Neonatal outcomes in early term birth.
Parikh Laura I,Reddy Uma M,Männistö Tuija,Mendola Pauline,Sjaarda Lindsey,Hinkle Stefanie,Chen Zhen,Lu Zhaohui,Laughon S Katherine
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
OBJECTIVE:To determine neonatal morbidity rates for early term birth compared with full term birth by precursor leading to delivery. STUDY DESIGN:This was a retrospective study of 188,809 deliveries from 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation with electronic medical record data from 2002 to 2008. Precursors for delivery were categorized as spontaneous labor, premature rupture of membranes indicated, and no recorded indication. After excluding anomalies, rates of neonatal morbidities by precursor were compared at each week of delivery. RESULTS:Early term births (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks) accounted for 34.1% of term births. Overall, 53.6% of early term births were due to spontaneous labor, followed by 27.6% indicated, 15.5% with no recorded indication, and 3.3% with premature rupture of membranes. Neonatal intensive care unit admission and respiratory morbidity were lowest at or beyond 39 weeks compared with the early term period for most precursors, although indicated deliveries had the highest morbidity compared with other precursors. The greatest difference in morbidity was between 37 and 39 weeks for most precursors, although most differences in morbidities between 38 and 39 weeks were not significant. Respiratory morbidity was higher at 37 than 39 weeks regardless of route of delivery. CONCLUSION:Given the higher neonatal morbidity at 37 compared with 39 weeks regardless of delivery precursor, our data support recent recommendations for designating early term to include 37 weeks. Prospective data is urgently needed to determine the optimal timing of delivery for common pregnancy complications.
Epilepsy occurrence after neonatal morbidities in very preterm infants.
Tu Yi-Fang,Wang Shan-Tair,Shih Hsin-I,Wu Po-Ming,Yu Wen-Hao,Huang Chao-Ching
OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the incidence of epilepsy and identified neonatal risk morbidities for epilepsy in children born extremely preterm. METHODS:Of the 806 very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g, gestational age < 32 weeks) who survived and were discharged from the four neonatal intensive care units in southern Taiwan between 2003 and 2012, 686 (85.1%) had longitudinal neurodevelopmental follow-up assessments up to 5 years of age. RESULTS:Among the 686 very preterm children, 19 (2.8%) exhibited epilepsy at a mean age of 19 ± 14 months. The incidence of epilepsy was highest among infants with neonatal seizure (33%), followed by cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL, 27%), high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, 21%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) stage III (20%). NEC stage III, neonatal seizure, high-grade IVH, and cPVL were also independent neonatal risk morbidities for epilepsy. Furthermore, the incidence of epilepsy was 21.6% in preterm children with significant neonatal brain injury (SNBI; ie, high-grade IVH and cPVL), but only 1% in preterm children without SNBI. Among preterm children with SNBI, neonatal seizure was higher in preterm children with epilepsy than in those without epilepsy (23.1% vs 2.1%, P = .03). Among preterm children without SNBI, NEC stage III was higher in preterm children with epilepsy than in those without epilepsy (33.3% vs 1.8%, P < .01). The preterm children with epilepsy were prone to have neurodevelopmental disability regardless of whether they had neonatal brain injury, and drug-resistant epilepsy (42%), particularly those with neonatal high-grade IVH. SIGNIFICANCE:There is an elevated incidence of epilepsy among very preterm children, and particularly those with significant brain injury and/or severe NEC during the neonatal period. Very preterm children with epilepsy are prone to have neurodevelopmental disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.