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    The moderating effect of childhood disadvantage on the associations between smoking and occupational exposure and lung function; a cross sectional analysis of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). Carney Caroline,Benzeval Michaela BMC public health BACKGROUND:Lung function is lower in people with disadvantaged socio-economic position (SEP) and is associated with hazardous health behaviours and exposures. The associations are likely to be interactive, for example, exposure to socially patterned environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood is associated with an increased effect of smoking in adulthood. We hypothesise that disadvantaged childhood SEP increases susceptibility to the effects of hazards in adulthood for lung function. We test whether disadvantaged childhood SEP moderates smoking, physical activity, obesity, occupational exposures, ETS and air pollution's associations with lung function. METHODS:Data are from the Nurse Health Assessment (NHA) in waves two and three of the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). Analysis is restricted to English residents aged at least 20 for women and 25 for men, producing a study population of 16,339. Lung function is measured with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV) and standardised to the percentage of expected FEV for a healthy non-smoker of equivalent age, gender, height and ethnicity (FEV%). Using STATA 14, a mixed linear model was fitted with interaction terms between childhood SEP and health behaviours and occupational exposures. Cross level interactions tested whether childhood SEP moderated household ETS and neighbourhood air pollution's associations with FEV%. RESULTS:SEP, smoking, physical activity, obesity, occupational exposures and air pollution were associated with lung function. Interaction terms indicated a significantly stronger negative association between disadvantaged childhood SEP and currently smoking (coefficient -6.47 %, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 9.51 %, 3.42 %) as well as with formerly smoking and occupational exposures. Significant interactions were not found with physical activity, obesity, ETS and air pollution. CONCLUSION:The findings suggest that disadvantaged SEP in childhood may make people's lung function more susceptible to the negative effects of smoking and occupational exposures in adulthood. This is important as those most likely to encounter these exposures are at greater risk to their effects. Policy to alleviate this inequality requires intervention in health behaviours through public health campaigns and in occupational health via health and safety legislation. 10.1186/s12889-019-7039-z
    Movement behaviours are associated with lung function in middle-aged and older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging. Dogra Shilpa,Good Joshua,Buman Matthew P,Gardiner Paul A,Stickland Michael K,Copeland Jennifer L BMC public health BACKGROUND:Physical activity has been shown to attenuate the age-associated decline in lung function; however, there is little research evaluating different movement behaviours as potential correlates of lung function. Modifiable determinants need to be identified, as the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease is on the rise. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of self-reported movement behaviours (i.e., sitting time, walking, different intensities of physical activity, and strengthening activities), with lung function in middle-aged and older adults without a respiratory disease, according to their smoking history. METHODS:Data from participants of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging were used for analysis (n = 16,839). Lung function was assessed using spirometry. A modified version of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly was used to assess sitting time and physical activity levels. Smoking status was classified as non-smoking, < 10 pack years smoking, and 10 or more pack years of smoking. The association between movement behaviours and lung function was assessed using hierarchical linear regression models with all covariates (age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, education, retirement status, and sleep duration) entered into block 1, and all movement behaviours entered into block 2. RESULTS:All movement behaviours were associated with Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) % predicted in crude and adjusted models, regardless of smoking status. Sitting time was negatively associated with both FEV (β: -0.094, CI: -0.140, - 0.047) and FVC (β: -0.087, CI: -0.128, -0.045) among those who never smoked, and strength activity was positively associated with both FEV (β: 0.272, CI: 0.048, 0.496) and FVC (β: 0.253, CI: 0.063,0.442) among those who smoked < 10 pack years, as well as with FVC among those who smoked 10 or more pack years (β: 0.309, CI: 0.064, 0.554). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to assess the association of different movement behaviours with lung function among middle-aged and older adults without a respiratory disease. These findings indicate that movement behaviours are correlates of lung function, and that they may be modifiable determinants of the age-associated decline in lung function. 10.1186/s12889-018-5739-4
    Accelerated epigenetic aging as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and decreased lung function in two prospective cohort studies. Breen Miyuki,Nwanaji-Enwerem Jamaji C,Karrasch Stefan,Flexeder Claudia,Schulz Holger,Waldenberger Melanie,Kunze Sonja,Ollert Markus,Weidinger Stefan,Colicino Elena,Gao Xu,Wang Cuicui,Shen Jincheng,Just Allan C,Vokonas Pantel,Sparrow David,Hou Lifang,Schwartz Joel D,Baccarelli Andrea A,Peters Annette,Ward-Caviness Cavin K Aging Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent diagnosis in older individuals and contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Given the link between lung disease and aging, we need to understand how molecular indicators of aging relate to lung function and disease. Using data from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) surveys, we associated baseline epigenetic (DNA methylation) age acceleration with incident COPD and lung function. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, height, weight, and baseline lung disease as appropriate. Associations were replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Of 770 KORA participants, 131 developed incident COPD over 7 years. Baseline accelerated epigenetic aging was significantly associated with incident COPD. The change in age acceleration (follow-up - baseline) was more strongly associated with COPD than baseline aging alone. The association between the change in age acceleration between baseline and follow-up and incident COPD replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Associations with spirometric lung function parameters were weaker than those with COPD, but a meta-analysis of both cohorts provide suggestive evidence of associations. Accelerated epigenetic aging, both baseline measures and changes over time, may be a risk factor for COPD and reduced lung function. 10.18632/aging.103784
    Higher Number of Night Shifts Associates with Good Perception of Work Capacity and Optimal Lung Function but Correlates with Increased Oxidative Damage and Telomere Attrition. Pavanello Sofia,Stendardo Mariarita,Mastrangelo Giuseppe,Casillo Valeria,Nardini Marco,Mutti Antonio,Campisi Manuela,Andreoli Roberta,Boschetto Piera BioMed research international Sleep deprivation and the consequent circadian clock disruption has become an emergent health question being associated with premature aging and earlier chronic diseases onset. Night-shift work leads to circadian clock misalignment, which is linked to several age-related diseases. However, mechanisms of this association are not well understood. Aim of this study is to explore in night-shift workers early indicators of oxidative stress response and biological aging [oxidized/methylated DNA bases and leukocytes telomere length (LTL)] and late indicators of functional aging [lung function measurements (FEV1 and FVC)] in relation to personal evaluation of work capacity, measured by work ability index (WAI). One hundred fifty-five hospital workers were studied within the framework of a cross-sectional study. We collected physiological, pathological, and occupational history including pack-years, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and night shifts, together with blood and urine samples. Relationships were appraised by univariate and multivariate ordered-logistic regression models. We found that workers with good and excellent WAI present higher FEV1 (p< 0.01) and number of night-work shifts (p<0.05), but they reveal higher urinary levels of 8-oxoGua (p<0.01) and shorter LTL (p<0.05). We confirmed that higher work ability was prevalent among chronological younger workers (p<0.05), who have also a significant reduced number of diseases, particularly chronic (p<0.01) and musculoskeletal diseases (p<0.01). The new findings which stem from our work are that subjects with the highest work ability perception may have more demanding and burdensome tasks; they in fact present the highest number of night-shift work and produce unbalanced oxidative stress response that might induce premature aging. 10.1155/2019/8327629
    Effects of an aging pulmonary system on expiratory flow limitation and dyspnoea during exercise in healthy women. Wilkie Sabrina S,Guenette Jordan A,Dominelli Paolo B,Sheel A William European journal of applied physiology Aging related changes in pulmonary function may make older women (OW) more susceptible to expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and lead to higher dyspnoea ratings during exercise relative to young women (YW). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare sensory responses and EFL susceptibility and magnitude in 8 YW (29 ± 7 years) and 8 healthy OW (64 ± 3 years) matched for percentage-predicted forced vital capacity (% predicted FVC) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s. EFL was calculated as the percent overlap between tidal flow-volume loops during maximal exercise and the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. Peak oxygen consumption (V'O(2peak)) was lower in the OW compared to the YW (29.4 ± 3.6 vs. 49.1 ± 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) as was maximal ventilation (73.7 ± 18.4 vs. 108.7 ± 14.1 l min(-1), P < 0.05). EFL at maximal exercise was present in 2 of 8 YW and in 5 of 8 OW. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of EFL between OW (23 ± 24, range: 0-69 %EFL) and YW (9 ± 18, range: 0-46 %EFL, P = 0.21). The magnitude of EFL in OW was inversely related to % predicted FVC (r = -0.69, P = 0.06), but this relationships was not observed in the YW (r = -0.23, P = 0.59). The OW consistently reported greater dyspnoea and leg discomfort for any given absolute work rate, but not when work was expressed as a percentage of maximum. Reduced ventilatory and exercise capacities may cause OW to be more susceptible to EFL during exercise and experience greater dyspnoea relative to YW for a standardized physical task. 10.1007/s00421-011-2191-x
    Association between lung function and disability in African-Americans. Thorpe R J,Szanton S L,Whitfield K Journal of epidemiology and community health BACKGROUND:Impaired lung function is independently associated with higher rates of disability; however, few studies have examined the extent to which this relationship varies by sex. Because men are less likely to have disability, it is expected that the relationship between lung function and disability will be greater among women. METHODS:Logistic regression models were specified to examine the relationship between lung function and disability in 689 African-American men and women participating in the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging. Disability was defined as difficulty in performing at least one of seven basic activities of daily living. Impaired lung function was defined as per cent of predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF) <80. RESULTS:Accounting for demographic and health-related characteristics, women who had impaired lung function had a higher odds (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.02 to 3.06) of being disabled than those with normal lung function. Impaired lung function was unrelated to disability in men. CONCLUSION:Lung function appears to vary by sex in this sample of African-Americans. Furthermore, among women, lung function should be considered as an important indicator of health. Every effort should be made to improve lung function in African-Americans, but interventions and health promoting strategies may need to be sex specific. 10.1136/jech.2008.084418
    Severity of Kyphosis and Decline in Lung Function: The Framingham Study. Lorbergs Amanda L,O'Connor George T,Zhou Yanhua,Travison Thomas G,Kiel Douglas P,Cupples L Adrienne,Rosen Hillel,Samelson Elizabeth J The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences Background:Hyperkyphosis reduces the amount of space in the chest, mobility of the rib cage, and expansion of the lungs. Decline in pulmonary function may be greater in persons with more severe kyphosis; however, no prospective studies have assessed this association. We conducted a longitudinal study to quantify the impact of kyphosis severity on decline in pulmonary function over 16 years in women and men. Methods:Participants included a convenience sample of 193 women and 82 men in the Framingham Study original cohort (mean age: 63 years; range: 50-79 years), who had measurements of kyphosis angle from lateral spine radiographs obtained in 1972-1976 and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from spirometry taken four times over 16 (±1.87) years from 1972 through 1988. Results:Kyphosis severity was associated with greater decline in FEV1 in women but not in men. Adjusted mean change in FEV1 over 16 years was -162, -245, and -261mL (trend, p = .02) with increasing tertile of kyphosis angle in women and -372, -297, and -257mL (trend, p = .20) in men, respectively. Conclusions:This longitudinal study found that kyphosis severity increased subsequent decline in pulmonary function in women but not in men. Reasons for an association between kyphosis and pulmonary function in women but in not men may be due, at least in part, to the small number of men in our study. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that preventing or slowing kyphosis progression may reduce the burden of pulmonary decline in older adults. 10.1093/gerona/glw124
    Truncal adiposity and lung function in older black women. Chambers Earle C,Heshka Stanley,Huffaker Lisl Y,Xiong Yer,Wang Jack,Eden Edward,Gallagher Dympna,Pi-Sunyer F Xavier Lung The increase in adiposity associated with aging is a concern in older adults, especially as it relates to the risk for ventilatory complications. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to determine the association of various measures of abdominal adiposity with lung function in a sample of older healthy black women. Participants (n=27) had no history of diabetes or respiratory disease. The mean age was 67 years. Lung function was measured by spirometry using percent of predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Body fat was measured using a three-dimensional photonic scanner and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation analyses show that percent body fat in the trunk (%TF) is significantly associated with percent predicted FVC (r=-0.38; p<0.05). No association was observed between anthropometric indices of truncal adiposity and lung function. Results of this study show that truncal fat mass measured by DXA is more strongly associated with lung function than anthropometric indices of truncal adiposity in this sample of women. 10.1007/s00408-007-9043-9
    The influence of inspiratory muscle training combined with the Pilates method on lung function in elderly women: A randomized controlled trial. Alvarenga Guilherme Medeiros de,Charkovski Simone Arando,Santos Larissa Kelin Dos,Silva Mayara Alves Barbosa da,Tomaz Guilherme Oliveira,Gamba Humberto Remigio Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil) OBJECTIVE:Aging is progressive, and its effects on the respiratory system include changes in the composition of the connective tissues of the lung that influence thoracic and lung compliance. The Powerbreathe® K5 is a device used for inspiratory muscle training with resistance adapted to the level of the inspiratory muscles to be trained. The Pilates method promotes muscle rebalancing exercises that emphasize the powerhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inspiratory muscle training combined with the Pilates method on lung function in elderly women. METHODS:The participants were aged sixty years or older, were active women with no recent fractures, and were not gait device users. They were randomly divided into a Pilates with inspiratory training group (n=11), a Pilates group (n=11) and a control group (n=9). Spirometry, manovacuometry, a six-minute walk test, an abdominal curl-up test, and pulmonary variables were assessed before and after twenty intervention sessions. RESULTS:The intervention led to an increase in maximal inspiratory muscle strength and pressure and power pulmonary variables (p<0.0001), maximal expiratory muscle strength (p<0.0014), six-minute walk test performance (p<0.01), and abdominal curl-up test performance (p<0.00001). The control group showed no differences in the analyzed variables (p>0.05). CONCLUSION:The results of this study suggest inspiratory muscle training associated with the Pilates method provides an improvement in the lung function and physical conditioning of elderly patients. 10.6061/clinics/2018/e356
    CRP is associated with lung function decline in men but not women: a prospective study. Ólafsdóttir Inga Sif,Gíslason Thórarinn,Gudnason Vilmundur,Benediktsdóttir Bryndís,Ólafsson Ísleifur,Aspelund Thor,Thjódleifsson Bjarni,Janson Christer Respiratory medicine Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired lung function. Studies, most cross-sectional, report a stronger association between systemic inflammation and lung function impairment in men than women. The aim was to evaluate gender differences in the longitudinal association between systemic inflammation and lung function. We used data from randomly chosen residents of Reykjavík, born 1940-54, who were investigated in three stages: Baseline (1973-75; 1983-85) and follow-up (2001-03). The participants (n = 1049, 574 women) had a mean age of 28 ± 6 years at baseline and mean follow-up time of 27 ± 4 years. At each stage lung function (FEV(1) and FVC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated. Change in FEV(1) (p = 0.04) and FVC (p = 0.01) was associated with baseline CRP in men but not in women. In the multiple variable analysis, CRP at baseline was associated with a decline in FEV(1) (-3.1 mL/year, 95% CI: -5.1, -0.99) and FVC (-2.5 mL/year, 95% CI: -4.4, -0.65) in men but not in women. Similarly during follow-up, change in CRP, standardised to 1SD, was associated with a decline in FEV(1) (-0.19 mL/year, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.07) and FVC (-0.11 mL/year, 95% CI: -0.22, -0.01)) in men but not in women. This prospective study confirms a stronger association between systemic inflammation and lung function decline in men than in women. This may indicate a gender difference in the mechanisms of lung function decline. 10.1016/j.rmed.2012.09.020
    Rate of normal lung function decline in ageing adults: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Thomas Elizabeth T,Guppy Michelle,Straus Sharon E,Bell Katy J L,Glasziou Paul BMJ open OBJECTIVE:To conduct a systematic review investigating the normal age-related changes in lung function in adults without known lung disease. DESIGN:Systematic review. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched for eligible studies from inception to February 12, 2019, supplemented by manual searches of reference lists and clinical trial registries. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:We planned to include prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (control arms) that measured changes in lung function over time in asymptomatic adults without known respiratory disease. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Two authors independently determined the eligibility of studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS:From 4385 records screened, we identified 16 cohort studies with 31 099 participants. All included studies demonstrated decline in lung function-forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) with age. In studies with longer follow-up (>10 years), rates of FEV decline ranged from 17.7 to 46.4 mL/year (median 22.4 mL/year). Overall, men had faster absolute rates of decline (median 43.5 mL/year) compared with women (median 30.5 mL/year). Differences in relative FEV change, however, were not observed between men and women. FEV/FVC change was reported in only one study, declining by 0.29% per year. An age-specific analysis suggested the rate of FEV function decline may accelerate with each decade of age. CONCLUSIONS:Lung function-FEV, FVC and PEFR-decline with age in individuals without known lung disease. The definition of chronic airway disease may need to be reconsidered to allow for normal ageing and ensure that people likely to benefit from interventions are identified rather than healthy people who may be harmed by potential overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The first step would be to apply age, sex and ethnicity-adjusted FEV/FVC thresholds to the disease definition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018087066. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028150
    Menopause Is Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline. Triebner Kai,Matulonga Bobette,Johannessen Ane,Suske Sandra,Benediktsdóttir Bryndís,Demoly Pascal,Dharmage Shyamali C,Franklin Karl A,Garcia-Aymerich Judith,Gullón Blanco José Antonio,Heinrich Joachim,Holm Mathias,Jarvis Debbie,Jõgi Rain,Lindberg Eva,Moratalla Rovira Jesús Martínez,Muniozguren Agirre Nerea,Pin Isabelle,Probst-Hensch Nicole,Puggini Luca,Raherison Chantal,Sánchez-Ramos José Luis,Schlünssen Vivi,Sunyer Jordi,Svanes Cecilie,Hustad Steinar,Leynaert Bénédicte,Gómez Real Francisco American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Menopause is associated with changes in sex hormones, which affect immunity, inflammation, and osteoporosis and may impair lung function. Lung function decline has not previously been investigated in relation to menopause. OBJECTIVES:To study whether lung function decline, assessed by FVC and FEV, is accelerated in women who undergo menopause. METHODS:The population-based longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided serum samples, spirometry, and questionnaire data about respiratory and reproductive health from three study waves (n = 1,438). We measured follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and added information on menstrual patterns to determine menopausal status using latent class analysis. Associations with lung function decline were investigated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for age, height, weight, pack-years, current smoking, age at completed full-time education, spirometer, and including study center as random effect. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Menopausal status was associated with accelerated lung function decline. The adjusted mean FVC decline was increased by -10.2 ml/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.1 to -7.2) in transitional women and -12.5 ml/yr (95% CI, -16.2 to -8.9) in post-menopausal women, compared with women menstruating regularly. The adjusted mean FEV decline increased by -3.8 ml/yr (95% CI, -6.3 to -2.9) in transitional women and -5.2 ml/yr (95% CI, -8.3 to -2.0) in post-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS:Lung function declined more rapidly among transitional and post-menopausal women, in particular for FVC, beyond the expected age change. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging. 10.1164/rccm.201605-0968OC
    Does gender affect pulmonary function and exercise capacity? Harms Craig A Respiratory physiology & neurobiology It is well established that women exhibit several anatomic and physiologic characteristics that distinguish their responses to exercise from those of men. These factors have been shown to influence the training response and contribute to lower maximal aerobic power in women. Additionally, the reproductive hormones, estrogen and progesterone, can influence ventilation, substrate metabolism, thermoregulation, and pulmonary function during exercise. Pulmonary structural and morphologic differences between genders include smaller vital capacity and maximal expiratory flow rates, reduced airway diameter, and a smaller diffusion surface than age- and height-matched men. These differences may have an effect on the integrated ventilatory response, respiratory muscle work, and in pulmonary gas exchange during exercise. Specifically, recent evidence suggests that during heavy exercise, women demonstrate greater expiratory flow limitation, an increased work of breathing, and perhaps greater exercise induced arterial hypoxemia compared to men. The consequence of these pulmonary effects has the potential to adversely affect aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance in women. 10.1016/j.resp.2005.10.010