Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation versus placebo on vascular health, glycaemic control, and metabolic parameters in people with type 1 diabetes: a randomised controlled preliminary trial.
O'Mahoney Lauren L,Dunseath Gareth,Churm Rachel,Holmes Mel,Boesch Christine,Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou Antonios,Ajjan Ramzi A,Birch Karen M,Orsi Nicolas M,Mappa Georgia,Price Oliver J,Campbell Matthew D
BACKGROUND:The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA), and the potential impact of n-3PUFA supplementation, in the treatment and management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear and controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the efficacy of daily high-dose-bolus n-3PUFA supplementation on vascular health, glycaemic control, and metabolic parameters in subjects with T1D. METHODS:Twenty-seven adults with T1D were recruited to a 6-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects received either 3.3 g/day of encapsulated n-3PUFA or encapsulated 3.0 g/day corn oil placebo (PLA) for 6-months, with follow-up at 9-months after 3-month washout. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was determined via gas chromatography. Endpoints included inflammation-associated endothelial biomarkers (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], E-selectin, P-selectin, pentraxin-3, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), and their mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα] analysed via immunoassay, vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]) and function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation [FMD]) determined via ultrasound technique, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and postprandial metabolism. RESULTS:Twenty subjects completed the trial in full. In the n-3PUFA group, the mean ± SD baseline n-3PUFA index of 4.93 ± 0.94% increased to 7.67 ± 1.86% (P < 0.001) after 3-months, and 8.29 ± 1.45% (P < 0.001) after 6-months. Total exposure to n-3PUFA over the 6-months (area under the curve) was 14.27 ± 3.05% per month under n-3PUFA, and 9.11 ± 2.74% per month under PLA (P < 0.001). VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, pentraxin-3, VEGF, TNFα, CIMT, FMD, blood pressure, HbA1c, FPG, and postprandial metabolism did not differ between or within groups after treatment (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates that daily high-dose-bolus of n-3PUFA supplementation for 6-months does not improve vascular health, glucose homeostasis, or metabolic parameters in subjects with T1D. The findings from this preliminary RCT do not support the use of therapeutic n-3PUFA supplementation in the treatment and management of T1D and its associated complications. Trial Registration ISRCTN, ISRCTN40811115. Registered 27 June 2017, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN40811115 .