Wang Liping,Feng Zhonglin,Ye Zhiming,Liang Xinling,Shi Wei,Wang Wenjian Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of low-volume tidal peritoneal dialysis (TPD) and intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) in ESRD patients initiating automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) after an acute catheter insertion. Clinical outcomes of patients who received either TPD or IPD using an APD system were compared in a randomized, open-label, prospective control study in a single-center setting. From May 2011 to May 2013, 49 patients were enrolled and 27 patients received low-volume TPD treatment, whereas 22 patients underwent low-volume IPD right after Tenckhoff catheter insertion. The incidence of complications during the 14-day APD treatment were observed. After APD treatment, all the patients were transferred to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and followed up for 2 years. The IPD group demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of catheter-related complications (omental wrapping 27.3% vs. 0% and suction pain 18.2% vs. 0%) than the TPD group after adjusting for age, gender, baseline diabetes, systolic blood pressure, BMI, and the experience of the operators. However, the short duration of APD treatment with either IPD or TPD mode did not affect the long-time technical survival. In patients immediately after catheter insertion, low-volume TPD mode demonstrated a lower incidence of catheter-related complications compared to IPD. Although our results provided evidence that TPD is a preferable APD mode for this specific population, definitive conclusions about TPD benefit cannot be made, owing to early termination of the trial. 10.1111/1744-9987.12791
    The Effect of Automated Versus Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis on Mortality Risk In China. Li Xuemei,Xu Hong,Chen Nan,Ni Zhaohui,Chen Menghua,Chen Limeng,Dong Jie,Fang Wei,Yu Yusheng,Yang Xiao,Chen Jianghua,Yu Xueqing,Yao Qiang,Sloand James A,Marshall Mark R Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis BACKGROUND:There is an emerging practice pattern of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) in China. We report on outcomes compared to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in a Chinese cohort. METHODS:Data were sourced from the Baxter Healthcare (China) Investment Co. Ltd Patient Support Program database, comprising an inception cohort commencing PD between 1 January 2005 and 13 August 2015. We used time-dependent cause-specific Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing risks (kidney transplantation, change to hemodialysis) models to estimate relative mortality risk between APD and CAPD. We adjusted or matched for age, gender, employment, insurance, primary renal disease, size of PD program, and year of dialysis inception. We used cluster robust regression to account for center effect. RESULTS:We modeled 100,351subjects from 1,178 centers over 240,803 patient-years. Of these, 368 received APD at some time. Compared with patients on CAPD, those on APD were significantly younger, more likely to be male, employed, self-paying, and from larger programs. Overall, APD was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 - 0.97) compared with CAPD in Cox proportional hazards models, and 0.76 (0.62 - 0.95) in Fine-Gray competing risks regression models. There was prominent effect modification by follow-up time: benefit was observed only up to 4 years follow-up, after which risk of death was similar. CONCLUSION:Automated peritoneal dialysis is associated with an overall lower adjusted risk of death compared with CAPD in China. Analyses are limited by the likelihood of important selection bias arising from group imbalance, and residual confounding from unavailability of important clinical covariates such as comorbidity and Kt/V. 10.3747/pdi.2017.00235
    The Peritoneal Dialysis Transfer Set Replacement Procedure. Funes Irma,Velasquez Katherine,Doss-McQuitty Sheila,Hussein Wael F,Abra Graham,Anantiyo Pon,Bennett Paul N,Schiller Brigitte Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association Peritoneal dialysis transfer sets (extension lines) are replaced every six to nine months to minimize peritoneal dialysis catheter complications. The aim of this study was to compare a revised non-bag transfer set exchange procedure with the standard bag exchange procedure on nursing time, costs, and safety. Thirty-three people were randomized to two groups - a standard bag exchange procedure group (n = 16) and a non-bag transfer set exchange procedure group (n = 17). The standard bag exchange procedure took a median of 32 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 25 to 38 minutes) compared to the non-bag transfer set exchange procedure of 6 minutes (IQR 4 to 8 minutes) (p Ò 0.0001). There was one episode of peritonitis in each group within the 72-hour follow-up period. The average cost of the non-bag transfer set exchange procedure was $24.54 lower, a 37% cost reduction. This study has shown the revised non-bag transfer set replacement procedure appears to be safe, consume less participant and staff time, and decreases costs.
    Tidal peritoneal dialysis versus ultrafiltration in type 1 cardiorenal syndrome: A prospective randomized study. Al-Hwiesh Abdullah K,Abdul-Rahman Ibrahiem Saeed,Al-Audah Nadia,Al-Hwiesh Amani,Al-Harbi Mousa,Taha Abdulrahman,Al-Shahri Abdulla,Ghazal Sami,Amir Rawan,Al-Audah Nehad,Mansour Hany,El-Mansouri Mohammad,El-Salamony Tamer S,Nasr El-Din Mohammed A,Noor Abdulsalam,Al-Elq Zainab,Alzahir Zainab H,Alzawad Noor A The International journal of artificial organs BACKGROUND:Ultrafiltration is an alternative strategy to diuretic therapy for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Little is known about the efficacy and safety of peritoneal dialysis in patients with acute decompensated heart failure complicated by acute cardiorenal syndrome. METHODS:We randomly assigned a total of 88 patients with type 1 acute cardiorenal syndrome to a strategy of ultrafiltration therapy (44 patients) or tidal peritoneal dialysis (44 patients). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the serum creatinine level and left ventricular function represented as ejection fraction, as assessed 72 and 120 h after random assignment. Patients were followed for 90 days after discharge from the hospital. RESULTS:Ultrafiltration therapy was inferior to tidal peritoneal dialysis therapy with respect to the primary endpoint of the change in the serum creatinine levels at 72 and 120 h ( = 0.041) and ejection fraction at 72 and 120 h after enrollment ( = 0.044 and = 0.032), owing to both an increase in the creatinine level in the ultrafiltration therapy group and a decrease in its level in the tidal peritoneal dialysis group. At 120 h, the mean change in the creatinine level was 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/dL in the ultrafiltration therapy group, as compared with 2.4 ± 1.3 mg/dL in the tidal peritoneal dialysis group ( = 0.023). At 72 and 120 h, there was a significant difference in weight loss between patients in the ultrafiltration therapy group and those in the tidal peritoneal dialysis group ( = 0.025). Net fluid loss was also greater in tidal peritoneal dialysis patients ( = 0.018). Adverse events were more observed in the ultrafiltration therapy group ( = 0.007). At 90 days post-discharge, tidal peritoneal dialysis patients had fewer rehospitalization for heart failure (14.3% vs 32.5%, = 0.022). CONCLUSION:Tidal peritoneal dialysis is a safe and effective means for removing toxins and large quantities of excess fluid from patients with intractable heart failure. In patients with cardiorenal syndrome type 1, the use of tidal peritoneal dialysis was superior to ultrafiltration therapy for the preservation of renal function, improvement of cardiac function, and net fluid loss. Ultrafiltration therapy was associated with a higher rate of adverse events. 10.1177/0391398819860529