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    (Curcumin+sildenafil) enhances the efficacy of 5FU and anti-PD1 therapies in vivo. Dent Paul,Booth Laurence,Roberts Jane L,Poklepovic Andrew,Hancock John F Journal of cellular physiology We have extended our analyses of (curcumin+sildenafil) biology. The drug combination caused vascularization and degradation of mutant K-RAS that correlated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT T308, mTORC1, mTORC2, ULK1 S757, STAT3, STAT5, and NFκB and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, ATM, AMPKα, ULK1 S317; all concomitant with elevated ATG13 S318 phosphorylation and autophagosome formation. Prior studies with drug combinations utilizing sildenafil have delineated an ATM-AMPK-ULK1 S317 pathway and an AKT-mTOR-ULK1 S757 pathway as modules which control ATG S318 phosphorylation and autophagosome formation. The knockdown of PKG reduced cell killing as well as reducing drug-enhanced phosphorylation of ATM, AMPKα, and ATG13. In the absence of PKG, no significant increase in ULK1 S317 phosphorylation was observed. In a Beclin1-dependent fashion, the drug combination reduced the expression of multiple histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins, including HDAC2 and HDAC3. Molecular knockdown of HDAC2, HDAC3, and especially (HDAC2+HDAC3) significantly reduced the expression of PD-L1 and elevated expression of Class I human major histocompatibility complex. In vivo, (curcumin+sildenafil) enhanced the efficacy of 5-flurouracil against CT26 colorectal tumors. Prior exposure of established CT26 tumors to (curcumin+sildenafil) significantly enhanced the efficacy of a subsequently administered anti-PD-1 antibody. Collectively our data argue that (curcumin+sildenafil) has the potential in several settings to be an efficacious neoadjuvant therapy for colon cancer. 10.1002/jcp.29580