Cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on alerting network activity and effective connectivity in panic disorder.
Neufang Susanne,Geiger Maximilian J,Homola György A,Mahr Marina,Schiele Miriam A,Gehrmann Andrea,Schmidt Brigitte,Gajewska Agnieszka,Nowak Johannes,Meisenzahl-Lechner Eva,Pham Mirko,Romanos Marcel,Akhrif Atae,Domschke Katharina
European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience
Given the particular relevance of arousal and alerting in panic disorder (PD), here the alerting network was investigated (1) contrasting patients with PD and healthy controls, (2) as a function of anxiety sensitivity constituting a dimensional measure of panic-related anxiety, and (3) as a possible correlate of treatment response. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 45 out-patients with PD (f = 34) and 51 matched healthy controls were investigated for brain activation patterns and effective connectivity (Dynamic Causal Modeling, DCM) while performing the Attention Network Task (ANT). Anxiety sensitivity was ascertained by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Forty patients and 48 controls were re-scanned after a 6 weeks cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or an equivalent waiting time, respectively. In the alerting condition, patients showed decreased activation in fronto-parietal pathways including the middle frontal gyrus and the superior parietal lobule (MFG, SPL). In addition, ASI scores were negatively correlated with connectivity emerging from the SPL, the SFB and the LC and going to the MFG in patients but not in healthy controls. CBT resulted in an increase in middle frontal and parietal activation along with increased connectivity going from the MFG to the SPL. This change in connectivity was positively correlated with reduction in ASI scores. There were no changes in controls. The present findings point to a pathological disintegration of the MFG in a fronto-parietal pathway in the alerting network in PD which was observed to be reversible by a successful CBT intervention.
Acupuncture for anxiety and anxiety disorders--a systematic literature review.
Pilkington Karen,Kirkwood Graham,Rampes Hagen,Cummings Mike,Richardson Janet
Acupuncture in medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of anxiety and anxiety disorders by systematic review of the relevant research. METHODS:Searches of the major biomedical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library) were conducted between February and July 2004. Specialist complementary medicine databases were also searched and efforts made to identify unpublished research. No language restrictions were imposed and translations were obtained where necessary. Study methodology was appraised and clinical commentaries obtained for studies reporting clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Twelve controlled trials were located, of which 10 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Four RCTs focused on acupuncture in generalised anxiety disorder or anxiety neurosis, while six focused on anxiety in the perioperative period. No studies were located on the use of acupuncture specifically for panic disorder, phobias or obsessive-compulsive disorder. In generalised anxiety disorder or anxiety neurosis, it is difficult to interpret the findings of the studies of acupuncture because of the range of interventions against which acupuncture was compared. All trials reported positive findings but the reports lacked many basic methodological details. Reporting of the studies of perioperative anxiety was generally better and the initial indications are that acupuncture, specifically auricular acupuncture, is more effective than acupuncture at sham points and may be as effective as drug therapy in this situation. The results were, however, based on subjective measures and blinding could not be guaranteed. CONCLUSIONS:Positive findings are reported for acupuncture in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder or anxiety neurosis but there is currently insufficient research evidence for firm conclusions to be drawn. No trials of acupuncture for other anxiety disorders were located. There is some limited evidence in favour of auricular acupuncture in perioperative anxiety. Overall, the promising findings indicate that further research is warranted in the form of well designed, adequately powered studies.
In vivo investigation on bio-markers of perimenopausal panic disorder and catgut embedding acupoints mechanism.
Chen Guizhen,Wang Xue,Zhang Shuo,Xu Xiaokang,Liang Junquan,Xu Yunxiang
BACKGROUND:Panic disorder (PD), defined by repeated and unexpected panic attacks, severely affects patients' living quality and social function. Perimenopausal women are high-risk group of PD and suffer greatly from it. Modern medicine therapies for this disorder have many side reactions and poor effects, so nonpharmacological modality is an urgent need. Although acupoint catgut embedding is widely used in clinical practice, there is no persuasive evidence of its effect for perimenopausal PD. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safety of acupoint catgut embedding for perimenopausal PD and to elucidate the correlations among brain neural activation, bio-markers (amino acids) and clinical outcomes with radiographic evidence, thus to explore its neural mechanism. METHODS:The parallel designed, exploratory randomized controlled trial will include 70 outpatients with perimenopausal PD recruited from two hospitals of Chinese Medicine. These subjects will be randomly allocated to an intervention group (Group Embedding) and a control group (Group Medication) in a 1:1 ratio. The subjects in the intervention group will receive acupoint catgut embedding treatment two weeks a time in the following predefined acupuncture points: Shenshu (BL23), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Guanyuan (RN4), Ganshu (BL18), Zusanli (ST36) and Pishu (BL20). The included women of the control group will take 0.4 mg Alprazolam tablet orally, 1 tablet a time, 3 times a day. There is a study period of 3 months and a follow-up period of 1 month for each group. The primary outcomes will be the following therapeutic indexes: the frequency of panic attack, Panic Disorder Severity Score (PDSS), and Panic-associated Symptoms Score (PASS) during the observation period and follow-up period. The changes in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) Score and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) Score will also be compared between these two groups. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) scans will be done before and after the observation period to show cranial neuroimaging changes. DISCUSSION:We present a study design and rationale to explore the effectiveness and neural mechanism of acupoint catgut embedding for perimenopausal PD. There are still several factors restrict our research such as no unified standard of diagnostic criteria and curative effect evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-INR-16009724, registered in November 2016.