Is the long-term prognosis of transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke affected by the occurrence of nonfocal symptoms?
Compter Annette,van der Worp H Bart,van Gijn Jan,Kappelle L Jaap,Koudstaal Peter J,Algra Ale
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:In patients with a transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke, nonfocal neurological symptoms, such as confusion and nonrotatory dizziness, may be associated with a higher risk of vascular events. We assessed the relationship between nonfocal symptoms and the long-term risk of vascular events or death in patients with a transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. METHODS:We related initial symptoms with outcome events in 2409 patients with a transient ischemic attack (n=723) or minor ischemic stroke (n=1686), included in the Life Long After Cerebral ischemia cohort. All patients underwent a standardized interview on the occurrence of focal and nonfocal neurological symptoms during the qualifying event. The primary outcome was the composite of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. Secondary outcomes were all-cause death, vascular death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Hazard ratios were calculated with Cox regression. RESULTS:Focal symptoms were accompanied by nonfocal symptoms in 739 (31%) patients. During a mean follow-up of 10.1 years, the primary outcome occurred in 1313 (55%) patients. There was no difference in the risk of the primary outcome between patients with both focal and nonfocal symptoms and patients with focal symptoms alone (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.09; P=0.60). The risk of each of the secondary outcomes was also similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS:About one third of the patients with a transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke has both focal and nonfocal neurological symptoms. Nonfocal symptoms are not associated with an increased long-term risk of vascular events or death. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was not registered because enrollment began before July 1, 2005.
Evaluation of analytic and clinical performance of thrombin-antithrombin complex and D-dimer assay in prognosis of acute ischemic stroke.
Ye Naifang,Liu Zhenzhen,Wang Xuefeng,Xu Xiaoqian,Wu Wenman
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
: To evaluate analytic and clinical performance of plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and D-dimer assay in assessing the severity and outcome of acute ischemic stroke. The prospective study was conducted and extended from January 2018 to December 2018. A total of 236 patients admitted within 24 h after neurologic symptoms onset were recruited. The median TAT and D-dimer levels were significantly higher in the acute ischemic stroke patients than in the controls. The average TAT levels in patients with mild, moderately severe and severe stroke were 1.75 [interquartile ranges (IQR), 1.1-2.6], 3.3 (IQR, 1.8-4.5) and 13.5 (IQR, 7.2-15.3) ng/ml. The D-dimer levels of respective patient groups were 0.39 (IQR, 0.22-0.73), 0.58 (IQR, 0.39-1.25) and 3.59 (IQR, 1.73-4.74) mg/l. With the optimal cut-off TAT level (1.75 ng/ml) determined from receiver operating characteristic analysis, the Area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity of TAT for stroke diagnosis were 0.763, 58.1 and 87.8%. The cut-off D-dimer level was 0.38 mg/l and the AUC, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.772, 60.2 and 88.9%. The Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) and sensitivity in the moderate to severe stroke increased to 0.903 and 86.9% for TAT, and 0.880 and 80.3% for D-dimer, respectively. Age and high TAT level were significant independent risk factors for stroke severity. Age, high initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and high TAT level were significant independent poor prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. TAT and D-dimer were superior in separating the moderate-to-severe stroke than mild stroke. A high TAT plasma level is an independent predictor for stroke severity and poor prognosis during 1-month follow-up.